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2013年职称英语(理工类)阅读理解


2013年职称英语(理工类)阅读理解完形填空新增文章 阅读理解 第十一篇When Our Eyes Serve Our Stomach Our senses aren?t just delivering a strict view of what?s going on in the world; they?re affected by what?s going on in our

heads. A new study finds that hungry people see food-related words more clearly than people who?ve just eaten. Psychologists have known for decades that what?s going on, inside our head affects our senses. For example, poorer children think coins are larger than they are, and hungry people think pictures of food are brighter. Remi Radel of University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis,France,wanted to investigate how this happens. Does it happen right away as the brain receives signals from the eyes or a little later as the brain?s high-level thinking processes get involved. Radel recruited 42 students with a normal body mass index. On the day of his or her test, each student was told to arrive at the lab at noon after three or four hours of not eating. Then they were told there was a delay. Some were told to come back in 10 minutes; others were given an hour to get lunch first. So half the students were hungry when they did the experiment and the other half had just eaten. For the experiment, the participant looked at a computer screen. One by one, 80 words flashed on the screen for about l/300th of a second each. They flashed at so small a size that the students could only consciously perceive. A quarter of the words were food-related. After each word, each person was asked how bright the word was and asked to choose which of two words they?d seen — a food-related word like cake or a neutral word like boat. Each word appeared too briefly for the participant to really read it. Hungry people saw the food-related words as brighter and were better at identifying foodrelated words. Because the word appeared too quickly for them to be reliably seen, this means that the difference is in perception, not in thinking processes, Radel says. “This is something great to me. Humans can really perceive what they need or what they strive for. From the experiment, I know that our brain can really be at the disposal of our motives and needs,” Radel says. 词汇: threshold n.起点,开端;门槛 disposal n.处理,处置;配置 neutral adj.中性的;中立的 motive n.动机,目的 strive v.努力,力求;斗争注释: 1. Our senses aren? t just delivering a strict view of ... in our heads:这个句子的大概意思 是:我们的五官感觉不仅仅让我们感知世界;五官感觉还受大脑活动的影响。 2. University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis:法国尼斯?索菲亚?安提波利斯大学, 简称尼斯大 学,1965年经法国政令正式宣布成立。尼斯大学在尼斯市设有7处主校园,另外,还 在索菲亚? 安提波利斯市(Sophia Antipolis)、戛纳市(Cannes)和芒东市(Menton)设 有校区。索菲亚? 安提波利斯是位于尼斯市西南侧的科技园区,是许多髙等学府的 所在地。 3. body mass index:身体质量指数

4. at the threshold of:当……快要开始时 5. in perception:感知 6. at the disposal of:受到……的控制 练习: 1. What does the new study mentioned in Paragraph 1 find? A Hungry people see every word more clearly than ordinary people. B Hungry people are always thinking of food-related words. C Hungry people are more sensitive to food-related words than stomach-full people. D Hungry people do not have lower-level of thinking process. 2. Why was there a delay on the day of the experiment? A Because hungry people needed time to fill their stomach. B Because Radel wanted to create two groups of testees, hungry and non-hungry. C Because noon was not the right time for any experiment. D Because Radel needed time to select participants in terms of body mass index. 3. What does the writer want to tell us? A Human's senses aren?t just delivering a strict view of what?s going on in the world. B What's perceived by our senses affects our way of thinking. C Human brains can really be at the disposal of our motives and needs. D Thinking processes guarantee the normal functions of our senses. 4. What did the results of the experiment indicate? A 80 words flashed on the screen too fast for the participant to intentionally perceive. B Hungry people were better at identifying neutral words. C People who had just eaten were better at identifying food-related words. D The participants could barely perceive what they needed or what they strived for. 5. What can we infer from the passage? A 42 participants are too small a number for a serious investigation. B An experiment with hungry and non-hungry participants is not reliable. C Our thinking processes are independent of our senses. D Humans can perceive what they need without involving high-level thinking processes. 答案与题解: 1. C第一段第二句是本题答案的依据。饥肠辘辘的人只是看food-related words比较清 楚,选项C的句意与上述句子的意思完全一致,是答案。选项A说的是every word, 所 以不是答案。选项B和D文章中没有提到。 2. B答案的根据可在第三段找到。Radel为了保证42名学生到达实验室时是空腹,所 以要求他们中午到达。 然后告诉一部分学生实验时间推迟了,请他们10分钟后再来。 他又请另外一部分学生用午餐。Radel用推迟实验的方法造就了两组实验者,即饥饿 组与饱食组。选项B是答案。 3. C 虽然A、B、D选项均可在文中找到对应部分,但只属于细节,而非主旨,因此 不能选。本文最后一句给出了直接的答案。 4. A第四段第三行中consciously与A项中的intentionally是同义词。B项neutral意思为 “中性的”,在本文中的意思是与food-related相对的,即“与食物不相关的”,因此是 错误选择; C 项不符合课文原意; D项barely意为“仅仅,勉强,几乎没有”,因此也不 符合句意。 3 / 21 更多精品在大家! http://club.topsage.com/ 大家网,大家的!

5. D选项A所说的实验样本的大小与本题主旨无关,不是答案,而是干扰项;B、C内 容也不能直接从短文中推断出来。选项D是答案。最后一段第二句的“Humans can really perceive what they need or what they strive for” 为选择D 项提供了依据。 参考译文 第十一篇 我们的视觉服务于我们的胃口 我们的五官不仅仅让我们感知世界;还受大脑活动的影响。一项新研究发现:比起 那些刚刚用过餐的人,饥饿的人能更清晰地看到与食品有关的词。 数十年以来,心理学家已经知道我们的心理活动直接影响到我们的视觉。例如,贫 穷的孩子看到的硬币比实际的要大;饥饿的人看到的食物图片更明亮。法国的尼斯? 索菲亚?安提波利斯大学试图调查这一现象: 发生这种情况的时间是在大脑从眼睛接 收到视觉信号的即时还是稍后些,这时高级思维活动已经介入了。 雷戴尔招募了健康指数正常的42位学生作为被试者。在测试的当天,每个学生被告 知在中午到达实验室,这时距上一次的用餐时间有3?4个小时。等他们到达实验室 时,他们被告知实验时间有延迟。一半学生被告知十分钟后再回来;其余的给1个小 时的时间先吃午饭。所以一半学生饿着肚子,另一半学生饱腹参加了此次实验。 实验的步骤如下:要求被试者看电脑屏幕。屏幕上的80个字以1/300秒的频率闪动。 由于字体非常之小,被试者只能凭感觉捕捉到字形。1/4的字是与食物有关的。每闪 动一个字,被试者回答字体的亮度并选择看到的是哪类词:一类是和食物有关的词, 比如“蛋糕”;一类是中性词,比如“船”。由于每个词的闪动在瞬间完成,被试者根 本看不清楚那个词是什么。 饥饿的人看到与食物有关的词更明亮,且能更好地辨认出与食物有关的词。由于每 个词的闪动太快,其实那些被试者根本不会确切地看到什么,这就说明:他们只是 感觉不同,根本没经过思考。雷戴尔给出了这样的解释。 雷戴尔说: “这就是重点所在。 人类可以真正感知到自身的需要或者为之奋斗的目标。 该实验使我了解这样的事实,即我们的大脑是受我们的动机和需要所支配的。

第十九篇 Musical Robot Companion Enhances Listener Experience Shimi, a musical companion developed by Georgia Tech?s Center for Music Technology, recommends songs, dances to the beat and keeps the music pumping based on listener feedback. The smartphone-enabled, one-foot-tall robot is billed as an interactive “musical friend”. “Shimi is designed to change the way that people enjoy and think about their music,” said Professor Gil Weinberg, the robot?s creator. He will unveil the robot at the June 27th Google I/O conference in San Francisco. A band of three Shimi robots will perform for guests, dancing in sync with music created in the lab and composed according to its movements. Shimi is essentially a docking station with a “brain” powered by an Android phone. Once docked, the robot gains the sensing and musical generation capabilities of the user?s mobile device. In other words, if there?s an “app” for that, Shimi is ready. For instance, by using the phone?s camera and face-detecting software,Shimi can follow a listener around the room and position its “ears”,or speakers, for optimal sound. Another recognition feature is based on rhythm and tempo. If the user taps a beat, Shimi analyzes it, scans the phone?s musical library and immediately plays the song that best matches the suggestion. Once the music starts,Shimi dances to the rhythm. “Many people think that robots are limited by their programming instructions, said Music Technology Ph. D. candidate Mason Bretan. “Shimi shows us that robots can be creative and interactive. ??Future apps in the works will allow the user to shake their head in disagreement or wave a hand in the air to alert Shimi to skip to the next song or increase/decrease the volume. The robot will also have the capability to recommend new music based on the user?s song choices and provide feedback on the music play list. Weinberg hopes other developers will be inspired to create more apps to expand Shimi?s creative and interactive capabilities. “I believe that our center is ahead of a revolution that will see more robots in homes.” Weinberg said. Weinberg is in the process of commercializing Shimi through an exclusive licensing agreement with Georgia Tech. Weinberg hopes to make the robot available to consumers by the 2013 holiday season. “If robots are going to arrive in homes, we think that they will be this kind of machines一small, entertaining and fun, , , Weinberg said. “They will enhance your life and pave the way for more intelligent service robots in our lives.” 词汇: pump v.用抽水机抽;不断播放(音乐) scan v.扫描;浏览 skip v.轻跳,跳跃 sync n.同步,同时;v.使同步 tempo n.速度;节奏 注释: 1. Georgia Tech:全称是Georgia Institute of Technology,佐治亚理工学院,建于1885 年,位于亚特兰大市中心。佐治亚理工学齒是美国南部最大的公立理工学院,也是全 美最顶尖的理工学院之一,排名仅次于麻省理工学院(MIT)和加州理工学院 (CalTech)。 2. pump:不断播放(音乐)。例如:This radio station recently pumps out pop music. (这家

广播电台近来连续播放流行音乐。) 3. smartphone-enabled:由智能手机系统支持的 4. is billed as:相当于is advertised as,意为“被标榜为”。 5. docking station: 插接站,扩充基座,扩展插口 -6. Android:(科幻小说里的)机器人。 本文指用于智能手机和便携式计算机移动设备的 一种以Linus为基础的开放源代码操作系统,通过接口和插槽连接多种外部设备。目 前Android 尚未有统一中文译名,国内较多人翻译成“安卓”或“安致”。据2012年2月 数据, Android 占据全球智能手机操作系统市场52.5%的份额,中国市场占有率为 68.4%。 7. dock:对接 8. the sensing and musical generation capabilities:传感和音乐生成能力 9. app:应用程序(=application) 10. if the user taps a beat:如果用户打出某个(音乐)拍子 11. in the works:正在准备阶段;在进行中或准备中 12. intelligent service robots:智能服务型机器人 练习: 1. Which of the following is NOT true according to the first three paragraphs? A Shimi is a one-foot tall robot. B Shimi is the creator of the musical companion. C Shimi is a docking station with a“ brain” powered by an Android phone. D Shimi can gain the sensing and musical generation capabilities of the user?s mobile device. 2. What does Shimi do if the user taps a beat? A It stores the beat in the musical library. B It transmits the beat to the docking station. C It positions its speakers for optimal sound. D It selects a perfectly-matched song and plays it in sync with that beat. 3. Which of the following about Shimi is true? A Robots are limited by their programming instructions, and Shimi is no exception. B Present apps allow the user to shake their head to alert Shimi to skip to the next song. C Existing apps allow the user to wave a hand to alert Shimi to turn up/down the volume. D Shimi can be creative and interactive. 4. What does the author want to tell us? A The research center is developing a stronger and more versatile Shimi. B Weinberg only expects staffs from Georgia Tech. to develop more apps for Shimi. C Shimi is not yet technologically ready for commercialization. D Robots such as Shimi are created for large corporations rather than homes. 5. Which of the following is Weinberg?s assertion? A Shimi as a robotic musical companion can be applied to all types of smart phones. B human lives will be filled with more fun if Shimi is going to arrive in homes. C Shimi's creative and interactive capabilities are appreciated by most of its users. D Weinberg has reached an agreement with Georgia Tech to commercialize Shimi. 答案与题解: 1. B在前三段中均可找到与选项A、 D相应的句子, C、 强调Shimi是一种电子设备;B 与

原文不符, Shimi不是该机器人的发明者,Gil Weinberg教授才是the robot?s creator。 2. D选项D简要地表述了第三段的倒数第二句“If the user taps a beat, Shimi analyzes it, scans the phone?s musical library and immediately plays the song that best matches the suggestion”的意思,所以是答案。选项A、B、C都不符合上述句子的含义。 3. D选项A的意思与原文相反。虽然人们认为机器人受到程序指令的限制,但Shimi 却表现出具有创造能力和互动能力,所以A不是答案。选项D的意思与原文相同,因 而是答案。第四段第三句指的是未来的应用程序: future apps in the works,而选项B,C 是指目前的应用程序,两者的表述均与原文有出入。 4. A第三段介绍Shimi的多种功能,第四段和第五段说Weinberg还在开发更多的应用 程序来丰富Shimi的功能,还希望其他研发者也参与开发,因此,A是答案。选项B 说Weinberg 仅仅希望Georgia Tech员工参与开发更多的应用软件,这与原文不符。 文章最后一段告诉我们,Weinberg正在与Georgia Tech进行有关Shimi商业化的谈判, 选项C的意思与此相反,不会是答案。选项D也与原文不符。 5. B选项A、C和D的内容Weinberg都没有说过。第三段告诉我们,Shimi是Android smart phone的扩充基座,并不适用于所有智能手机,所以A选项不正确;Shimi尚未 进入市场,还谈不上公众对Shimi欣赏与否的问题,因此选项C不符合原意;Shimi 正在进行商业化运作,但绝非已经完成,所以D也不是正确选项。本题的答案是B, 依据是最后一段倒数第二句。 参考译文 第十九篇 音乐机器人伴侣提升音乐欣赏体验 Shimi是由佐治亚理工大学音乐技术中心研发的一款音乐伴侣。 它可以根据听者的反 馈推荐合乎节拍的歌曲、舞蹈;并且不断播放音乐。这款髙1英尺的机器人是由智能 手机系统支持的,因此被标榜为“一个可以互动的音乐朋友”。 Gil Weinberg教授是该机器人的发明者,他解释说:“Shimi设计的宗旨是改变人们欣 赏音乐、认识音乐的方式。”他将在今年6月27日在旧金山的谷歌I/O大会上展示这款 机器人。一个由三个机器人组成的乐队将为来宾演奏,并伴随音乐起舞。而音乐是 根据不同的运动形式编制的。 Shimi实际上是一个扩充基座,它的“大脑”由安卓手机控制。一旦连接上,机器人便 从用户的移动装置获得传感和音乐生成能力。换言之,只要有应用程序,机器人便 能使用。例如,通过手机的照相机和辨认脸型的软件,Shimi就能在房间周围跟踪到 听众,然后安置好它的“耳朵”或扬声器,以确保输送最佳声音。另外一种识别特征 是基于节奏和速度。如果用户打出某个(音乐)拍子,Shimi会对此进行分析,然后 浏览手机的音乐库,并立即演奏最符合要求的音乐。一旦音乐响起来,Shimi就随韵 律起舞。 “许多人认为机器人受到程序指令的限制,而Shiini给我们展示了机器人可以具有创 造力和与人交互的能力。”音乐技术博士研究生Mason Bretan如是说。正在研发中的 程序将使用户能沟通过摇头或摆手表示不同意, 来提醒Shimi跳到下一首歌或增减音 量。机器人还可根据用户对歌曲的选择推荐新音乐,并对音乐播放列表提供反馈。 Weinberg希望其他研发者会因此获得灵感,开发更多的应用程序,来扩展Shimi的创 新和交互功能。他说:“我认为我们中心正在引领这场将更多机器人应用到家庭中去 的变革。” Weinberg正在通过获得佐治亚理工学院的独家授权来对Shimi进行商业推广。 Weinberg希望到2013年的节日季消费者可购买到Shimi。Weinberg说:“如果机器人 进入家庭,我们认为就应该是这种类型的机器人:小巧、令人愉快和有趣,它们能

提高我们的生活质量,为更多智能服务型机器人进人我们的生活做好准备。 第四十八篇 Researchers Discover Why Humans Began Walking Upright Most of us walk and carry items in our hands every day. These are seemingly simple activities that the majority of us don?t question. But an international team of researchers, including Dr. Richmond from GW's Columbian College of Arts and Sciences,have discovered that human walking upright, may have originated millions of years ago as an adaptation to carrying scarce, high- quality resources. The team of researchers from the U. S., England, Japan and Portugal investigated the behavior of modern-day chimpanzees as they competed for food resources,in an effort to understand what ecological settings would lead a large ape — one that resembles the 6 million-year old ancestor we shared in common with living chimpanzees — to walk on two legs. “These chimpanzees provide a model of the ecological conditions under which our earliest ancestors might have begun walking on two legs, ",said Dr. Richmond. The research findings suggest that chimpanzees switch to moving on two limbs instead of four in situations where they need to monopolize a resource. Standing on two legs allows them to carry much more at one time because it frees up their hands. Over time,intense bursts of bipedal activity may have led to anatomical changes that in turn became the subject of natural selection where competition for food or other resources was strong. Two studies were conducted by the team in Guinea. The first study was conducted by the team in Kyoto University?s “ outdoor laboratory ” in a natural clearing in Bossou Forest. Researchers allowed the wild chimpanzees access to different combinations of two different types of nut — the oil palm nut,which is naturally widely available, and the coula nut, which is not. The chimpanzees? behavior was monitored in three situations:(a) when only oil palm nuts were available,(b)when a small number of coula nuts were available,and(c) when coula nuts were the majority available resource. When the rare coula nuts were available only in small numbers, the chimpanzees transported more at one time. Similarly, when coula nuts were the majority resource, the chimpanzees ignored the oil palm nuts altogether. The chimpanzees regarded the coula nuts as a more highly-prized resource and competed for them more intensely. In such high-competition settings,the frequency of cases in which the chimpanzees started moving on two legs increased by a factor of four. Not only was it obvious that bipedal movement allowed them to carry more of this precious resource, but also that they were actively trying to move as much as they could in one go by using everything available 一even their mouths. The second study, by Kimberley Hockings of Oxford Brookes University, was a 14-month study of Bossou chimpanzees crop-raiding, a situation in which they have to compete for rare and unpredictable Resources. Here, 35 percent of the chimpanzees activity involved some sort of bipedal movement, and once again, this behavior appeared to be linked to a clear attempt to carry as much as possible at one time. 词汇: scarce adj.缺乏的,不足的;稀有的 chimpanzee n.黑猩猩 ape n.无尾猿; 类人猿 bipedal adj. 二足的

anatomical adj.解剖的 coula nuts( coula也可写作cola或kola)可乐果 注释: 1. GW?s Columbian College of Arts and Sciences:乔治?华盛顿大学哥伦比亚艺术与科 学学院。乔治·华盛顿大学(George Washington University)的英文简称为GW,是美 国顶尖的私立大学之一,于1821年建校,位于美国首都华盛顿。 2. ecological settings: 生态环境 3. bipedal activity:双足活动 4. anatomical chaiige: 解剖学上的变化 5. Kyoto University:京都大学, 是继东京大学之后成立的日本第二所国立大学, 于I897 年建校。京都大学主要校区位于日本历史名城京都市。 6. Bossou: 博苏,几内亚的一个地名。博苏森林生活着黑猩猩群落。 7. oil palm nut: 油棕榈坚果 8. increased by a factor of four:增加了四倍 9. in one go:—口气 10. Oxford Brookes University: 牛津布鲁克斯大学,创立于1865年,是英国最具特色 的综合性大学之一。牛津布鲁克斯大学位于世界学术名城——牛津。 这里学风浓郁、 精英荟萃,历来为求学圣地。 练习: 1. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the first two paragraphs? A Many people question the simple human activities of walking and carrying items. B Chimpanzee?s behaviors may suggest why humans walk on two legs. C Human walking upright is viewed as an adaptation to carrying precious resources. D Our ancestors' ecological conditions resembled those of modern-day chimpanzees. 2. Dr. Richmond conducted the experiment with the purpose of finding A when humans began walking on two legs. B what made our ancestors walk upright. C what benefits walking upright brought to our ancestors. D how walking upright helped chimpanzees monopolize resources. 3. Kyoto, University's study discovered that chimpanzees. A regarded both types of nut as priced resources. B preferred oil palm nuts to coula nuts. C liked coula nuts better than oil palm nuts. D ignored both types of nut altogether. 4. Why did the chimpanzees walk on two limbs during Kyoto University's experiment? A Because they imitated the human way of walking just for fun. B Because they wanted to please the researchers to get more coula nuts from them. C Because they wanted to get to die nut-rich forest faster by walking that way. D Because they wanted to carry more nuts with two free limbs. 5. What can we infer from the reading passage? A Chimpanzees are in the same process of evolution as our ancestors were. B Chimpanzees are similar to humans in many behaviors. C Walking on two limbs and walking on four limbs each have their advantages. D Human walking on two legs developed as a means of survival.

答案与题解: 1. A第一段第一句和第二句说明,大多数人对人类直立行走习以为常,并不质疑这种 习惯。而A的内容正好与此相反,所以是答案。其他选项所述内容均可从第一段和 第二段推断出 2. B 文章报道,科学家通过实验证实黑猩猩直立行走是为了解放前肢,让前肢搬运 对其生命至关重要的资源, 从而推断出人类祖先也经历了从四足到二足的进化过程。 科学家想通过对黑猩猩的实验解释人类直立行走的成因。所以B是答案,A、C、D 选项不是科学家进行研究的目的。 3. C第五段明白无误地描述了黑猩猩全然不顾油棕榈坚果(ignored the oil palm nuts altogether),集中精力抢运可乐果。所以C是答案,B、C、D的内容不符合文章原意。 4. D黑猩猩用后肢直立行走, 搬运资源的效率提高了四倍。 选项D符合原意, 是答案。 选项A、B、C的内容文章中没有提到,所以不是答案。 5. D 了解了通篇文章的意思,就会选择选项D。人类直立行走是受生态环境所迫, 是人类生存的一种手段,直立行走是自然选择的结果。选项A和C的内容文章中没有 涉及。文章中有选项B的内容,但它不是文章的主旨。 参考译文: 第四十八篇 研究人员发现人类开始直立行走的原因 我们大多数人每天都走路而且手里搬着东西。这样的活动看似太简单,大多数人没 有疑问。但是一个国际研究者(包括乔治?华盛顿大学哥伦比亚艺术与科学学院的 Richmond博士)团队已经发现了人类直立行走可能源于数百万年以前适应搬运稀有 的、高质量的资源。这些来自美国、英国、日本和葡萄牙的研究者研究了当代黑猩 猩争抢食物时的行为特征,试图对什么样的生态环境竟然导致大猿(一种我们与现 存的黑猩猩一样的600万年前的祖先)直立行走作出解释。 “这些黑猩猩居住的生态环境和我们最早的祖先开始直立行走时是相同的,” Richmond博士说。研究结果显示,当黑猩猩需要独占一种资源时,它们就从四肢行 走转换为直立行走。由于直立行走可以解放它们的双手,这使得它们能搬更多的东 西。久而久之,双足活动的强烈爆发可能导致了解剖学上的变化,因此这种变化也 就成为自然选择的主题,在那种情况下,对食物或其他资源的争夺是十分激烈的。 有两项研究是在几内亚完成的。第一项研究是在京都大学博苏森林的一块天然空地 ——“室外实验室”进行的。研究者们允许森林里的黑猩猩能得到两种不同的坚果, 一种叫油棕榈坚果,自然界随处可见,一种叫可乐果,自然环境中不常见。人们监 控黑猩猩在下列三种情形下的行为:(a)只有油棕榈坚果;(b)只有少量的可乐果, 大多数是油棕榈坚果;(c)大多数是可乐果,少数是油棕榈坚果。 当稀有的可乐果数量很少时,黑猩猩一次就会拿得多。同样,当大部分是可乐果时, 黑猩猩对油棕榈坚果根本视而不见。黑猩猩认为可乐果才是珍贵的资源,并为得到 可乐果激烈竞争。 处于这种激烈竞争的环境中,黑猩猩直立行走的频率增加了四倍。很显然,双足行 走可以使它们拿走更多的稀有资源,而且,为了尽可能地一口气多拿,它们积极利 用可用到的任何方法,甚至嘴巴。 第二项研究是在牛津布鲁克斯大学的Kimberley Hockings进行的。该研究历时14个 月,主题是博苏的黑猩猩抢劫粮食,场景是它们不得不为稀有和不可预知的资源竞 争。在这项研究中,黑猩猩35%的活动是直立行走。而这一次研究再一次证实了黑 猩猩的直立行走与它们试图一次搬走尽可能多的东西有关。 11 / 21 更多精品在大家!
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完形填空 第三篇 Giant Structures It is an impossible task to select the most amazing wonders of the modem world since every year more __1__ constructions appear. Here are three giant structures which are worthy of our __2__ although they may have been surpassed by some more recent wonders. The Petronas Twin Towers The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world when they were completed in 1999. With a __3__ of 452 metres, the tall twin towers, like two thin pencils, dominate the city of Kuala Lumpur. At the 41st floor, the towers are linked by a bridge, symbolizing a gateway to the city. The American __4__ Cesar Pelli designed the skyscrapers. Constructed of high-strength concrete, the building provides around 1,800 square metres of office space __5__ every floor. And it has a shopping centre and a concert hall at the base. Other __6__ of this impressive building include double-decker lifts, and glass and steel sunshades. The MiUau Bridge The Millau Bridge was opened in 2004 in the Tam Valley,in southern France. __7__ the time it was built,it was the world?s highest bridge, __8__ over 340m at the highest point. The bridge is described as one of the most amazingly beautiful bridges in the world. It was built to __9__ Millau's congestion problems. The congestion was then caused by traffic passing from Paris to Barcelona in Spain. The bridge was built to withstand the __10__ extreme seismic and climatic conditions. Besides, it is guaranteed for 120 years! The Itaipu Dam The Itaipu hydroelectric power plant is one of the largest constructions of its kind in the world. It consists of a series of dams across the River Parana, __11__ forms a natural border between Brazil and Paraguay. Started in 1975 and taking 16 years to complete, the construction was carried out as a joint project between the two __12__. The dam is well-known for both its electricity output and its size. In 1995 it produced 78% of Paraguay?s and 25% of Brazil?s __13__ needs. In its construction, the __14__ of iron and steel used was equivalent to over 300 Eiffel Towers. It is a __15__ amazing wonder of engineering. 词汇: worthy adj.值得的 surpass v.超过,胜过 symbolize v.象征 congestion n.拥挤 withstand v. 经受住 seismic 地震的 dam n. 堤,坝 hydroelectric adj. 水电的 注释: 1. The Petronas Twin Towers: 国油双峰塔,又称吉隆坡双子塔。建于1997年,共有 88层,高达452公尺,曾是世界上最高的摩天楼。国油双峰塔由两幢大楼组成,两幢

楼的第41层由58公尺长的天桥连接。这座设计新颖的、大量使用了木锈钢与玻璃等 建材的双峰塔是吉隆坡市的象征。不论你在吉隆坡的哪一个角落都可以看到这座十 分现代化的建筑物。 2. Kuala Lumpur:吉隆坡(马来西亚首都) 3. The Millau Bridge: 米约高架桥。位于法国西南部的米约市,横跨在塔恩河仙境般 的河谷之上,是通住法国南部地中海地区75号高速公路段上的枢纽工程。建造这座 斜拉索式桥梁共花费了3年多的时间,总耗资3.94亿欧元。这座大桥全长2.46公里, 总重29万吨,大桥距地面270米,大桥斜拉索的最高点距离地面343米,髙出埃菲尔 铁塔23米,是当时世界上最高的桥梁。 4. The Itaipu Dam: 伊泰普水电站。伊泰普水电站是目前世界上最大的水电站之一, 由巴西和巴拉圭斥资共建,两国电力公司分别拥有水电站的一半产权。整个坝长7 853米,水位落差118.4米。水库面积1 350平方公里(其中巴西侧750平方公里,巴拉 圭侧600平方公里),容量290亿立方米。自1991年起,伊泰普水电站每年发电收益 约23亿美元。 5. the River Parana: 巴拉那河。南美洲第二大河。 6. Brazil: 巴西(南美洲一国名) 7. Paraguay: 巴拉圭(南美洲一国名) 8. Eiffel Towers: 埃菲尔铁塔。埃菲尔铁塔是法国巴黎著名建筑,也是巴黎的象征。 塔高985 英尺,于1889年为世界博览会而建造,其塔身几乎完全由开放晶格的熟铁 制成。 练习 A. delightful B. useful C. wonderful D. careful A. admiration B. passion C. expression D. detection A. length B. width C. height D. volume A. inventor B. architect C. scientist D. merchant A. below B. in C. above D. on A. types B. parts C. roles D. features A. A.t B. within C. from D. upon A. developing B. expanding C. stretching D. reaching A. restrict B. reserve C. relieve D. relax A. most B. much C. more D. less A. what B. which C. who D. that A. countries B. provinces C. areas D. regions A. water B. oil C. energy D. food A. amount B. number C. quality D. ratio A. mainly B. totally C. rarely D. truly 答案与题解 1. C第二句的前半句说的是“要选定当世最令人叹为观止的奇迹是一个无法完成的差 事”,后半句解释“做不到”的原因在于每年都有新的更令人叹为观止的建筑出现。本 题要选的词应该是与描述constructions极好性状有关的形容词。 四个选项中wonderful 符合这个要求,而delightful, useful和careful均与constructions极好性状无关,因此不 可能是答案。 2. A be worthy of 意为“值得”。Three giant, structures 值得什么呢?值得我们passion (热情)、expression(表达)或detection(发现)?这三个选项显然不会是答案。

Admiration(赞叹)才是答案。 3. C “the tall twin towers”给出了寻找答案的线索。tall towers意为“高楼”,所以452米 指的是高度。 4. B本段叙述马来西亚吉隆坡的国油双峰塔。四个选项中只有architect(建筑师)与设 计国油双峰塔最相关。其他三个选项与architect相比,相关性就差多了。 5. D floor之前搭配的介词是on。 6. D本段前面的句子描述了国油双峰塔的建筑特色,本句进而介绍塔的其他两个特 色, 即double-decker lifts (双层电梯) 和glass and steel sunshades(建材为玻璃和钢的遮 阳篷)。根据上下文判断,features是答案。 7. A at the time(在那时,那时候)是固定搭配,后接从句。 8. D从词组搭配和上下文意思上判断, reaching over 340m at the highest point是最合适 的。reach a height意为“达到某个高度”,而develop a height(发展某个高度),expand a height (扩展某个髙度)和stretch a height(延伸某个高度)都不合理。 9. C congestion是解题的关键词。建造髙架大桥的目的是为了缓解交通拥挤,所以选 择relieve是理所当然的。 10. A本句是说米约高架桥的坚固程度,它能经受住最极端的地震和气候条件而不会 倒塌。本题的答案是most。the most extreme是形容词extreme的最高级形式。 11. B很明显, River Parana之后是个非限制性定语从句, the 连接词只能用which。 what 不能指代the River Parana。 that用于限制性定语从句。 Who不能指代非生命的the River Parana. 12. A the Itaipu Dam由巴西和巴拉圭两国斥资共建,所以答案不可能是 provinces(省),areas (区域)或regions(地区)。countries是理所当然的选择。 13. C建造水电站的目的是利用水能发电,获得电能。Energy是答案。本句的下半句 breaking previous records for energy production 中的“energy”也为答案的选择提供了 依据。 14. A iron和steel是物质名词,是不可数的,用the amount of iron and steel是对的。 15. D mainly amazing(主要叹为观止的),totally amazing(全部叹为观止的)或rarely amazing (很少叹为观止的)都与句子的意思接不上。 只有truly amazing (真正叹为观止 的)才符合上下文的意思。 参考译文 第三篇 巨型建筑 挑选当今世界最神奇的奇观是一个不可能完成的任务。原因是每年都有新的更令人 叹为观止的建筑出现。有这样三座巨大的建筑值得人们赞叹,尽管它们可能被某些 最近建成的奇观所超越。 第一座:国油双峰塔。国油双峰塔在1999年建成时是世界上最高的建筑物,高452 米,高高的双塔就像两支细铅笔,高耸于吉隆坡市。在41层,两个塔由一座桥连接, 象征着通向城市的大门。该建筑的设计者是美国建筑师Cesar Pelli。 该建筑由高强度混凝土建成,每一层都有夫约1800平方米的办公区域;在底部还有 一个购物中心和一个音乐厅。该建筑的其他特色是双层电梯以及建材为玻璃和钢的 遮阳篷。 第二座:米约高架桥。米约高架桥位于法国南部的Tam山谷,2004年建成通车。它 是当时世界上最高的大桥,最高点超过340米。该桥被人们描写为“世界上最神奇最 美丽的大桥之一”。它是为舒缓米约的交通拥挤所建。当时的拥挤是由从巴黎到西班 牙的巴塞罗那的过往车辆太多所致。该桥可以承受强震和极端气候。另外,它可以

使用120年! 第三座:伊泰普水电站。伊泰普水电站是同类建筑中最大的一个。它由横跨巴拉那 河的一组大坝组成,成为巴西和巴拉圭的自然边境。该建筑作为两个国家的共同开 发项目,1975年动工修建,历时16年完工。该大坝因它的发电量和规模之大而闻名。 1995年,它为巴拉圭和巴西分别提供了78%和25%的能源需求。该建筑使用的钢铁 量是埃菲尔铁塔的300倍还多。该建筑令人叹为观止,名不虚传。 第八篇 Why India Needs Its Dying Vultures The vultures in question may look ugly and threatening, but the sudden sharp __1__ in three species of India?s vultures is producing alarm rather than celebration, and it presents the world with a new kind of environmental __2__ The dramatic decline in vulture numbers is causing widespread disruption to people living in the same areas as the __3__ . It is also causing serious public health problems __4__ the Indian sub-continent. While their reputation and appearance may be unpleasant to many Indians,vultures have __5__played a very important role in keeping towns and villages all over India clean. It is __6__they feed on dead cows. In India, cows are sacred animals and are __7__ left in the open when they die in their thousands upon thousands every year. The disappearance of the vultures has __8__ an explosion in the numbers of wild dogs feeding on the remains of these dead animals. There are fears that rabies may __9__ as a result. And this terrifying disease may ultimately affect humans in the region, since wild dogs are its main carriers. Rabies could also spread to other animal species, causing an even greater problem in the __10__. The need for action is __11__, so an emergency project has been launched to __12__ a solution to this serious vulture problem. Scientists are trying to identify the disease causing the birds,deaths and, if possible, develop a cure. Large-scale vulture __13__ were first noticed at the end of the 1980s in India. A population survey at that time showed that the three species of vultures had declined __14__ over 90 per cent. All three species are now listed as “critically endangered”. As most vultures lay only single eggs and __15__ about five years to reach maturity, reversing their population decline will be a long and difficult exercise. 词汇: vulture n.秃鹰 ultimately adv.最终地 species n.物种,种类 endanger v.危及,濒危 disruption n.破坏,毁坏 maturity n.成熟期 rabies n.狂犬症 注释: 1. The vulture in question: 讨论中的秀鹰(问题)。in question意为“讨论中的,考虑中 的”。 2. rather than:而不是。例:Your proposal is positive rather than negative. (你的提议是 积极的,而不是消极的。) 3. the Indian sub-continent: 印度次大陆 4. while: 虽然。例:While he has published many papers, he is modest. (虽然他发表了多

篇论文,他还是很谦虚。) 5. thousands upon thousands:成千上万的 6. in the open:在户外,在野外 7. as a result:结果 8. listed as “critically endangered”:被列为极度濒危动物 练习: 1. A. decline B. rise C. teeth D. eyes 2. A. benefit B. debate C. problem D. solution 3. A. plants B. birds C. humans D. cows 4. A. over B. with C. through D. across 5. A. sometimes B. long C. suddenly D. hardly 6. A. who B. when C. because D. where 7. A. traditionally B. occasionally C. possibly D. finally 8. A. came from B. adjusted to C. resulted from D. led to 9. A. drop B. increase C. disappear D. change 10. A. future B. past C. villages D. mountains 11. A. recent B. urgent C. frequent D. rare 12. A. neglect B. use C. remove D. find 13. A. cures B. arrivals C. deaths D. journeys 14. A. along B. on C. in D. by 15. A. take B. adopt C. consume D. waste 答案与题解: 1. A通篇文章都在叙述秃鹰濒临灭种对印度环境的负面影响,而且文章的标题中的 “dying vultures”也提供了线索。decline符合上下文的意思,是答案。rise与上下文的 意思相反。sharp teeth和sharp eyes是秃鹰的特点,但文章并未提及。 2. C秃鹰濒临灭亡,给环境带来问题。上一句的“alarm rather than celebration”提供了 解题的线索, 秃鹰瀕临灭亡对我们是一种警告, 而不是一件值得庆贺的事。 选problem 是合适的。至于debate和solution,文章并未涉及。 3. B秃鹰数量的减少对当地居民是一种灾难。此外,对谁也是一种灾难呢?as引出的 对象是谁呢? 这个对象不会是humans, plants或cows。答案是birds。 4. D作者原来的用词一定是across the Indian sub-continent(整个印度次大陆) 不可能 , 是over the Indian sub-continent(在印度次大陆上空), with the Indian sub-continent(与印 度次大陆一起)或through the Indian sub-continent(穿越印度次大陆)。 5. B本段前面的句子描述了秃鹰在保护该地区的环境上作用很大,所以秃鹰不会是 时有时无(sometimes)地起作用,或突然地(suddenly)起作用,或几乎不(hardly)起作 用。只有选long(长期以来一直)起作用才合乎上下文的意思。 6. C为什么秃鹰会起保护环境的作用呢?本段的下半段说出了其中的原因。牛在印 度被视为神物,死后露尸户外,任其腐烂。秃鹰以食牛的尸体为生,同时也清除了 污染源,保护了城镇和乡村的环境。这些句子讲的是原因,所以选择because是对的。 7. A文章说每年有成千上万头牛死亡并露尸城镇和乡村。既然是这样,就不会是偶 尔(occasionally)或可能(possibly)或最终(finally)露尸在城镇和乡村。露尸户外是印度 的传统,所以traditionally是答案。 8. D 本段第一句表达的是因果关系。The disappearance of the vultures 是因,an explosion in the numbers of wild dogs feeding on the remains of these dead animals 是

果。四个选项中只有led to (导致)能表达这种因果关系,所以led to是答案。 9. B野狗是狂犬病菌的主要携带者,野狗大量的出现当然会增加狂犬病扩散的危险 性,而不是相反。所以选increase是正确的,而drop是increase的反义词,不会是答案。 change或disappear都脱离了上下文的意思,所以不是答案。 10. A狂犬病从野狗传到人身上已经非常可怕,如果再传到其他动物身上问题就更严 重了。四个选项中,选future构成词组in the future(在未来)符合上下文的意思。 11. B从后面的“an emergency project has been launched(启动了应急项目) ”可以推断出 要选的形容词是urgent(紧迫的)。 12. D启动应急项目是为了找到一个解决的办法。neglect a solution, use a solution或 remove a solution显然不符合上下文的意思。find是答案。 13. C本段说秃鹰的数量急剧减少,已被列为濒危物种。本题的选项cures(治疗法)、 arrivals(到达)或journeys(旅程)与本段后面一句“All three species are now listed as ?critically endangered?”所表达的意思接不上。选deaths, 全段的意思就连贯了。因此, deaths是答案。 14. D在四个选项中,along, on,in明显不合适。by有“到(某事物)的程度”的意思。 “...the three species of vultures had declined by over 90 per cent” 的意思是“三种秀鹰的 数量减少了90%以上"。 15. A “花费或用多少时间”英语的常用的表达法是“take... days/months, etc. ”。选take 是正确的。其他三个选项都不合适。 参考译文 第八篇 印度为什么需要濒临灭亡的秃鹰 人们谈论的秃鹰可能看起来既丑又危险,但是印度三种秃鹰濒临灭亡对我们是一种 警告,而不是一件值得庆贺的事。它向世人明示了一个新的环境问题。秃鹰数量的 急剧减少不仅是这些鸟类的灾难对当地居民同样也是如此,它同时给整个印度次大 陆带来了公共卫生问题。 虽然秃鹰的名声不好,许多印度人也讨厌其长相,但是长久以来,秃鹰在维护全印 度的城镇和乡村的清洁方面扮演了非常重要的角色。因为秃鹰是以死牛为生。在印 度,每年都有成千上万的牛死去,而牛是神圣的动物,死后露尸户外,任其腐烂。 秃鹰的消失使得以牛尸为生的野狗数量暴增,因此,人们担心罹患狂犬病的病人会 增加。由于野狗是狂犬病的主要携带者,这种可怕的疾病最终会影响当地的居民。 狂犬病也可能传播到其他生物,未来会导致更大的问题。 采取行动刻不容缓。所以,一个危机处理项目已经启动,目的是找到解决秃鹰问题 的方法。科学家们正试图确认导致秃鹰死亡的疾病,如果可能的话,找到治愈该病 的方法。 在印度,人们注意到秃鹰的大批死亡最早是在20世纪80年代。根据当时的物种调查 显示,三种秃鹰的数量减少了90%以上。目前,这三种秃鹰都被列为“极度濒危动物 ' 由于大部分秃鹰每次只产一只蛋,幼鹰需要大约5年的时间才能成熟,因此,若想 遏制住秃鹰数量的下降会是一项长期的、艰巨的任务 第十三篇Better Solar Energy Systems: More Heat, More Light Solar photovoltaic thermal energy systems, or PVTs, generate both heat and electricity, but __1__ now they haven?t been very good at the heat-generating part compared to a stand-alone solar thermal collector. That?s because they operate at low temperatures to cool crystalline silicon solar cells, which lets the silicon generate more __2__ but isn?t a very efficient way to gather heat.

That?s a problem of __3_ . Good solar hot-water systems can harvest much more energy than a solar-electric system at a substantially lower __4__. And it,s also a space problem:photovoltaic cells can take up all the space on the roof, leaving little room for thermal applications. In a pair of studies, Joshua Pearce, an associate professor of materials science and engineering, has devised a __5__ in the form of a better PVT made with a different kind of silicon. His research collaborators are Kunal Girotra from ThinSilicon in California and Michael Pathak and Stephen Harrison from Queen?s University, Canada." Most solar panels are made with crystalline silicon,but you can also make solar cells out of amorphous silicon, __6__ known as thin-film silicon. They don?t create as much electricity, but they are lighter, flexible, and cheaper. And, because they __7__ much less silicon, they have a greener footprint. Unfortunately,thin-film silicon solar cells are __8__ to some bad-news physics in the form of the Staebler-Wronski effect. “That means that their efficiency __9__ when you expose them to light — pretty much the worst possible effect for a solar cell,” Pearce explains,which is one of the __10__ thin- film solar panels make up only a small fraction of the market. However, Pearce and his team found a way to engineer around the Staebler-Wronski effect by incorporating thin-film silicon in a new __11__ of PVT. You don?t have to cool down thin-film silicon to make it work. In fact, Pearce?s group discovered that by heating it to solar-thermal operating temperatures,near the boiling __12__ of water, they could make thicker cells that largely __13__ the Staebler-Wronski effect. When they applied the thin-film silicon directly to a solar thermal energy __14__ , they also found that by baking the cell once a day,they __15__ the solar cell?s electrical efficiency by over 10 percent. 词汇: photovoltaic n.光电的 silicon n.硅 thermal adj.热的,热量的 amorphous adj.非晶形的 crystalline adj.晶体的 footprint n.足迹 注释: 1. solar photovoltaic thermal energy systems:太阳能光伏热能系统 2. they: 指代 solar photovoltaic thermal energy systems。 3. stand-alone:单机的 4. crystalline silicon solar cells:晶体硅太阳能电池 5. which:指前半句中的to cool crystalline silicon solar cells 这件事 6. room:空间 7. solar panels:太阳能电池板 8. amorphous silicon:非晶硅 9. thin-film silicon:薄膜硅 10. Staebler-Wronski Effect: SWE效应。在光的照射下,非晶桂氢的导电性短时间内 显著衰退,这种特性被称为SWE效应o 11. pretty much:几乎

12. the worst possible effect:最可能坏的效应 13. engineer around:精心地设计以克服或绕过 14. solar-thermal operating temperatures:太阳热能操作温度 练习: 1. A. unless B. when C. if D. until 2. A. electricity B. magnetism C. ultraviolet D. radioactivity 3. A. dynamics B. geology C. economics D. biology 4. A. reward B. cost C. bill D. pay 5. A. decision B. solution C. suggestion D. qualification 6. A. roughly B. probably C. commonly D. specially 7. A. retrieve B. merge C. exchange D. require 8. A. vulnerable B. necessary C. important D. renewable 9. A. works B. counts C. rises D. drops 10. A. restrictions B. advances C. reasons D. strengths 11. A. size B. shape C. type D. brand 12. A. area B. point C. place D. extent 13. A. overcame B. promoted C. improved D. postponed 14. A. transformer B. adaptor C. transmitter D. collector 15. A. boosted B. defined C. wasted D. lower 答案与题解: 1. D文章介绍最近科学家已经完善了太阳能光伏热能系统,现在新型的太阳能系统 能将太阳能转换为更多的电能和热能。第一段说明以往晶体硅太阳能电池在收集热 能方面效率很低。 四个选项中, 只有选用until才符合上下文的意思。 “...until now they (太阳能光伏热能系统) haven?t been very good at the heat-generating part compared to a stand-alone solar thermal collector. ”该句意为:与太阳热能单机集热器相比,直到现 在,传统太阳能光伏热能系统在转换热能方面效率一直不是很高。 2. A本句说明了以往的太阳能光伏热能系统在转换热能方面效率低的原因,“to cool crystalline silicon solar cells(冷却晶体桂太阳能电池)”能产生更多的电能,但不利于 收集热能。electricity是答案。 3. C从上一段和本段的意思判断,收集热能效率低下不会是一个动力学(dynamics) 问题,地质(geology) 问题或生物学(biology)问题。它是一个经济上的问题。答案是 economics。 4. B 本句说,good solar hot-water systems 在收获能量方面比solar-electric system 要 好得多。从经济学的角度上分析,成本就降低了。所以,选cost是对的。其他选项 reward,bill和pay均不符合句意。 5. B上一段说光伏电池系统有两个问题,即经济问题和空间问题。Joshua Pearce采用 另外一种硅制造PVT来解决上述问题。通过上述分析可以看出,他寻求的是一种解 决问题的办法(solution),而不是一个决定(decision)、一个建议(suggestion )或一 种资格( qualification)。 6. C amorphous silicon (非晶硅) 即为thin-film silicon (薄膜硅) 选择roughly/probably/ 。 wrongly( known as thin-film silicon)表达的意思都不合逻辑。选commonly才合理。 "amorphous silicon, commonly known as thin-film silicon” 意为“非晶硅,通常被称为 薄膜硅” 7. D新型的太阳能电池采用薄膜硅制造,电能的转换量虽然不如晶体硅太阳能电池,

但薄膜硅太阳能电池用硅量小,比较环保。本题应选用require,理由是:require much less silicon与上下文的意思很连贯,而retrieve much less silicon (提取少得多的硅), merge much less silicon(混合少得多的硅)或exchange much less silicon(交换少得多的 硅)都讲不通,意思离题太远。 8. A bad-news physics是解题的关键词。既然是bad-news physics, 所连用的形容词应 该是负面意义的词。四个选项中只有vulnerable(易受攻击的)符合这个条件,所以是 答案。 9. D本段第一句说明vulnerable的具体情况。 既然是vulnerable, efficiency—定是drops, 不会是rises。efficiency works(效率起作用)或efficiency counts(效率有重要意义)都 离题太远。 10. C薄膜硅太阳能电池效能低下,这是因。导致该产品市场占有份额很小,这是果。 选reasons为答案很合理。 11. C为了克服SWE效应,Pearce和他的团队悉心改进光伏太阳热能系统的结构。作 者要写的应该是a new type of PVT(—种新型PVT),不会是a new shape/size/brand PVT(—种新形状的/新尺寸的/新品牌的PVT)。 12. B 从上下文判断,答案应该是point。将thin-film silicon 加热到solar-thermal operating temperatures 就是加热到near the boiling point of water(临近水的沸点)。其 他选项area, place和extent均不切题。 13. A从上下文判断,采用加热thin-film silicon的方法,就能消除SWE效应。四个选 项中只有overcame表达了这层意思。 14. D答案是collector,因为solar thermal energy collector(太阳能集热器)与上下文的意 思接得上,意为“当把薄膜硅直接应用于太阳能集热器时”。其他选项均与上下文不 符。 15. A文章最后一段介绍研究人员克服SWE效应,提高了将太阳能转换为电能的效 率。所以,将最后一句的“by 10 percent”理解为“提高”而不是“降低”10%才合乎逻辑。 答案是boosted。 参考译文 第十三篇 更有效的太阳能系统:更多热量,更强灯光 太阳能光伏热能系统,也叫PVT,能够生成热量和电能。与太阳热能单机收集器相 比,传统太阳能光伏热能系统在转换热能方面效率不是很高。原因是,为了使晶体 硅太阳能电池冷却,该系统在低温下工作。因此,硅体能产出更多的电能,却不能 有效地产生热量。 第一,经济问题。好的太阳能热水系统比太阳能电力系统收集的能量更多,而且成 本低得多。 第二,空间问题。光电管占去屋顶的所有的空间,几乎没有空间留给热能的产出。 在一项研究中,材料科学与工程副教授Joshua Pearce找到了一个解决方案:用另外 一种硅制成PVT来解决效能问题。 他的合作者有: 来自加利福尼亚ThinSilicon的Kunal Girotra和加拿大皇后大学的Michael Pathak 和Stephen Harrison。 大部分太阳能电池板是由晶体硅制成,但是,你也可以用非晶硅制成太阳能电池, 这 21 / 21种非晶体硅通常被叫作薄膜硅。它们不能产生那么多的电能,但是更亮、 更灵巧、成本更低。而且,由于它们需要的硅较少,它们更环保。不幸的是,薄膜 硅太阳能电池易受SWE效应攻击(在光的照射下,非晶硅氢的导电性短时间内显著 衰退,这种特性被称为SWE效应)。 “当被暴露在光线下, 那就意味着它们的能效会降低——这几乎是太阳能电池最可能

糟糕的效应。” Pearce解释道。这就是薄型太阳能板只占有市场的一少部分的原因。 然而,Pearce 和他的团队把薄膜硅合成为一种新型的 PVT,可以克服或绕过 SWE 效应。这种方法可以不用冷却薄膜硅而让它们产生效能。事实上,Pearce 团队发现, 通过把薄膜硅加热到太阳热能操作温度,即临近水的沸点,可以把它制成较厚的电 池,从而可以遏制 SWE 效应。当把薄膜硅直接应用到太阳热能集热器时,他们也发 现,如果一天把太阳能电池加热一次,那么太阳能的电力效能会增加 10%。


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