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动词不定式用法


动词不定式用法小结

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动词不定式是一种非谓语动词形式,其 结构为“to+动词原形”,其中to不是介词, 而是动词不定式的符号,称为小品词,动 词不定式没有人称和数的变化。动词不定 式和其后面的名词等构成不定式短语,在 句子中可以用作主语、表语、宾语、补足 语、定语、状语等。

To look after my

pets properly takes a lot of time. 一. 作主语: ? To be a doctor is hard.

? To learn English well is not easy.
? 动词不定式短语作主语时,为了避免句子的头重脚 轻,可以用“it”作形式主语,而把真正的主语-动词不定 式短语放在句子的后部。例如上面的句子可以表示为:

It is hard to be a doctor. It is not easy to learn English well. 再如: It’s important to plant trees in spring.
? 如果表示动词不定式的动作执行者,可以在不定式前 面加一个由介词for引导的短语,称为不定式的复合结构。 例: ? It’s good for us to read English aloud in the morning. ? It is important for students to use English every day.

My ambition is to work for firm that develops computer software when I grow up. 二. 作表语: 动词不定式(短语)作表语常用于系词be的后 面。例: His work is to drive a car. My job is to feed animals. Her ambition is to be a doctor.

He hopes to become a teacher.

三. 作宾语 动词不定式(短语)可以放在一些动词后面用作宾语, 能以动词不定式作宾语的动词有:begin, start, want, forget remember, show, learn, like, hate, love, ask等。例: ? I want to tell you a story. ? They begin to work at eight every morning. ? Don’t forget to lock the door. ? Would you like to go and have a picnic with us tomorrow? 注意: (1)如果and连接两个动词不定式,第二个动词 不定式一般省“to”例: He wants to go and have a swim with us. (2)若作宾语的动词不定式(短语)很长,可用it 作形式宾语。 I find it interesting to learn English with you. He found it hard to catch up with others.

The teacher advised him to try another way.
四. 作宾语补足语。例如: ? The teacher asked us to read English for half an hour in the morning. ? The teacher often tells Jim not to spend too much time playing computer games. ? Please let me help you. ? 动词不定式作宾语补足语,表示宾语所做的动作,可 以用动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:tell, ask, want, like, invite, encourage, help等。但在let, make, see, watch, hear, feel, notice, have等感官听觉动词或使役动词后面 作宾语补足语的动词不定式一般要省略动词不定式符号 “to”,可以归纳为以下三种句式:

1.不可以省to的不定式作宾语补足语: tell /ask / want / would like / wish / like / invite /encourage /teach sb. to do sth. 例: ? The teacher told us to come earlier tomorrow. ? I want you to go now. ? Her parents wish her to be a teacher. 2.省“to”的不定式作宾语补足语: ? Let / make / have sb. do sth. ? Let the boy go out now. ? The boy made the baby cry. ? see / watch / hear / notice / feel sb. do sth. ? I saw the students play basketball on the playground yesterday ? I often hear the girl sing in the next room. 3.可省可不省的: help sb. (to)do sth. I often help my mother (to)do housework.

?否定形式: (1)动词不定式的否定式是直接在to之前加not. 例:Tell them not to play football in the street. (2)省to的动词不定式的否定式是直接在动词前 面加not. 例: Let the boy not go. ?被动语态: 如果将主动语态变为被动语态时,作宾语补足 语的动词不定式变为主语补足语,动词不定式则 不省“to”,即原来省的再加上,例: ? The boy made the baby cry. ? The baby was made to cry by the boy.

He has a good way to make his classes lively and interesting.
五. 动词不定式作定语 动词不定式作定语常用来修饰名词或不定代词,放于所 修饰的词后,为后置定语。例: ? Who was the first one to arrive? ? She has no paper to write on? ? The best way to learn English is to use it. ? When is the best time to plant vegetables? ? Do you have something to drink? *动词不定式(短语)作定语修饰名词时,与其所修饰 的词具有一种动宾关系,如果不定式中的动词为不及物 动词时,其后应加上一个含义上所需要的介词。例: ? I have no chair to sit on. ? He has no house to live in.

Sometimes too, I was too weak to go to school. 六. 作状语: 动词不定式及其短语具有副词的特性,可在句 中作状语。 (1)作目的状语。如:

He stopped to have a rest.
(2)作结果状语。如:

He woke up to find everybody gone. I’m sorry to hear your grandma is ill.
(4)在带有enough或too的句子里作状语,表程度。如:

(3)在某些表示喜、怒、哀、乐等的形容词后作原因状语 如:

He is old enough to go to school.
(5)强调动词不定式所表示的目的时,动词不定式可用in order to或so as to +动词原形,so as to不用于句首。如:

The bus stopped so as to pick up passengers.

Wh + to do

七. 不定式和疑问词连用,可以作句子的主语、宾语 表语等。例: ? The problem is where to get a computer. (表语) ? No one knows how to do it. (宾) ? I really don’t know which one to choose. (宾) ? When and where to have the party is not known. (主) *不定式和疑问词连用作宾语时有时可以改为宾语 从句。例: I don’t know what to do next. ? I don’t know what I should do next.

练习:

1. Please tell him _______ on the wall. A. don’t draw B. to not draw C. not to draw D. not draw 2. I’d like ________ a word with you. A. had B. having C. to have D. have 3. We often heard him _________ in his room. A. to sing B. sings C. sang D. sing 4. He was made _____ day and night. A. work B. working C. to work D. worked 5. He stopped ______ a look, but saw nothing. A. having B. to have C. have D. had

6. He said he had an important meeting ________. A. attend B. would attend C. attending D. to attend

7. Please give me a piece of paper ________. A. to write B. to write on C. writing D. to write it 8. I don’t know _______. A. what do B. what will do C. what to do D. do what 9. Your radio needs ________. A. to be repaired B. to repair C. repaired D. to repairing 10.Please tell me _____ her. I have something ____ her. A. where to find, telling B. where to find, to tell C. where can find, to tell D. where finding, telling 11.How happy they are ______ each other again! A. to see B. see C. saw D. being seen 12.They decided ____ a letter ______ their thanks. A. to write, expressing B. writing, express C. write, expressed D. to write, to express


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