当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >>

2014英语专题指导 之阅读理解15


2014 英语专题指导 之阅读理解 细节题总结 15 细节理解题针对不同的文章,不同的细枝末节,可以有不同的设问,这就让人觉得它是那么不可捉摸,犹如雾里看花,水中望月。 其实,这种题型是阅读考项中最简单的了。我们只要记住一点:万变不离其宗。这种题型无论有什么千变万化,你只要能看懂文章和题干, 答案都能在原文中找到明显的线索。我们读文章,无外乎是对两个方面的理解。一个是浅层理解,或

表层理解。另一个是深层理解,或内 涵理解。所谓表层理解,指要读懂文章的基本内容,包括主要事实和各个细节。主要事实指文章中对于主题主旨具有典型意义的重要事实, 这是文章的基本构架。细节是构成主要事实的局部因素或充实事实的例子,数据等细枝末节。一篇文章一般都包括这些要素。所以阅读理 解考核中要求寻找的主要事实和特定细节都可以在文章中找到。但是,要注意的是出题者不会很明白很直接地提问,而是很注意提问的技 术性或艺术性。 只有准确理解全部细节,才能深刻而又全面地领悟主题思想。因为段落中的细节都是用来阐明主旨大意的,辅助论据支撑或阐述主题 思想。因此,属于细节类的理解题既可检测阅读者对主旨大意理解的深度,又可测定他们对每个细节准确领会的广度。 在阅读考核中,查找主要事实或特定细节常见的题型是: 1.Which of the following statements is (not) true (or correct)? 2.Which of the following is not mentioned in the text? 3.All of the following are true except ________. 4.The author (or the passage) states that ________. 5.According to the passage,when...? 总之,细节理解题的六大类型是: 1.直接信息题 在原文中可直接找到答案。常用 who,what,when,where,why 和 how 等提问。 2.语意转换题 有时需要将题目信息与原文相关信息进行语意上的转换,两者形式不同,但意义不变。 3.逻辑排序题 可以先找出最早和最后的一个事件发生的时间,并分别把它们作为事件发生的起点和终点,然后使用排除法将范围一一 缩小。 4.数字计算题 解答此类试题的方法是先理解题意和文意,然后经过对比、分析、计算等得出正确答案。 5.图形理解题 在解答此类试题的时候,一定要把握图形中所暗含的信息,特别是有些事实是通过图片来描述的,考生可以按图索骥直 至找出正确答案。 6.是非判断题 这类试题要求考生确定与原文信息一致或不一致的一项。考生应首先明确题干要求;其次,在原文中进行细节定位;最 后,仔细推敲,锁定答案。 当然,针对某一具体的文章,还可以有各种各样,形形色色的设问方式。对于细节题,也可以说对于任何阅读理解题,必须根据文章 提供的信息进行答题,而不能根据自己的主观判断或者一般常识来答题。 1.真伪证实法 出题者要求考生确立文章中的事实,不让其问题直接与文章中的事实对号入座,而是提出似是而非,或完全错误的事实 让考生去判断。对于这类题目,考生不要根据自己读文章的最初印象马上加以判断,而必须找到与问题相应的文章部分,找出正确肯定的 事实,才可以据此判定否定的或错误的答案选择。 Passage1. One word that sums up(概括)our age better than any other-whether “our age”is“the technological age”of western countries or the “modernizing age”of China-is the word CHANGE.But has change not always been present?True,but never before at such a breakneck speed.Today it is more than just change.It is unprecedented change. In such a world ,reading provides the best tool we have for keeping up and for avoiding future shock in a world continually being remade. Which of the following is NOT true? A.Western countries and China are being remade. B.Reading will help understand our age. C.The present age and future world are continually changing D.Reading is the best tool provided by our age. 2.迂回提问法 这又是一种设障提问技巧。问题不直接提出,而是绕着弯子提出。比如,涉及时间、距离及数据等时,你必须经过复杂 的测算才能确定答案,有时,选择答案给你的数据与文章中的数据不符,只是一个近似数值,(其它选择答案完全不沾边,完全错误),或 者,提问者只给你一部分事实,让读者续出相应的事实使某事实更完整正确(这又叫做省略提问法)。 Passage2Too much TV-watching can harm children's ability to learn and even reduce their chances of getting a college degree , new studies suggest in the latest effort to examine the effects of television on children. One of the studies looked at nearly 400 northern California third-graders.Those with TVs in their bedrooms scored about eight points lower on math and language arts tests than children without bedroom TVs. A second study, looking at nearly 1,000 grown-ups in New Zealand, found lower education levels among 26-year-olds who had watched lots of TV during childhood.But the results don't prove that TV is the cause and don't rule out that already poorly motivated youngsters(年轻人)may watch lots of TV. Their study measured the TV habits of 26-year-olds between ages 5 and 15.Those with college degrees had watched an average of less than two hours of TV per weeknight during childhood,compared with an average of more than 2 hours for those who had no education beyond high school. In the California study,children with TVs in their rooms but no computer at home scored the lowest ,while those with no bedroom TV but who had home computers scored the highest. While this study does not prove that bedroom TV sets caused the lower scores ,it adds to accumulating findings that children shouldn't have TVs in their bedrooms. 1.According to the California study,the low-scoring group might ________. A.have watched a lot of TV B.not be interested in math C.be unable to go to college D.have had computers in their bedrooms 2.What is the researchers' understanding of the New Zealand study results? A.Poorly motivated 26-year-olds watch more TV. B.Habits of TV watching reduce learning interest. C.TV watching leads to lower education levels of the 15 -year-olds. D.The connection between TV and education levels is difficult to explain. 【典例 1】It all started when Graham Broad,a professor at the University of Western Ontario,found McKay's name in a footnote in a book about university history....Out of curiosity,Broad spent hours at the local archives(档案馆)in a fruitless search for information on McKay.Tired and discouraged,he finally gave up.On his way out,Broad's glance happened to fall on an exhibiting case showing some old newspapers.His eye was drawn to an old picture of a young man in a rugby uniform....“After looking for him all day,there he was,staring up at me out of the exhibiting case,”said Broad. 1.What made Professor Broad continue his search for more information on McKay? A.A uniform of McKay. B.A footnote about McKay. C.A book on McKay. D.A picture of McKay. 【典例 2】 While American rappers have been popular in China since the 1990s,homegrown rap didn't gain a following until a decade later.The group Yincang(meaning hidden)is one of the pioneers of Chinese rap.It is made up of music lovers from both sides of the Pacific Ocean : a Beijinger, 1

a Chinese-Canadian and two Americans. “The big change was when rappers started writing lyrics in Chinese, so people could understand, ”said Zhong Cheng,27, a member of the group who was raised in Canada but born in Beijing,where he returned in 1997. 2.Which of the following is not true about the group Yincang? A.It is not as popular as American rappers in China in 1990s. B.There are three nationalities of the group members. C.The 27-year-old member Zhong Cheng was born in Canada and raised in Beijing. D.The group Yincang(meaning hidden)is a very early rap group in China. 【典例 3】 Yincang's first hit song was In Beijing.It sets a melody(旋律)played on the Chinese traditional music instrument the erhu against a hip- hop beat.The song is an insider's look at Beijing's sights and sounds,such as traditional Siheyuan courtyard complexes,the bar area in Houhai,the Guijie food street and the clothes market near the zoo. 3.Which of the following about Beijing is NOT mentioned in the passage? A.Traditional Siheyuan courtyard complexes. B.The bar area in Houhai. C.The Wangfujing Street. D .The clothes market near the zoo. 【典例 4】 Foreign drivers will have a pay on-the-spot fines of up to £900 for breaking the traffic law to be carried out next month. If they do not have enough cash or a working credit card ,their vehicles will be clamped(扣留)until they pay and they will face an additional fee of £80 for getting back their vehicles... 4. The foreign drivers who break the traffic law and do not pay on the spot are likely to be fined up to ________. A.£60 B.£300 C.£900 D.£980 真题演练:(2012· 全国Ⅰ) Last night I was driving from Harrisburg to Lewisburg,a distance of about eighty miles.It was late.Several times I got stuck behind a slow- moving truck on a narrow road with a solid white line on my left ,and I became increasingly impatient. At one point along an open road, I came to a crossing with a traffic light.I was alone on the road by now, but as I drove near the light, it turned red and I made a stop.I looked left,right and behind me.Nothing.Not a car,no suggestion of car lamps,but there I sat,waiting for the light to change,the only human being for at least a mile in any direction. I started wondering why I refused to run the light.I was not afraid of being caught ,because there was clearly no policeman around,and there certainly would have been no danger in going through it. Much later that night,the question of why I'd stopped for that light came back to me.I think I stopped because it's part of a contract( 契约)we all have with each other.It's not only the law,but it's an agreement we have,and we trust each other to honor it:we don't go through red lights. Trust is our first inclination(倾向).Doubting others does not seem to be natural to us.The whole construction of our society depends on mutual(相互)trust,not distrust.We do what we say we'll do;we show up when we say we'll show up;and we pay when we say we'll pay.We trust each other in these matters,and we're angry or disappointed with the person or organization that breaks the trust we have in them. I was so proud of myself for stopping for the red light that night. 1.Why did the author get impatient while driving? A.He was lonely on the road. B.He was slowed down by a truck. C.He got tired of driving too long. D.He came across too many traffic lights. 2.What was the author's immediate action when the traffic light turned red? A.Stopping still. B.Driving through it. C.Looking around for other cars. D.Checking out for traffic police. 3.The event made the author strongly believe that ________. A.traffic rules may be unnecessary B.doubting others is human nature C.patience is important to drivers D.a society needs mutual trust 4.Why was the author proud of himself? A.He kept his promise. B.He held back his anger. C.He followed his inclination. D.He made a right decision. B Does your local town have a nickname?If so,what does it say about the area and the people who live there? Many cities are recognized across the world by their unofficial titles. New York is the Big Apple ,London is the Big Smoke,and Los Angeles is famously called Lala Land(which used to mean that the people who live there are slightly crazy) . Now Britain's national mapping agency, Ordnance Survey, and the British linguistics charity, the English Project, are launching a project to uncover the nicknames people use for local places. The project,which got started last week to coincide with English Language Day,is called Location Lingo. It aims to identify the names people use every day,whether it's a term of endearment(昵称)or a hate name. The University of Winchester's Professor Bill Lucas is a supporter of the English Project. He explains that unofficial place names often show what people think about a place. “The name that people create for a place forms an emotional connection ,”he says.“So Basingstoke becomes Amazingstoke,London is known as Swindump and Padstow,hometown of chef Rick Stein,is nicknamed Padstein.” Basingstoke is a town in central England.The local nickname,Amazingstoke,shows the affection that locals seem to have for the area.Swindon , on the other hand,is sometimes called Swindump,showing that some people think it's a dump(垃圾场).Stanford Le Hope in Essex is called Stanford No Hope by locals.And Padstow in Cornwall is so closely associated with the local celebrity Rick Stein that it's become known as Padstein. Since launching the online database last week,the creators have already received 3 000 alternative titles for places and famous buildings. Glen Hart,Ordnance Survey's head of research,says the information could be very helpful to the emergency services,for example.“By having the most complete set of nicknames we could help the emergency services quickly locate the right place ,and maybe even save lives,”he says. 2.According to Bill Lucas,unofficial place names ________. A.are mostly positive B.make many people confused C.don't show the real condition of a place D.are a good way for people to express their feelings 3.In the opinion of Glen Hart,Britain's nickname survey ________. A.is of little value B.has a practical use C.will face lots of difficulties D.will honor local celebrities 4.Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A.London is called La La Land. B.London has many nicknames. C.People consider Basingstoke a dangerous place. D.People in Stanford Le Hope are disappointed with it. 2

2014 英语专题指导 之阅读理解 细节题 15 答案 Passage1 选择题中, A、 B、 C 三项均与文意吻合一致。 D 项是一个似是而非的选择答案。 文中的 Reading provides the best tool for us(阅读对我们来说,是最好的工具)和选项中 D.Reading is the best tool provided by our age.(阅读是我们时代提供 的最好工具),意思不符,所以答案是 D。 Passage2 1 解析 根据题干中的关键词“the California study”可找到原文中的第二段。第二段说到,看电视多的学生在数 学和文科方面的分数比那些不看电视的学生少 8 分,也就是说,成绩不好的学生看电视多。 答案 A 2 解析 本题的关键词是“the New Zealand study”,根据行文顺序,可在第三段中找到这个词语。根据其后的信息“这 次研究发现,看电视多是导致成绩不好的原因,但是成绩不好的学生不一定看电视多,也许是学习动机不高造成的”可 知,这次研究的结果是:电视与学习之间的联系很难解释清楚。答案 D 【典例 1】.解析 很多人看到第一句话后就以为题目问的“是什么使 Broad 教授开始想要研究 McKay”,从而误选 B, 而事实上题干问的是“什么使 Broad 教授继续搜寻 McKay 的信息”,研读原文可知是 A picture of McKay,答案是 D。看 清问题所问,才不至于混淆问题。 【典例 2】.解析 把每个选项与原文内容逐一对照可知,C 项与原文“...raised in Canada but born in Beijing”看似一样, 其实命题人在此“动了手脚”,将 Canada 和 Beijing 位置调换了,从而与原意不符。答案 C 【典例 3】解析 C 项内容“the Wangfujing Street”虽是北京一地名,但文中并未提及,属于无中生有。答案 C 典例 4】解析 由短文信息可知违背交通规则的外国司机当场应罚 900 欧元,如果钱不够,则扣留车辆。取回车辆还得 多付 80 欧元的手续费。故违规的外国司机,如果没有当场交清罚款的话,要罚的款额有可能高达£980(£900+£80), 故选 D。 真题演练: (2012· 全国Ⅰ)【语篇解读】 本文为记叙文,题材属于人物故事类。作者在没有警察且没有其他车辆的情况下仍然遵守 交通规则,因为这个社会需要彼此的信任。 1 解析 细节理解题。根据第一段“Several times I got stuck behind...and I became increasingly impatient.”可知,自己有点 儿不耐烦了,这是因为被大卡车阻挡了好几次。答案 B 2 解析 细节理解题。根据第二段“it turned red and I made a stop”可知,红灯亮时,“我”选择了立即停车。答案 A 3 解析 推理判断题。最后一段是作者通过这次事件悟出的道理,即社会需要彼此间的信任。尤其是通过倒数第二段的 “The whole construction of our society depends on mutual(相互)trust,not distrust...”可以得知答案。答案 D 4 解析 推理判断题。根据最后一句话可知,作者感到骄傲是因为在红灯亮了以后他停下了答案 D 【语篇解读】 很多城市都有自己的昵称,最近英国的几个组织开始着手收集英国的地名绰号。 2 解析 细节理解题。 由第五段中的“He explains that unofficial place names often show what people think about a place.?The name that people create for a place forms an emotional connection,?he says.”可知,给所在城市起绰号是人们表达情感的一 种方式。答案 D 3 解析 细节理解题。最后一段讲到,收集更多的别名会为应急服务机构提供很大的帮助,可见这个项目是有实际作用 的。答案 B 4 解析 细节理解题。由第六段可知,Stanford Le Hope 的别称是 Stanford No Hope,可见人们对这个地方很失望。 答案 D

3


相关文章:
【广东】2014版英语《高考专题辅导》专题检测卷(十五) ...
【广东】2014英语《高考专题辅导》专题检测卷(十五) 阅读理解]_高中教育_教育专区。【广东】2014英语《高考专题辅导》专题检测卷(十五) 阅读理解] ...
2014高考英语阅读理解冲刺全程训练(15)及答案
2014高考英语阅读理解冲刺全程训练(15)及答案_高考_高中教育_教育专区。2014 高考...1/4 专题推荐 2014年高考语文新课标I卷... 2014年高考理科数学新课... 2014...
2014英语专题指导 之阅读理解1
2014英语专题指导 之阅读理解1_英语_高中教育_教育专区。2014 高三英语专题指导之...文档贡献者 esshopeforever 贡献于2014-07-15 专题推荐 2014年临床执业医师考前...
2014英语阅读理解专题指导3
2014英语阅读理解专题指导3_英语_高中教育_教育专区。2014 英语阅读理解专题指导 ...文档贡献者 esshopeforever 贡献于2014-07-15 专题推荐 2014教师资格材料分析辅...
2014高考英语阅读理解冲刺满分训练15(含解析)
1/2 专题推荐 2014年高考语文新课标I卷... 2014年高考理科数学新课... 2014...2014 高考英语阅读理解冲刺满分训练(15)阅读理解 Imagine,one day,getting out ...
2014英语专题指导 之阅读理解5
2014 高考英语专题指导 之阅读理解 5 难度值:较难 推荐度:五星 Multitasking People who multitask all the time may be the worst at doing two things at ...
2014高考英语阅读理解限时训练题及答案 (15)
专题推荐 2014年高考语文新课标I卷... 2014年高考理科数学新课... 2014年高考...2014 高考英语阅读理解限时训练题及答案(15)【深圳市 2014 高考英语综合能力测试...
2014英语专题指导 之阅读理解12任务型阅读
2014英语专题指导 之阅读理解12任务型阅读_英语_高中教育_教育专区。2014 高考英语...文档贡献者 esshopeforever 贡献于2014-07-15 专题推荐 2014教师资格材料分析辅...
2014英语专题指导 之阅读理解7
2014 高考英语专题指导 之阅读理解 7 难度值:较难 推荐度:五星 Here is an ...sensitive 敏感的 15. doubtful 怀疑的 e.g: Passage 1 Why isn’t your ...
2014届高三英语二轮专题测试:阅读理解15
2014届高三英语二轮专题测试:阅读理解15_高考_高中教育_教育专区 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档 2014届高三英语二轮专题测试:阅读理解15_高考_高中教育_教育...
更多相关标签:
小学数学阅读理解专题 | 五下语文阅读理解专题 | 高中英语阅读理解专题 | 中考英语阅读理解指导 | 小学语文阅读理解指导 | 阅读理解专项指导 | 镜花缘15回阅读理解 | 六年级15篇阅读理解 |