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西方文明史复习资料1-14章


西方文明史复习资料(1-14 章)
Chapter 1 The Ancient Near East: The First Civilizations

?Civilization was not inevitable; it was an act of human creativity. ?The first civilization arose s

ome 5,000 years ago in the river valleys of Mesopotamia and Egypt.
characteristics of civilized life:

?established cities and states ?invented writing ?developed organized religion ?constructed large-scale buildings and monuments
. Humanity’s rise to civilization was long and arduous. Some 99 percent of human history took place before the creation of civilization, in the vast ages of prehistory. Prehistory The Paleolithic Age, or Old Stone Age,

?began in East Africa nearly 3 million years ago ?ended about 10,000 years ago
? ? ? ?

Paleolithic ancestors’ action: lived as hunters and food gatherers not learned how to farm never established permanent villages always searched for new dwelling places

? spoken language ?make and use tools of bone, wood, and stone ?control fire, ?Most likely, mythic-religious beliefs
?the New Stone Age, or Neolithic Age, began in the Near East Some 10,000 years ago.
Neolithic human beings’ action:

Paleolithic people developed:

? farming, ? established villages ?domesticated animals, ?polished stone tools, ?made pottery, ?wove cloth.
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Great strides in technology:

? the invention of the potter’s wheel ?use of metal ?ox yoke ?sail
results:
?improved transportation ?promoted trade ?food supply became more reliable ?village life expanded, and the population increased ?families that acquired wealth gained a higher social status ?religion grew more formal ?Neolithic society was growing more organized and

and became village leaders

complex, it was on the threshold of civilization. The Rise to Civilization

?civilization arose some 5,000 years ago in the Near East (in Mesopotamia and Egypt) and them later
in East As ia (in India and China).

?The first civilization began in cities ?These

that were larger, more populated, and more complex in their political, economic, and social structure than Neolithic villages. developments—cities, specialization of labor, writing, organized government, monumental architecture, and a complex religious structure—differentiate the civilizations from prehistoric cultures. How was it possible for Sumerians and Egyptians, to make this breakthrough? ?scholars stress the relationship between civilizations and river valleys. ?What cannot be omitted is the human contribution: capacity for thought and cooperative activity. Mesopotamian Civilization ?Mesopotamia is the Greek for ―land between the rivers.‖ It was here, in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, that the first civilization began. Around 3000 B.C., their hut settlements gradually evolved into twelve independent city-states, each consisting of a city and its surrounding countryside. Among the impressive achievements of the Sumerians were a system of symbol writing on clay tablets (cuneiform) to represent ideas; elaborate brick houses, palaces, and temples; bronze tools and weapons; irrigation works; trade with other peoples; an early form of money; religious and political institutions; schools; religious and secular literature; varied art forms; codes of law; medicinal drugs; and a lunar calendar. The Near (or Middle) East encompasses the modern states of:

?

Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Iraq and Iran, and the countries of the Arabian peninsula.

Religion: The Bas is of Mesopotamian Civilization

?Religion lay at the center of Mesopotamian life.
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Every human activity—political, military, social,

legal, literary, artistic—was generally subordinated to an overriding religious purpose. Religion was the Mesopotamians’ frame of reference for understanding nature, society, and themselves; it dominated and inspired all other cultural expressions and human activities. Wars between cities, for instance, were interpreted as conflicts between the gods of those cities, and victory ultimately depended on divine favor, not on human effort. Myths—narratives about the activities of the gods—explained the origins of the human species. Sumerian myths

?the first human beings issued forth form the earth like plant life, or were shaped from clay by divine
craftsmen and granted a heart by the goddess Nammu, or were formed from the blood of two gods sacrificed for that purpose. Government

?Bestowed on

a man by the gods, kingship was the central institution in Mesopotamian society. Mesopotamian kings did not see themselves as gods, but rather as great men selected by the gods to represent them on earth. Gods governed through the kings, who reported to the gods about conditions in their land. The king administered the laws, which came from the gods. Law

?The

principal collection of laws in ancient Mesopotamia was the famous code of Hammurabi(c.1792-c.1750 B.C.), the Babylonian ruler Economy

?The economy of Mesopotamian cities depended heavily on foreign and domestic trade. Because of
trade’s importance to the life of the city, governments instituted regulations to prevent fraud. Business transactions had to be recorded in writing. Egyptian Civilization During the early period of Mesopotamian civilization, the Egyptians developed their civilization in the fertile valley of the Nile.

?Old Kingdom (2686-2181 B.C.) ?Middle Kingdom (2040-1786 B.C.) ?New Kingdom (1570-1085 B.C.)
Religion: The Bas is of Egyptian Civilization

?Religion ?Divine

was omnipresent in Egyptian life and accounted for the outstanding achievements of Egyptian civilization. Egyptian polytheism took many forms, including the worship of animals. A crucial feature of Egyptian religion was the afterlife. Divine Kingship kingship was the basic institution of Egyptian civilization. The Egyptians saw rule by a god-kings as the only acceptable political arrangement: it was in harmony with the order of the universe, and it brought justice and security to the nation. Science and Mathematics:

?geometry, Egyptians’ solar calendar
The New Kingdom and the Decline of Egyptian Civilization

?Amenhotep sought to replace traditional polytheism with the worship of Aton,
people. Empire Builders

a single god of all

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?Hittites ?Small Nations ?Assyria ?Persia: Unifier of the Near East
The Near Eastern conception of absolute monarchy justified by religion reached its culmination expression in the person of the Persian king, who, with divine approval, ruled a vast empire, ―the four quarters of the earth.‖

The Religious Orientation Of the Near East

?A Myth-making World-View
?A religious

or mythopoeic (myth-making) view of the world gives Near Eastern civilization its distinctive form and allows us to see it as an organic whole. Myth-making was humanity’s first way of thinking. Appealing primarily to the imagination and emotions, not to reason, myth-making was the earliest attempt to make nature and life comprehensible. The difference between scientific and mythical thinking is profound. Near Eastern Achievements The Sumerians and the Egyptians demonstrated enormous creativity and intelligence.

?They built irrigation works and cities, organized governments, charted the course of heavenly bodies,
performed mathematical operations, constructed large-scale monuments, engaged in international trade, established bureaucracies and schools, and considerably advanced the level of technology. Without the Sumerian invention of writing—one of the great creative acts in history—what we mean by civilization could not have emerged.

?Many

elements of ancient Near Eastern Civilization were passed on to the West. The wheeled vehicle, the plow, and the phonetic alphabet—all important to the development of civilization—derive from the Near East. The innovative divisions that gave 360 degrees to a circle and 60 minutes to an hour originated in Mesopotamia. Egyptian geometry and Babylonian astronomy were utilized by the Greeks and became a part of Western knowledge.

Chapter 2 The Hebrews: A New View of God and the Individual Early Hebrew History

?originated in Mesopotamia and migrated to Canaan, a portion of which was later called Palestine ?Some journeyed from Canaan to Egypt to be herdsmen and farmers, but eventually became forced
laborers for the Egyptians.

?In the 13th century B.C., an extraordinary leader

rose among them called Moses, a messenger of God. Leading the Hebrews in their exodus from Egypt, he transformed them during their wanderings in the wilderness of Sinai into a nation, united and uplifted by a belief in Yahweh, the one God.

?The wandering Hebrews returned to Canaan to rejoin other Hebrew tribes that had not migrated to
Egypt.

?The tribes loyal to Solomon’s son: Kingdom of Judah; the other, the northern Kingdom of Israel. ?In 722 B.C., Israel fell to the Assyrians and the transplanted Hebrews merged with neighboring
peoples and lost their identity as the people of the one God.

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?In 586 B.C., the Chaldeans conquered Judah, destroyed Solomon’s temple, devastated the land, and
deported several thousand Hebrews to Babylon. Chronology 1250 B.C. 1024-1000 1000-961 961-922 750-430 ?722 ?586 586-539 ?538 515 B.C. The Hebrews Hebrew exodus from Egypt reign of Saul, Israel’s first king creation of a united monarchy under David st reign of Solomon; construction of 1 temple age of classical prophecy Kingdom of Israel falls to Assyrian Kingdom of Judah falls to Chaldeans Babylonian exile Cyrus of Persia allows exiles to return to Judah Second temple is dedicated

God: One, Sovereign, Transcendent, Good

?Monotheism, the belief in one God, became the central force in the life of the Hebrews, and marked
a profound break with Near Eastern religious thought. Near Eastern gods were not truly free; their power was not without limits. The Hebrews’ removal of the gods from nature—the demythicizing of nature—is a necessary prerequisite for scientific thought. The Individual and Moral Autonomy

?This new conception of God made possible a new awareness of the individual. ?The Hebrews believed that God, who possessed total freedom, had bestowed
freedom—the capacity to choose between good and evil. commit a sin, which leads to suffering and death.

on people moral

?The dilemma is that in possessing freedom of choice, human beings are also free to disobey God, to ?Through their
devotion to God, the Hebrews asserted the value and autonomy of human beings. Thus, the Hebrews conceive the idea of moral freedom: that each individual is responsible for his or her own actions. These concepts of human dignity and moral autonomy, which Christianity inherited, are central to the Western tradition. The Prophets

?The

prophets cared nothing for money or possessions, feared no one, and preached without invitation. Often emerging in times of social distress and moral confusion, they pleaded for a return to the covenant and the Law. The prophets thus helped to shape a social conscience that has become part of the Western tradition. They held out the hope that life on earth could be improved, that poverty and injustice need not be accepted as part of an unalterable natural order, and that the individual was capable of elevating himself or herself morally and could respect the dignity of others.

?Prophets

emphasized the individual’s responsibility for his or her own actions. Monotheism had initiated a process of self-discovery and self-realization unmatched by other peoples of the near East. The prophets’ ideals helped sustain the Jews throughout their long and often painful historical odyssey, and they remain a vital force for Jews today. Incorporated into the teachings of Jesus, these ideals, as part of Christianity, are embedded in the Western tradition.

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Chapter 3 The Greeks: From Myth to Reason Greek civilization passed through three distinct stages: The Hellenic Age (800B.C. – 323B.C.) The Hellenistic Age (323B.C.—30B.C.) th The Greco-Roman Age(30B.C.—5 century A.D.) Chronology 1700-1450B.C. 1400-1230 1100-800 c.700 750-550 594 507 480 479 431 404 387 359 338 335 323B.C. The Greeks

Height of Minoan civilization Height of Mycenaean civilization Dark age Homer Age of colonization Solon is given power to institute reforms Cleisthenes broadens democratic institutions Xerxes of Persia invades Greece; Greek naval victory at salamis Spartans defeat Persians at Plataea, ending Persian wars Start of Peloponnesian war Athens surrenders to Sparta, ending Peloponnesian war Plato founds a school at Athens Philip II becomes king of Macecdonia Battle Chaeronea, Greek city-states fall under Aristotle founds a school, the Lyceum Death of Alexander the Great

The Greek Achievement: Reason, Freedom, Humanism ?The Hebrew conception of ethical monotheism, w ith its stress on human dignity, is one source of the Western tradition. The other source derives from ancient Greece. The great achievements of the Hebrews lay in the sphere of religious-ethical thought; those of the Greeks lay in the development of rational thought. In this shift of attention from the gods to human beings, the Greeks broke with the myth-making orientation of the Near East and created the rational humanist outlook that is a distinctive feature of Western civilization. Reason

?Western thought begins with the Greeks, who first defined the individual by his capacity to reason. It
was the great achievement of the Greek spirit to rise above magic, miracles, mystery, authority, and custom and to discover the means of giving rational order to nature and society. Every aspect of Greek civilization—science, philosophy, art, drama, literature, politics, historical writing—showed a growing reliance on human reason and a diminishing dependence on the gods and mythical thinking. Freedom

?In

Mesopotamia and Egypt, people had no clear conception of their individual worth and no understanding of political liberty. They were not citizens, but subjects who marched to the command of a ruler whose power originated with the gods.

?In contrast, the Greeks created political freedom. They saw the state as a community of free citizens
who made laws in their own interest. For the Greeks, the state was a civilizing agent, permitting people to live the good life. The Greeks also gave to Western civilization a conception of inner, or ethical, freedom.

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?The idea of ethical freedom reached its highest point with Socrates. To shape oneself according to
ideals known to the mind—to develop into an autonomous and self-directed person—became for the Greeks the highest form of freedom. During the Hellenistic Age, the Greek, like the Hebrews earlier, arrived at the idea of universalism, the oneness of humanity. Stoic philosophers taught that all people, because of their ability to reason, are fundamentally alike and can be governed by the same laws. This idea is at the root of the modern principle of natural, or human, rights, which are the birthright of each individual. Humanism

?The Greeks expressed a belief

in the worth, significance, and dignity of the individual; they called for the maximum cultivation of human talent, the full development of human personality, and the deliberate pursuit of excellence. Fundamental to the Greek humanist outlook was the belief that man could master himself. Although people could not alter the course of nature, for there was an order to the universe over which neither they nor the gods had control, the humanist believed that people could control their own lives.

?By discovering theoretical reason,

by defining political freedom, and by affirming the w orth and potential of human personality, the Greeks broke with the past and founded the rational and humanist tradition of the West. ―Had Greek civilization never existed,‖ says poet W. H. Auden, ―we would never have become fully conscious, which is to say that we would never have become, for better or worse, fully human.‖ Part Ⅰ The Ancient World: A.D. 500 ?Chapter 1 The Ancient Near East: The First Civilizations ?Chapter 2 The Hebrews: A New View of God and the Individual ?Chapter 3 The Greeks: From Myth to Reason ?Chapter 4 Rome: From City-State to World Empire ?Chapter 5 Early Christianity: A World Religion Chapter 4 Rome: From City-State to World Empire

Foundation of the West

To

?Rome’s great achievement was to transcend the narrow political orientation of the city-state and to
create a world-state, which unified the different nations of the Mediterranean world. The Hebrews were distinguished by their prophets, and the Greeks by their philosophers; Rome’s genius found expression in law and government

Roman history ?Historians divide Roman history into two broad periods. The first period, that of the Republic, began in 509B.C. with the overthrow of the Etruscan monarchy. The second, that of the Empire, started in 27B.C., when Octavian (Augustus) became in effect the first Roman emperor, ending almost five hundred years of republican self-government Chronology Rome Expulsion of the Etruscan monarch Struggle of the Orders ends First Punic War; Rome acquires provinces Second Punic War; Hannibal is defeated

509 B.C. 287 264-241 218-201

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133-122 88-83 49-44 27 B.C. A.D. 180 212

235-285 285-305 378 406 476 Latin Literature ?Prose: ?Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.)---Ciceronian style---eloquent, rhetorical, oratorical manner of writing. ?Julius Caesar (102/100-44 B.C.): dictator in Rome. Succinct Latin. ―I came, I saw, I conquered.‖

Land reforms by the Gracchi brothers; they are murdered by the Senate Conflict between Sulla and the forces of Marius; Sulla emerges as dictator Caesar is dictator of Rome Octavian assumes the title Augustus and becomes, in effect, the first Roman emperor; start of the Pax Romana Marcus Aurelius dies; end of the Pax Romana Roman citizenship is granted to virtually all free inhabitants of Roman provinces Military anarchy; attacks by barbarians Diocletian tries to deal with the crisis by creating a regimented state Goths defeat the Roman legions in the Battle of Adrianople Borders collapse, and barbarians pour into the Empire End of Roman Empire in the West

Poetry: ?1) Lucretius (about 93-50 B.C.) wrote philosophic poems. ?2) Virgil (70-19 B.C.) The greatest of Latin poets. Aeneid (epic) Architecture ?Romans are great engineers: roads, bridges, aqueducts,theatres and arenas. ?The Pantheon ?Pont du Gard ?The Colosseum

Painting and Sculpture ?1) The Lady Musician and Young Girl(1st cen B.C.) ?2) The Maiden Gathering Flowers (1st cen A.D.) ?3) The landscape (1st century A.D.) ?1) Constantine the Great (4th century A.D.) ?2) Spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem (81 A.D.) ?She-wolf The Roman Legacy

?Rome left the West a rich heritage, which had endured for centuries. The idea of a world empire
united by a common law and effective government never died.

?In the centuries following the collapse of Rome, people continued to be attracted to the idea of a
unified and peaceful world-state. By preserving and adding to the philosophy, literature, science, and art of ancient Greece, Rome strengthened the foundations of the Western cultural tradition. Latin, the language of Rome, lived on long after Rome perished. The Western church fathers wrote in Latin, and during the Middle Ages, Latin was the language of learning, literature, and law. From Latin came Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Rumanian.

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?Roman law, the quintessential expression of Roman genius, influenced church law and formed the
basis of the legal codes of most European states. Finally, Christianity, the core religion of the West, was born within the Roman Empire and was greatly influenced by Roman law and organization.

Chapter 5 Early Christianity: A World Religion Origins of Christianity As confidence in human reason and hope for happiness in this world waned in the last centuries of the Roman Empire, a new outlook began to take hold. Jesus: Moral Transformation of the Individual Around the age of thirty, no doubt influenced by John the Baptist, Jesus began to preach the imminent coming of the region of God and the need for repentance—for a moral transformation so that a person could gain entrance into God’s kingdom. Although Jesus did not intend to lead his fellow Jews away from their ancestral religion, he was distressed with the Judaism of his day. Jesus believed that the center of Judaism had shifted from prophetic values to obeying the rules and prohibitions regulating the smallest details of daily life. Such legalism and ritualism, Jesus held, dealt only with an individual’s visible behavior; they did not penetrate to the person’s inner being and lead to a moral transformation. The inner person concerned Jesus, and it was an inner change that he sought. With the fervor of a prophet, he urged a moral transformation of human character through a direct encounter between the individual and God.

?Jewish scribes and priests, guardians of the faith, regarded Jesus as a troublemaker who threatened
ancient traditions and undermined respect for the Sabbath. To the Romans who ruled Palestine, Jesus was a political agitator who could ignite Jewish messianic expectations into a revolt against Rome. After Jewish leader turned Jesus over to the Roman authorities, the Roman procurator, Pontius Pilate, sentenced him to death by crucifixion.

?At the time of Jesus’ death, Christianity was not a separate religion but a small Hebrew sect with
dim prospects for survival. In the years immediately following the crucifixion, the religion of Jesus was confined almost exclusively to Jews, who could more appropriately be called Jewish-Christians. Before Christianity could realize the universal implications of Jesus’ teachings and become a world religion, as distinct from a Jewish sect, it had to extricate itself from Jewish ritual, politics, and culture. This achievement was the work of a Hellenized Jew named Saul, known to the world as Saint Paul.

?Paul broke with his Jewish roots and transforming a Jewish sect into a new religion. Separating
Christianity from Judaism enormously increased its appeal for non-Jews who were attracted to Hebrew ethical monotheism but repelled by circumcision, dietary regulations, and other strict requirements of Mosaic Law. Paul built on the personalism and universalism implicit in the teachings of Jesus (and the Hebrew prophets) to create a religion intended not for a people with its own particular history, culture, and land, but for all humanity. Spread and Triumph of Christianity ?Originating in the first century, Christianity took firm root in the second, grew extensively in the third, and became the official religion of the Roman Empire at the end of the fourth century. The Appeal of Christianity ?The triumph of Christianity was related to a corresponding decline in the vitality of Hellenism and a

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shift in cultural emphasis—a movement from reason to emotion and revelation. The Christian message of a divine Savior, a concerned Father, and brotherly love inspired people who were dissatisfied with the world of the here-and-now and who felt no attachment to city or empire, derived no inspiration from philosophy, and suffered from a profound sense of loneliness.

?Christianity offered the individual what the city and the Roman world-state could not: an intensely
personal relationship with God, an intimate connection with a higher world, and membership in a community of the faithful who cared for one another. ?Stressing the intellect and self-reliance, Greco-Roman thought didn’t provide for the emotional needs of the ordinary person. Christianity addressed itself to this defect in the Greco-Roman outlook. The poor, the oppressed, and the slaves were attracted to the personality, life, death, and resurrection of Jesus, his love for all, and his concern for suffering humanity.

?To people burdened with misfortune and terrified by death, Christianity held the promise of eternal
life, a kingdom of heaven where they would be comforted by God the Father. Thus, Christianity gave to the common person what the aristocratic values of Greco-Roman civilization generally did not—hope and a sense of dignity. Christianity and Rome ?As the number of Christians increased, Roman officials began to fear the Christians as subversives, preaching allegiance to God and not to Rome. To many Romans, Christians were enemies of the social order—strange people who would not accept the state gods, would not engage in Roman festivals, scorned gladiator contests, stayed away from public baths, glorified nonviolence, refused to honor deceased emperors as gods, and worshiped a crucified criminal as Lord.

?Romans ultimately found in Christians a universal scapegoat for the ills burdening the Empire, such
as famines, plagues, and military reverses. In an effort to stamp out Christianity, emperors occasionally resorted to persecution. Christians were imprisoned, beaten, starved, burned alive, torn apart by wild beasts in the arena for the amusement of the Romans, and crucified. However, the persecutions didn’t last long enough to extirpate the new religion.

?Unable to crush Christianity by persecution, Roman emperors decide to gain the support of the
growing number of Christians within the Empire. In A.D.313, Constantine, genuinely attracted to Christianity, issued the Edict of Milan, granting toleration to Christians. By A.D.392, Theodosius I had made Christianity the state religion of the Empire and declared the worship of pagan gods illegal. Christianity and Classical Humanism: Alternative World-Views ?Christianity and classical humanism are the two principal components of the Western tradition. The value that modern Western civilization places on the individual derives ultimately from classical humanism and the Judeo-Christian tradition. Classical humanists believed that worth came from the capacity of individuals to reason and to shape their character and their life according to rational standards.

?Christianity also places great stress on the individual. In the Christian view, God cares for each
person; he wants people to behave righteously and to enter heaven; Christ died for all because he loves humanity. But Christianity and classical humanism also represent two essentially different world-views.

?In the classical view, history had no ultimate end, no ultimate meaning; periods of happiness and
misery repeated themselves endlessly. ?In the Christian view, history is filled with spiritual meaning. It is the profound drama of individuals struggling to overcome their original sin in order to gain eternal happiness in heaven. History began with Adam and Eve’s defiance of God and would end when Christ returns to earth—when evil is

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eradicated and when God’s will prevails.

?Classicism held that there was no authority above reason. ?Early Christianity taught that, without God as the starting point, knowledge was formless,
purposeless, and prone to error. ?Classicism held that ethical standards were laws of nature that reason could discover. Through reason, individuals could arrive at those valu es by which they should regulate their lives. Reason would enable them to govern desires and will. ?Early Christianity, on the other hand, maintained that ethical standards emanated from the personal will of God.

?For classicism, the ultimate good was sought through independent thought and action. ?For Christianity, ultimate good comes through knowing, obeying, and loving God. ?For the next thousand years, this distinction between heaven and earth, this otherworldly,
theocentric outlook, would define the Western mentality.

Part Ⅰ The Ancient World: 500) ?Chapter 1 The Ancient Near East: The First Civilizations

Foundation of the West (to A.D.

?Chapter 2 ?Chapter 3 ?Chapter 4 ?Chapter 5

The Hebrews: A New View of God and the Individual The Greeks: From Myth to Reason

Rome: From City-State to World Empire Early Christianity: A World Religion Part Ⅱ The Middle Ages : The Christian Centuries (500-1400) Chapter 6 The Rise of Europe: Fusion of Classical, Christian, and German Traditions Chapter 7 The Flowering of Medieval Civilization: The Christian Synthesis Chapter 6 The Rise of Europe: Fusion of Classical, Christian, and German Traditions

?The triumph of Christianity and the establishment of Germanic kingdoms

on once-Roman lands constituted a new phase in Western history: the end of the ancient world and the beginning of the Middle Ages, a period that spanned a thousand years. The Medieval East Three new civilizations based on religion emerged from the ruins of the Roman Empire: Latin Christendom (western and central Europe) and two eastern civilization, Byzantium and Islam. Byzantium The eastern roman provinces survived. In the eastern regions, Byzantine civilization took shape. ?religion: Christianity; ?language and culture: Greek;

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?machinery ?capital:

of administration: Roman; Constantinople; In Early Middle Ages, Byzantine civilization was economically and culturally far more advanced than the Latin West. Over the centuries, many differences developed between the Byzantine church and the Roman church.

?final break
Orthodox

in 1054; the Christian church split into the Roman Catholic and the Eastern (Greek)

?over

the centuries, attacks from the Germanic Lombards and Vis igoths, Persians, Muslim Arabs, Seljuk Turks, and Latin Christians.

?death blow: by the Ottoman Turks. In 1453, the Ottoman Turks broke through Constantinople’s great
walls and looted the city.

?During its thousand years, Byzantium made a significant impact on world history.
Islam founder was Muhammad (c.570-632), who offered the Arabs a new monotheistic faith, Islam, which means ―surrender to Allah‖. ? Islamic standards of morality and rules governing daily life are set by the Koran. ? After Muhammad’s death in 632, his friend and father-in-law, Abu Bakr, became his successor, or caliph. The caliph governed in accordance with Muslim law as defined in the Koran.
? Its

?The Islamic state was a theocracy in which government and religion were inseparable. ?Under the first four caliphs, who ruled from 632-661, the Arabs overran the Persian Empire, seized
some of Byzantium’s provinces, and invaded Europe. age.

?In the eighth and ninth centuries, under the Abbasid caliphs, Muslim civilization entered its golden ?By the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks conquered the Arabic lands of Syria. ?In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Muslims lost Sicily and most of Spain to Christian knights, and
European Crusaders carved out kingdoms in the Near East.

?In the 13th century, Mongols led by Ghenghis Khan devastated Muslim.
Latin Christendom in the Early Middle Ages Political, Economic, Intellectual Transformation th th 6 -8 , Europe struggled to overcome the disorders, a new civilization was taking root,based on the intermingling of Greco-Roman civilization, the Christian outlook, and Germanic traditions. a decline in central government, town life, commerce, and learning ?economy shift from urban to rural, towns lose control over the surrounding countryside and decline in wealth and importance. ?Greco-Roman humanism continued its decline, few people could read and write Latin, and even learned clerics were rare.

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Knowledge of the Greek language in western Europe was almost totally lost, and the Latin rhetorical style deteriorated. Many literary works of classical antiquity were either lost or neglected. European culture was much poorer than the high civilizations of Byzantium, Islam, and ancient Rome. ?Boethius (480-c.525): translations

?Cassiodorus (c.490-575): monastic practice of copying ?The translations and compilations made by Boethius, Cassiodorus, and Isidore, the books collected ?The church was the dominant institution of the Middle Ages. ?The church retained the Roman administrative system and
civilization.

and copied by monks and nuns, and the schools established in monasteries kept intellectual life from dying out completely in the Early Middle Ages. The Church: The Shaper of Medieval Civilization preserved elements of Greco-Roman

?The Christian outlook was the foundation of medieval civilization. ?People came to see themselves as participants in a great drama of salvation.
The Kingdom of the Franks

?From

their homeland in the Rhine River valley, the Frankish tribes had expanded into Roman territory during the fourth and fifth centuries.

?Clovis ?Charles Martel ?Pepin the Short
The Era of Charlemagne

?In the year 800, Pope Leo crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans.The emperor now had a
spiritual responsibility to spread and defend the faith.

?The crowning of a German ruler as emperor of the Romans by the head of the church represented the
merging of German, Christian, and Roman traditions, which is the essential characteristic of medieval civilization. ?Carolingian Renaissance The Breakup of Charlemagne’s Empire

?After Louis died in 840, the empire was divided among the three surviving sons. ?The Treaty of Verdun in 843 gave Louis the German the eastern part of the empire; to Charles the
Bald went the western part; and Lothair received the Middle Kingdom.

?Central authority waned. ?In the ninth and tenth centuries, Latin Christendom was attacked on all sides. ?These
terrible attacks heightened political insecurity and accelerated anew the process of decentralization that had begun with the decline of Rome. During these chaotic times, counts came to regard as their own the land that they administered and defended for their king. Similarly, the inhabitants of a district looked on the count or local lord as their ruler, for his men and fortresses protected them. Europe had entered an age of feudalism, in which the essential unit of government was not a kingdom but a county or castellany, and political power was the private possession of local lords. Feudal Society Feudalism attempted to provide some order and security. It remained the predominant political arrangement until kings reasserted their authority in the High and Late Middle Ages.

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Vassalage

?A knight,

in a solemn ceremony, pledged loyalty to a lord, usually land. Several obligations to his lord:

received in return a fief, which was

?Rendering

military assistance and supplying knights for his lord; sitting in the lord’s court and judging cases; providing lodgings when the lord traveled through the vassal’s territory; giving a gift when the lord’s son was knighted or when his eldest daughter married; and raising a ransom if the lord were captured by an enemy.

?Feudal hierarchy
Feudal Warriors

?Feudal lords considered only one vocation worthy—that of warrior. ?During the twelfth century, nobles engaged each other in battle to prove their skill and courage and to
win honor. The feudal glorification of combat became deeply ingrained in Western society and has endured into the 12th century.

?chivalry
Agrarian Society

?Feudalism was built on an economic foundation known as manorialism. ?A village community (manor) consisting of serfs bound to the land became the essential agricultural
arrangement for much of the Middle Ages.

?Self-sufficient
Economic Expansion During the High Middle Ages

?In the High Middle Ages (1050-1300), the revival of urban economy and the re-emergence of central
authority undermined feudal and manorial relationships. It witnessed an agricultural revolution, a commercial revolution, the rebirth of towns, and the rise of an enterprising and dynamic middle class. An Agricultural Revolution Advances in agriculture:

?A heavy plow cultivated more land, including the heavy, moist soils of northern Europe ?The collar harness ?Watermill by the tenth century ?Windmills in the twelfth century saved labor in grinding grain ?Three-field system of managing agricultural land
Results:

?Increased agricultural production reduced the number of deaths from starvation and dietary disease
and thus contributed to a population increase.

?Decline of serfdom, transition from serfs to freemen
The Revival of Trade ?In the twelfth and thirteen centuries, local, regional, and long-distance trade gained momentum.

?Growth of international fairs.

Advances in business techniques:

?Underwriters insured cargoes ?development of banking and credit instruments ?Bill of exchange
14

?Bookkeeping ?Commercial law
The Rise of Towns

?In the eleventh century, towns emerged anew throughout Europe. ?A new class of merchants and craftspeople came into being --- the middle class. ?Reasons for town growth—increased food supply; the expansion of trade ?The largest towns—Florence, Ghent, and Paris ?A guild required its
members to work the same number of hours, pay employees the same wages, produce goods of equal quality, and charge customers a just price.

?By fighting, but more often by payments of money, the townspeople obtained charters from the lords
giving them the right to set up their own councils.

?Towns became more or less self-governing city-states. ?Medieval towns nurtured the origins of the bourgeoisie, the urban middle class, which would play a
crucial role in modern European history. The Rise of States England France

?By the end of the Middle Ages, French kings had succeeded in creating a unified state.
Germany

?After the destruction of Charlemagne’s empire, its German territories were broken into large duchies.
German territories didn’t achieve unity in the Middle Ages. The Growth of Papal Power The Gregorian Reform

?Reawakening of spiritual fervor and the elimination of moral laxity among the clergy ?In 1059, Pope Nicholas II moved to end the interference of Roman nobles and German Holy Roman
emperors in choosing the pope.

?Pope Gregory VII: a bitter struggle between the papacy and the German monarch and future Holy
Roman emperor Henry IV .

?Investiture Controversy ?Gregory died in exile in 1085. ?In 1122, the papacy and Emperor Henry V reached a compromise. ?A contest for supremacy between the heir of Saint Peter and the heir of Charlemagne
The Holy Roman Empire The Crusades

?Seeking to regain lands taken from Byzantium by the Seljuk Turks, the Byzantine emperor Alexius
appealed to the West for mercenaries.

15

?Pope Urban II,

at the council of Clermont (France) in 1095, exaggerated the danger confronting Eastern Christianity. ?Crusaders regarded themselves as armed pilgrims dedicated to rescuing holy places form the hated Muslims. Urban declared that participation in a crusade was itself an act of penance.

?To the warrior nobility, a crusade was a great adventure, promising land, glory, and plunder, but it
was also an opportunity.

?Common people also became gripped by the crusading spirit. ?Pope Eugenius II: the second Crusade ?Third crusade: Richard I, the Lion-Hearted, of England; Philip Augustus of France; and Frederick
Barbarossa of Germany

?Pope Innocent III: the Fourth Crusade
The Crusades

?The Crusades increased the wealth of the Italian cities that furnished transportation for the Crusaders
and benefited from the increased trade with the East. They may have contributed to the decline of feudalism and the strengthening of monarchy because many lords were killed in battle or squandered their wealth financing expeditions to the Holy Land. Over the centuries, people have praised the Crusades for inspiring idealism and heroism; others have castigated the movement for corrupting the Christian spirit and for unleashing religious intolerance and fanaticism, which would lead to strife in future centuries. Dissenters and Reformers The WaldensiansReformers criticized the church for its wealth and involvement in worldly affairs. They called for a return to the simpler, purer life of Jesus and the Apostles.

?In their zeal to emulate the moral purity and material poverty of the first followers of Jesus, these
reform-minded dissenters attacked ecclesiastical authority.

?The Waldensians considered themselves true Christians, faithful to the spirit of the apostolic church. ?The Cathari taught that, since the flesh is evil, Christ would not have taken a human form. ?The Franciscans served the church as teachers and missionaries in eastern Europe, North Africa, the
Near East, and China.

?The Dominicans went out into the world to preach the Gospel and to proselytize.
Innocent III: The Apex of Papal Power

?More than any earlier pope, Innocent made the papacy the center of European political life.
Christians and Jews Anti-Jewish feelings during the Middle Ages :

?The refusal of the Jews to embrace Christianity was an act of wickedness. ?An allegation that Jews, made bloodthirsty by the spilling of Christ’s blood, tortured and murdered
Christians, particularly children, to obtain blood for ritual purposes.

?The role of Jews as moneylenders also contributed to animosity toward them.

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?Lived in humiliation; ?Barred Jews from public office; ?Wore a distinguishing badge on their clothing; ?Remained off the streets during Christian festivals. ?Christian art, literature, and religious instruction depicted the Jews in a derogatory manner.

Chapter 7 The Flowering of Medieval Civilization: The Christian Synthesis Revival of Learning Cultural Explosion/Twelfth-Century Awakening

?attacks of Vikings, Muslims, and Magyars ended ?kings and great lords imposed more order and stability, ?revival of trade and the growth of towns ?the wealth required to support learning. ?Islamic and Byzantine as a bridge between antiquity and the cultural revival of
Ages.

the High Middle

?the legacy of the Carolingian Renaissance. ?Cathedral schools ?university, a distinct creation of the Middle Ages.
taught grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, medicine, music, and, when prepared, church law and technology, which was considered the queen of the sciences. The Medieval World-View The Universe: Higher and Lower Worlds Medieval thinkers sharply differentiated between a higher world of perfection and a lower world of imperfection. Moral values were derived from the higher world, which was also the final destination for the faithful. Two sets of laws operated in the medieval universe, one for the heavens and one for the earth. The cosmos was a giant ladder, with god at the summit; earth, composed of base matter, stood at the bottom, just above hell. The Individual: Sinful but Redeemable

?At the center
being.

of medieval belief was the idea of a perfect God and a wretched and sinful human

?The medieval individual’s understanding of self depended on a comprehension of the universe as a
hierarchy culminating in God.

?Medieval thinkers ?In

also arranged knowledge in a hierarchical order: knowledge of spiritual things surpassed all worldly knowledge. Philosophy, Science, and Law philosophy struggling to harmonize faith with reason, medieval thinkers constructed an extraordinary synthesis of Christian revelation and Greek rationalism.

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?Saint Anselm and Abelard ?Saint Thomas Aquinas: The Synthesis of Faith and Reason
reconciling Aristotelianism with Christianity

Science

?Early Middle Ages, few scientific works. ?High Middle Ages, ancient texts were translated. ?13th and 14th, genuine scientific movement occur.
?Robert Grosseteste (c.1175-1253) ?Albert Magnus(c.1206-1280) ?Roger Bacon (c.1214-1294)
Recovery of Roman Law

?The late eleventh and twelfth centuries saw the revival of Roman law, particularly in Bologna, Italy.
Literature In their native tongues, medieval writers created different forms of poetry: chansons de geste, the roman, and troubadour songs, which emerged during the High Middle Ages. ?King Arthur and his Round Table ?Dante Alighieri: the Divine Comedy

?Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1340-1400) The Canterbury Tales
Architecture Romanesque Gothic

?Romanesque
The 14th Century: An Age of Adversity After more than 250 years of growth During the Late Middle Ages (roughly the 14 th century), however, Latin Christendom was afflicted with severe problems:

?famine struck Europe ?Black Death ?Economic and social tensions
The black death The flagellants

?In 1323, the free peasants of Flanders infuriated; ?In 1358, French uprising ,the Jacquerie; ?In 1381, English peasants revolting;

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Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) ?In the opening phase of the war, the English inflicted terrible defeats on French knights at the battles of Cré (1346) and Poitiers (1356). cy ?After the battle of Agincourt (1415), it appeared that England would shortly conquer France and join the two lands under one crown. ?Joan of Arc (1412-1431) rallied the demoralized French troops, leading them in battle. In 1429, she liberated the besieged city of Orlé ans. Imprisoned by the English, Joan was condemned as a heretic and a witch in 1431 by a hand-picked church court. She was burned at the stake. Inspired by Joan’s death, the French drove the English from all French territory except the port of Calais.

The Decline of the Papacy In the High Middle Ages, the papacy had been the dominant institution in Christendom, but in the Late Middle Ages its power disintegrated. Papal authority declined in the face of the growing power of kings, who championed the parochial interests of states. Conflict with France

?Philip IV of ?Benedict

France (1285-1314) taxed the church in his land to raise revenue for war. Boniface backed down from his position, declaring that the French king could tax the clergy in times of national emergency. XI (1303-1304) and Clement V (1305-1314), tried to conciliate Philip. In particular, Clement decided to remain at Avignon, a town on the southeastern French frontier, where he had set up a temporary residence.

?From 1309 to 1377, a period known as the Babylonian Captivity,
resided not in Rome but in Avignon.

the popes were all French and

?The Defender of the Peace (1324) by Marsiglio of Padua (c.1290-c.1343). ?State was self-sufficient; it needed no instruction from a higher authority;

denied the essential premises of medieval papal political theory: the pope, as God’s vicar, was empowered to guide kings; that the state, as part of a divinely ordered world, must conform to and fulfill supranatural ends. Fourteenth-Century Heresies the radical reformers questioned the function and authority of the entire church hierarchy. ?Englishman John Wycliffe (c.1320-1384) ?Bohemian (Czech) Jan Hus (c.1369-1415) Breakup of the Thomistic Synthesis

?Saint Thomas Aquinas’s system had culminated the scholastic attempt to show the basic agreement
of philosophy and religion. In the 14th century, a number of thinkers cast doubt on the possibility of synthesizing Aristotelianism and Christianity, that is, reason and faith. The Middle Ages and the Modern World: Continuity and Discontinuity Continuity Today’s world is linked to the Middle Ages in innumerable ways. European cities, the middle class, the state system, English common law, universities—all had their origins in the Middle Ages.

?Translating/commenting on Greek/Arabic works ?Medieval technology and inventiveness ?Opposing tyrannical kings
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Discontinuity

? science and secularism—a preoccupation with worldly concerns—determine the modern outlook. ?Unlike either ancient or modern thinkers, medieval schoolmen believed ultimately that reason alone
could not provide a unified view of nature or society.

?Modern thinkers generally view both nature and the human intellect as self-sufficient. ?The modern view postulated the uniformity of nature and of nature’s laws.

?The modern West also broke with the rigid division of medieval society into three orders: clergy,
nobles, and commoners.

?The modern West also rejected the personal and customary character of feudal law. ?In the modern world, the individual’s relationship to the universe has been radically transformed.

Part Ⅱ The Middle Ages : The Christian Centuries (500-1400) Chapter 6 The Rise of Europe: Fusion of Classical, Christian, and German Traditions Chapter 7 The Flowering of Medieval Civilization: The Christian Synthesis

Part Ⅲ The Rise of Modernity: From The Renaissance to the Enlightenment 1350-1789

chapter 8

Transition to the Modern Age: Renaissance and Reformation Political and Economic Transformation: National States, Overseas Expansion, Commercial Revolution Intellectual Transformation: the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment

chapter 9

chapter 10

Chapter 8 Transition to the Modern Age: Renaissance and Reformation

?From

the Italian Renaissance of the 15th century through the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, the outlook and institutions of the Middle Ages disintegrated and distinctly modern forms emerged. The radical change in European c ivilization could be seen on every level of society—on the

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economic; on the political; on the religious; on the social; on the cultural level.

Renaissance (1350-1600)

?The word renaissance means ―rebirth‖, and it is used to refer to the attempt by artists and thinkers to
recover and apply the ancient learning and standards of Greece and Rome.

?During

the Renaissance, individuals showed an increasing concern for worldly life and self-consciously aspired to shape their destinies, an attitude that is the key to modernity. Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance

?Developed urban centers, where people had the wealth, freedom, and inclination to cultivate the arts
and to enjoy the fruits of worldly life.

?Reminders of ancient Rome’s grandeur were visible everywhere ?Northern Italian city-states had developed as flourishing commercial and banking centers and had th th
monopolized trade in the Mediterranean during the 12 and 13 centuries.

?Dramatically,

new ways of life emerged within the Italian city-states. Prosperous business people played a leading role in the political and cultural life of the city. the feudal values of birth, military prowess,and a fixed hierarchy of lord and vassals decayed.

?Art served as a focus of civic pride and patriotism Member of the urban upper class became patrons
of the arts, providing funds to support promising artists and writers. Just as rulers contended on the battlefield, they competed for artists to bolster their prestige.

?The result of this new patronage by popes and patricians was an explosion of artistic creativity. ?Renaissance society was also marked by a growing secular outlook. ?Individualism was another hallmark of Renaissance society. Individualism became deeply embedded
in the Western soul and was expressed by artists, who sought to capture individual character; by explorers, who ventured into uncharted seas; by conquerors, who carved out empires in the New World; and by merchant-capitalists, who amassed fortunes. The Renaissance Outlook: Humanism and Secular Politics Humanism The most characteristic intellectual movement of the Renaissance was humanism, an educational and cultural program based on the study of ancient Greek and Roman literature. The humanist attitude toward antiquity differed from that of medieval scholars. ?Petrarch(1304-1374): the father of humanism A Revolution in Political Thought

?Mechiavelli In his book The Prince, he expounded a new political theory—one that had no place for
Christian morality but coincided with the emerging modern secular state. maintained that the prince may use any means to save the state when its survival is at stake. Successful princes, he contended, have always been indifferent to moral and religious considerations—a lesson of history that rulers ignore at their peril. Machiavelli removed political thought from a religious frame of reference and viewed the state and political behavior in the detached and dispassionate manner of a scientist. In secularizing and rationalizing political philosophy, he initiated a trend of thought that we recognize as distinctly

21

modern. Renaissance Art

?The

essential meaning of the Renaissance is conveyed through its art, particularly architecture, sculpture, and painting.

?A style that stressed proportion,

balance, and harmony. Renaissance art also reflects the values of Renaissance humanism: a return to classical models in architecture, to the rendering of the nude figure, and to a heroic vision of human beings.

?Medieval art served a religious function and sought to represent spiritual aspiration; the world was a
veil merely hinting at the other perfect and eternal world. Renaissance artists were dedicated to representing things as they are, or at least as they are seen to be. Part of the inspiration for this was also classical. The ancient ideal of beauty was the beautiful nude. ?The first contributor Giotto (c.1276-1337). He created figures modeled by alterations in light and shade. He also developed techniques of perspective, representing three-dimensional figures and objects on two-dimensional surfaces so that they appear to stand in space. He’s best works were frescoes, wall paintings.

?The leader of this group was an architect, Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446). He designed churches
reflecting classical models.

?the rules of perspective

?The great Renaissance artists included: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) ?Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) ?Raphael Santi (1483-1520)

?Leonardo da vinci: the Last Supper 1498

Raphael Santi: The Alba Madonna 1511 The Spread of the Renaissance

?The Renaissance spread to Germany, France, England, and Spain in the late 15 th and 16th centuries. ?Humanism outside Italy was less concerned with the revival of classical values than with the reform
of Christianity and society through a program of Christian humanism. Erasmian Humanism

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?To Erasmus (c.1466-1536)
movement.

belongs the credit for making Renaissance humanism an international

?Erasmian humanism stressed toleration, kindness, and respect for human rationality.
French and English Humanism

?Francois Rabelais (c.1494-1553) exemplified the humanist spirit in France. In response to religious
dogmatism, Rabelais asserted the essential goodness of the individual and the right to enjoy the world rather than be bound by the fear of a punishing God. ?Gargantua and Pantagruel whose famous book is Utopia.

?The most influential humanist of the early English Renaissance was Sir Thomas More (1478-1535), ?William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
The tragedies explore a common theme: men, even heroic men, despite virtue, are able to overcome their human weaknesses only with the greatest difficulty, if at all. The Renaissance and the Modern Age

?The Renaissance marks the birth of modernity. Central to this birth was a bold new view of human
nature, which departed from the medieval view —that individuals in all endeavors are not constrained by a destiny imposed by God from the outside but are free to make their own destiny, guided only by the example of the past, the force of present circumstances, and the drives of their own inner nature. Set free from theology, individuals were seen as the products, and in turn the shapers, of history; their future would be the work of their own free will. Background to the Reformation: The Medieval Church in Crisis

?Encumbered by wealth,

addicted to international power, and protective of their own interests, the clergy, from the pope down, became the center of a storm of criticism, starting in the Late Middle Ag e.

?In the 14th century, as kings increased their power and as urban centers with their sophisticated laity
grew in size and numbers, people began to question the authority of the international church and its clergy.

?Church corruption ?John
Wycliffe and the Bohemian Jan Hus denounced the wealth of the clergy as a violation of Christ’s precepts and attacked the church’s authority at its root by arguing that the church did not control an individual’s destiny.

?Wycliffe’s

and Hus’s efforts to initiate reform coincided with a powerful resurgence of religious feeling in the form of mysticism. The Lutheran Revolt

?The Reformation was started by Martin Luther, who had experienced the personal agony of doubting
the church’s power to give salvation. The Break with Catholicism

?The starting point for the Reformation was Luther’s attack in 1517 on the church’s practice of selling
indulgences. Ninety-five Theses(1517): Belief that the individual achieves salvation through inner religious feeling, a sense of contrition for sins, and a trust in God’s mercy.

Every individual could discover the meaning of the Bible unaided by the clergy.

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In matters of faith there was no difference between the clergy and the laity. For Luther, no priest, no ceremony, and no sacrament could bridge the gulf between the Creator and his creatures.

?Frederick’s support ?His followers, or Lutherans, were ?Nothing better

eventually called Protestants, those who protested against the established church, and the term became generic for all followers of the Reformation. The Spread of the Reformation illustrates people’s dissatisfaction with the church in the early 16 th century than the rapid spread of Protestantism. Protestantism grew strong in northern Europe—northern Germany, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, and England. It failed in the Latin countries, although not without a struggle in France. In general, Protestantism was an urban phenomenon, and it prospered where local magistrates supported it and where the distance from Rome was greatest. Calvinism

?John Calvin (1509-1564),

a French scholar and theologian. Calvin soon abandoned his humanistic and literary studies to become a preacher of the Reformation, holding that God’s laws must be rigorously obeyed, that social and moral righteousness must be earnestly pursued, that political life must be carefully regulated, and that human emotions must be strictly controlled. Forced to flee France, Calvin finally sought safety in Geneva, a small, prosperous Swiss city near the French border. France

?French Protestants became sufficiently organized and militant to challenge their

persecutors, King Henry II and the Guise—one of the foremost Catholic families in Europe—and in 1562, civil war erupted between Catholics and Protestants. In 1572, on Saint Bartholomew’s Day, the gruesome slaughter of thousands of Protestant men, women, and children stained the street with blood. England

?The Reformation was initiated in England not by religious reformers but by the king himself. ?Henry VIII (1509-1547) ?Edward VI (1547-1553), a Protestant ?Mary (1553-1558), the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. A devout Catholic,
persecuted Protestants.

?Elizabeth I (1558-1603), the persecution of Catholics
The Catholic Response

?The Protestant threat impelled the Roman Catholic church to institute reforms. At first, the energy for
reform came from ordinary clergy, as well as laypeople. Founded in 1534, the Society of Jesus, more commonly known as the Jesuits, became the backbone of the Catholic Reformation in southern and western Europe. The Jesuits combined traditional monastic discipline with a dedication to teaching and an emphasis on the power of preaching: they sought to use both to win converts back to the church.

?By the 1540s, the Counter Reformation was well under way. ?The Counter Reformation also took aggressive and hostile measures against Protestantism. Catholics ?One of
?The

didn’t hold a monopoly on persecution: wherever Protestantism obtained official status —in England, Scotland, and Geneva, for instance—Catholics or religious radicals also sometimes faced persecution. the Catholic church’s main tools was censorship. Over the centuries, the works of many leading thinkers were placed on the Index, which was not abolished until 1966. Counter Reformation policies of education, vigorous preaching, church building, persecution,

24

and censorship did succeed in bringing thousands of people, back into the church. In addition, the church implemented some concrete changes in policy and doctrine. In 1545, the Council of T rent met to reform the church and strengthen it to face the Protestant challenge. The council modified and unified church doctrine; abolished many corrupt practices, such as the selling of indulgences; and vested final authority in the papacy. The Council of Trent purged the church and gave it doctrinal clarity on such matters as the roles of faith and good works in attaining salvation. The Reformation had split western Christendom irrevocably. The Reformation and the Modern Age

?At first glance, the Reformation would seen to have renewed the medieval stress on otherworldiness
and reversed the direction toward secularism taken by the Renaissance.

?Yet in several important ways, the Reformation contributed to the shaping of modernity. By dividing
Christendom into Catholic and Protestant, the Reformation destroyed the religious unity of Europe, the distinguishing feature of the Middle Ages, and weakened the church, the chief institution of medieval society.

?By strengthening monarchs at the expense of church bodies, the Reformation furthered the growth of
the modern secular and centralized state. This subordination of clerical authority to the throne permitted kings to build strong centralized states, a characteristic of political life of the modern West.

?While ?The

absolute monarchy was the immediate benefic iary of the Reformation, indirectly Protestantism contributed to the growth of political liberty—another feature of the modern West. Reformation also provided a basis for challenging monarchical authority. Some Protestant theorists, mainly Calvinists, supported resistance to political authorities whose edicts, they believed, contravened God’s law as expressed in the Bible.

?The Reformation advanced the idea of equality. ?The Reformation also contributed to the creation of an individualistic ethic, which characterizes the
modern world.

?Protestants developed the inner self-assurance and assertiveness that marks the modern individual. ?The Reformation’s stress on individual conscience may have contributed to the development of the
capitalist spirit, which underlies modern economic life.

?Calvinists

viewed hard work, diligence, dutifulness, efficiency, frugality, and a disdain for pleasurable pursuits—all virtues that contribute to rational and orderly business procedures and to business success—as signs of election.

?Protestantism—unlike
people’s way of life.

Catholicism—gave religious approval to money-making and the business

Chapter 9 Political and Economic Transformation: National States, Overseas Expansion, Commercial Revolution Toward the Modern State In the 16th and 17th centuries, kings successfully asserted their authority over competing powers, continuing a trend that had begun in the Late Middle Ages. They created a bureaucracy that coordinated the activities of the central government. Kings were central figures in the creation of the national state. Strong dynastic states were formed wherever monarchs succeeded in subduing local aristocratic and ecclesiastical power systems.

25

?By the early 17th century, Europeans had developed the concept of the state: an autonomous political
entity to which its subjects owed duties and obligations.

?There were some signs

of growing national feeling during the 16th and 17th centuries, but this feature of the modern state did not become a major part of European political life until 19th century.

?Absolutism dominated the political structure of early modern Europe. The principle of the balance of
power, an integral part of modern international relations, also emerged during early modern times. Hapsburg Spain

?The Spanish political experience of the 16th century stands as one of the most extraordinary in the
history of modern Europe. Spanish kings built a dynastic state that burst through its frontiers and encompassed Portugal, part of Italy, the Netherlands, and enormous areas in the New World. Spain became an intercontinental empire—the first in the West since Roman times.

?In the 8th and 9th centuries, the Muslims controlled all of Spain except some tiny Christian kingdoms th

in the far north. In the 9 century, these Christian states began a five-hundred-year struggle—the Reconquest—the drive the Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula. Ferdinand and Isabella

?In 1469, Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Aragon, married Isabella, heir to the throne of Castile. They
broke the power of aristocrats; brought the Spanish church into alliance with the state; and in 1492, they drove the Muslims from Granada, the Muslims’ last territory in Spain. The Catholic kings expanded their interests and embarked on an imperialist foreign policy, which made Spain dominant in the New World. The Reign of Charles V: King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor ?Ferdinand and Isabella Marrying one of their children, Juana (called ―the Mad‖ for her insanity), to Philip the Fair, son of Maximilian of Austria, the head of the ruling Hapsburg family. ?Philip and Juana’s son Charles (1516-1556) inherited the kingdom of Ferdinand and Isabella. Through his other grandparents, he also inherited the Netherlands, Austria, Sardinia, Sicily, the kingdom of Naples, and Franche Comté In 1519, he was elected Charles V Holy Roman emperor. . , Charles became the most powerful ruler in Europe. Philip II

?philipⅡinherited the throne from his father,Charles
conduct and infused his foreign policy.

Ⅴ. A zeal for Catholicism ruled Philip’s private

?In the 1560s, ?Philip’s

Philip sent the largest land army ever assembled in Europe into the Netherlands, to crush Protestant-inspired opposition to Spanish authority. The ensuing revolt of the Netherlands lasted until 1609, and the Spanish lost their industrial heartland disastrous attempt to invade England was also born of religious zeal. In May 1588, the Spanish Armada, carrying 22000 seamen and soldiers, met with defeat. The End of the Spanish Hapsburgs

?After the defeat of the Armada, Spain gradually and reluctantly abandoned its imperial ambitions in
northern Europe.

?Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), Spain officially recognized the independence of the Netherlands and
severed its diplomatic ties with the Austrian branch of the family.

?By 1660, the imperial age of the Spanish Hapsburgs had ended.
The Spanish experience illustrates two observations:

?first, the state as empire could survive and prosper only if
sound;
26

the domestic economic base remained

?second, states with a vital and aggressive bourgeoisie flourished at the expense of the regions where
the aristocracy and the church dominated and controlled society and its mores —Spain’s situation. The Growth of French Power

?The evolution of the French state was a very gradual process, completed only in the late 17 th century.
Religion and the French State

?

For the French monarchs, centuries of tough bargaining with the papacy paid off in 1516, when Francis I (1515-1547) concluded the Concordat of Bologna. Pope Leo X permitted the French king to nominate, and men of his choice to all the highest offices in the French church. By the early 16 th century, the central government had been strengthened at the expense of papal authority and of traditional privileges enjoyed by local aristocracy.

?The Protestant Reformation, however, challenged royal authority and threatened the very survival of
France as a unified state.

?Catherine,

who was the virtual ruler, ordered the infamous Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572), which became a symbol of the excesses of religious zeal.

?In 1589, the Valois failure to produce a male heir to the throne placed Henry, duke of Bourbon and a
Protestant, in line to succeed to the French throne.

?Henry IV (1589-1610)

granted his Protestant subjects and former followers a degree of religious toleration through the Edict of Nantes (1598). The Consolidation of French Monarchical Power

?The defeat of Protestantism as a national force set the stage for the final consolidation of the French th
state in the 17 century under the great Bourbon kings, Louis XIII and Louis XIV .

?

Louis XIII (1610-1643) Cardinal Richelieu, who served as Louis XIII’s chief minister from 1624 to 1642, became the great architect of French absolutism.

?Louis

XIV finally assumed responsibility for governing in 1661. In the course of his reign, he achieved the greatest degree of monarchical power held during the early modern period. The Growth of Limited Monarchy and Constitutionalism in England

?In 1066,

William, duke of Normandy and vassal to the French king, had invaded and conquered England, acquiring at a stroke the entire kingdom. In succeeding centuries, English monarchs continued to strengthen central authority and to tighten the bonds of national unity.

?Central government in England was threatened after the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453). ?In the ensuing civil war—the War of the Roses (1455-1485)—gangs of noblemen with retainers
roamed the English countryside, and lawlessness prevailed for a generation. The Tudor Achievement

?Victory in the civil war ?Henry

allowed Henry VII (1485-1509) to begin the Tudor dynasty. He brought commoners into the government to check the unruly nobility. Ⅷ’s second daughter, Elizabeth I, became queen in 1558. The Elizabethan period was characterized by a heightened sense of national identity.

?After defeat of the Armada, a golden age in England.
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The English Revolution

?Two Stuart kings—James I (1603-1625) and Charles I (1625-1649). tensions between the throne and
Parliament persisted

?Badly needing funds ?What forced Charles

to wage war, Charles exacted ―forced loans‖ from subjects and imprisoned without a specific charge those who would not pay. to reconvene Parliament in 1640 was his need for funds to defend the realm against an invasion from Scotland.

?The ensuing civil war was directed by Parliament, financed by taxes and the merchants, and fought
by the New Model Army led by Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), a Puritan squire who gradually realized his potential for leadership.

?In January 1649, Charles

I was publicly executed by order of Parliament. During the interregnum (time between kings), which lasted 11 years, one Parliament after another joined with the army to govern the country as a republic.

?Cromwell’s death left the country without effective leadership. Parliament chose to restore court and
crown and invited the exiled son of the executed king to return to the kingship. Charles II (1660-1685) never instituted royal absolutism.

?But

his brother James II (1685-1688), was a foolishly fearless Catholic. Catholic advisers and supporters of royal prerogative and attempted to bend Parliament and local government to the royal will.

?In early 1688, Anglicans, some aristocrats, and opponents of royal prerogative formed a conspiracy
against James II. Their purpose was to invite his son-in-law, William of Orange, stadholder of the Netherlands and husband of James’s Protestant daughter Mary, to invade England and rescue its government from James’s control.

?This bloodless revolution—sometimes called the Glorious Revolution—created a new political and
constitutional reality. These rights were in turn legitimated in a constitutionally binding document, the Bill of Rights (1689).

?The events of 1688-89 fashioned a system of government that operated effectively in Britain and was
also capable of being adopted with modification elsewhere. The British system became a model for other forms of representative government adopted in France and former British colonies, beginning with the United States. The Holy Roman Empire: The Failure to Unify Germany

?In contrast to the French, English, Spanish, and Dutch experiences in the early modern period, the
Germans failed to achieve national unity. European Expansion

?During the period from 1450 to 1750, western Europe entered an era of overseas

exploration and economic expansion that transformed society. European adventurers discovered a new way to reach the rich trading centers of India by sailing around Africa. A world economy was emerging in which European economic life depended on the market in Eastern spices, African slaves, and American silver. Forces Behind Expansion Combined forces propelled Europeans outward and enabled them to dominate Asians, Africans, and American Indians:

?European monarchs, merchants, and aristocrats fostered expansion for power and profit; religion and
28

technology played their part. The Portuguese Empire

?In the first half of the 15th century, a younger son of the king of Portugal, named Prince Henry the
Navigator (1394-1460) by English writers, sponsored voyages of exploration and the nautical studies needed to undertake them. By 1488, Bartholomeu Dias had reached he southern tip of the African continent. The Spanish Empire

?Spain stumbled onto its overseas empire, and it proved to be the biggest and richest of any until the th

18 century. Christopher Columbus won the support of Isabella, queen of Castile. But on his first voyage (1492), he landed on a large Caribbean island. In 1519, Hernando Corté landed on the s Mexican coast. A decade later, Francisco Pizarro achieved a similar victory over the mountain empire of the Incas in Peru.

The Price Revolution

?Linked to overseas expansion was another phenomenon—an unprecedented inflation during the 16th
century, known as the price revolution.

?Cereal prices multiplied by eight times or more in certain regions in the course of that century, and
they continued to rise.

?The

main cause of the price revolution was the population growth during the late 15 th and 16th centuries. the effect of the price revolution were momentous The Expansion of Agriculture The greatest effects of the price revolution were on farming.

?In England, landlords aggressively pursued the possibilities for profit resulting from the inflation of
farm prices. They deprived their tenant peasantry of the use of the commons; changed the conditions of tenure from copyhold to leasehold. When a lease came up for renewal, the landlord could raise the rent beyond the tenant’s capacity to pay.

?Both acts of the landlord forced peasants off the manor or into the landlord’s employ as farm laborers.
With tenants gone, fields could be incorporated into larger, more productive units. Landlords could hire labor at bargain prices because of the swelling population and the large s upply of peasants forced off the land by enclosure.

?In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Dutch developed a new kind of farming,
husbandry, which also expanded production. The Expansion of Trade and Industry Reasons:

known as convertible

?the price revolution caused trade and industry to expand. ?Population growth ?Growing income of landlords, merchants, and, in some instances, peasants. ?Growth of the state
Innovations in Bus iness

?Markets tended to shift from local to regional or even to international—a condition that gave rise to
the merchant-capitalist.

?Banking operations grew more sophisticated. ?Accounting methods also improved. ?Double-entry bookkeeping
29

?Joint-stock company
Different Patterns of Commercial Development ?England and Netherlands In both England and the United Provinces, the favorable conditions led to large-scale commercial expans ion. ?France and SpainFrance benefited from commercial and industrial expansion, but not to the same degree as England. Spanish value system regarded business as social heresy. The Fostering of Mercantile Capitalism

?The changes described represent a crucial stage in the development of the modern economic system
known as capitalism.

?From 1450 to1600, several conditions sustained the incentive to invest and reinvest. ?Another stimulus for investment came from government—and this occurred in two ways. ?The

First, government acted as giant consumers. The second government stimulus was state policies, known as mercantilism. Toward a Global Economy transformations considered in this chapter were among the most momentous in the world’s history.

?Out of this change emerged the beginnings of a new economic system, mercantile capitalism. This th th
system, in large measure, paved the way for the Industrial Revolution of the 18 and provided the economic thrust for European world predominance. Chapter 10 Intellectual Transformation: The Scientific Revolution and The Age of Enlightenment Medieval Cosmology

and 19 centuries

?The medieval understanding of

the natural world and its physical properties rested on a blend of Christian thought with theories derived from ancient Greek thinkers, particularly Aristotle and Ptolemy.

?Aristotle had argued simply that it was in the nature of things to move in certain ways. ?Ptolemy of Alexandria’s assumption was that a motionless earth stood at the center of the universe
and that the planets moved about it in a series of circular orbits. A New View of Nature

?With the advent of the Renaissance, a new breed of intellectuals challenged medieval assumptions
about human beings and nature. The humanists seized on Plato’s philosophy as an alternative to medieval scholasticism. The Copernican Revolution

?The geocentric view of the universe postulated by Aristotle and Ptolemy was challenged by Nicolaus
Copernicus (1473-1543), a Polish churchman, astronomer, and mathematician. He set out on a lifelong task to work out mathematical explanations of how a heliocentric universe operated.

?Copernicus

proposed a heliocentric model of the universe that was mathematically simpler than Ptolemy’s earth-centered universe.

?By removing the earth from its central position and by giving it motion—that is, by making the earth
just another planet—Copernicus undermined the system of medieval cosmology and made the birth of modern astronomy possible.

30

Tycho and Kepler: The Laws of Planetary Motion

?Tycho

Brahe (1546-1601), realized more fully than any contemporaries the need for new observations. Tycho’s fame ultimately rests on his skill as a practicing astronomer. He bequeathed to future generations precise calculations about the movements of heavenly bodies, which proved invaluable.

?These calculations were put to greatest use by Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). Kepler discovered the
three basic laws of planetary motion.

?First, the orbits of the planets are elliptical. ?Second, the velocity of a planet is not uniform, but increases as its distance from the sun decreases. ?Third, the squares of the times taken by any two planets in their revolutions around the sun are in the
same ratio as the cubes of their average distances from the sun—brought the planets together into a unified mathematical system. Galileo: Experimental Physics

?Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) ?In 1609, Galileo built a telescope through which he viewed the surface of the moon.
The Newtonian Synthesis

?Newton’s three laws: inertia, that a body remains in a state of rest or continues its motion in a straight
line unless impelled to change by forces impressed on it; acceleration, that the change in the motion of a body is proportional to the force acting on it; and that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

?Every body in the universe exercises a force on every other body, a force that he called universal
gravitation.

?With Newton’s discovery of universal gravitation, the Scientific Revolution reached its zenith.
Biology, Medicine, and Chemistry

?The spectacular advances ?In 1543, Andreas
Body.

made in physics and astronomy in the 16 and 17 centuries were not matched in the biological sciences. V esalius (1514-1564), a Belgian surgeon, published The Structure of the Human

th

th

?In The Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628), William Harvey (1578-1657), a British
physician, showed that blood circulates in the body because of the pumping action of the heart muscle.

?Another

Briton, scientist Robert Boyle (1627-1691), adopted the atomic explanation that matter is made up of small, hard, indestructible particles that behave with regularity and explain changes in gases, fluids, and solids. Prophets and Proponents of the New Science

?The accomplishments of the Scientific Revolution also include the formulation of a new method of
inquiring into nature and the recognition that science can serve humanity.

?Two thinkers

instrumental in articulating these implications of scientific advances were Francis Bacon and RenéDescartes. Bacon

?Francis Bacon (1561-1626), he is deservedly regarded as a prophet of modern science because of his
advocacy of the scientific method. He advocated cooperative, methodical scientific researc h that could be publicly criticized.

?The

inductive approach: careful observation of nature, systematic accumulation of data, and experimentation.

31

Descartes

?Descartes ?His

is viewed as the founder of modern philosophy because he called for the individual to question and, if necessary, to overthrow all traditional beliefs. deductive method, with its mathematical emphas is, perfectly complements Bacon’s inductive approach, which stresses observation and experimentation. The scientific achievements of modern times have arisen from the skillful synchronization of induction and deduction. The Meaning of the Scientific Revolution

?The Scientific ?The

Revolution was decisive in shaping the modern mentality; it shattered the medieval view of the universe and replaced it with a wholly different world-view. methodology played a crucial historical role in reorienting Western thought from medieval theology and metaphysics toward the study of physical and human problems.

?Ultimately,

the Scientific Revolution weakened traditional Christianity. The Scientific Revolution, operating on both intellectual and commercial levels, laid the groundwork for two major developments of the modern West—the Age of Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution. The Age of Enlightenment

?The ?The

Enlightenment: light into the dark corners of the mind, the dispelling of ignorance and superstition. philosophes expressed confidence in science and reason, espoused humanitarianism, and struggled for religious liberty and freedom of thought and person. The Science of Religion

?The Enlightenment produced the first widely read and systematic assault on Christianity launched
from within the ranks of the educated. Christianity Under Attack

?The leaders of the Enlightenment sought to repudiate traditional Christianity and to replace it with a
rational system of ethics and philosophy based on scientific truths.

?Deists who tried to make religion compatible with a scientific understanding of nature. ?David Hume (1711-1776), a Scottish skeptic, maintained that all religious ideas, including Christian
teachings and even the idea of God, stemmed ultimately from human fears and superstitions. The universe might very well be eternal, and the seeming universal order simply a natural condition that requires no explanation. V oltaire the Philosophe

?Voltaire (1694-1778) was a fierce supporter of the Enlightenment and a bitter critic of churches and
the Inquisition throughout his life. V oltaire was a practical reformer who campaigned for the rule of law, a freer press, religious toleration, humane treatment of criminals, and a more effective system of government administration. Political Thought

?Three major European thinkers wrote treatises on politics that remain relevant to this day:
?John Locke, Two Treatises of Government (1690); ?Baron Montesquieu, the Spirit of the Laws (1748); ?Rousseau, the Social Contract (1762).
Locke

?Locke’s theory, in its broad outlines, states that the right to govern derived from the consent of the
governed and was a form of contract. If a government attempted to rule absolutely and arbitrarily, it reneged on its contract and forfeited the loyalty of its subjects. Such a government could legitimately

32

be overthrown. Locke believed that a constitutional government that limited the power of rulers was the best defense of property and individual rights. Montesquieu

?In The

Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu denounced despotism as the worst form of government. Montesquieu advocated the principle of separation of powers. There are three sorts of powers: legislative, executive, and judiciary. When one person or body exercises all three powers —if the same body both prosecutes and judges, liberty is lost. Rousseau

?Not

until the 1760s did democracy find its champion, in Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). Rousseau based his politics on contract theory—the people choose their government, and in so doing, give birth to civil society. Rousseau further demanded that the contract be constantly renewed and that government be made immediately and directly responsible to the will of the people.

?The Social Contract opened with this stirring cry for reform, ―Man is born free; and everywhere he
is in chains,‖ ―to renounce liberty is to renounce being a man, to surrender the rights of humanity and even its duties.‖ His ideas were perceived as truly revolutionary, a direct challenge to the power of kings, churches, and aristocrats. Social Thought

?In general, the philosophes were humanitarians who denounced torture, slavery, and war. They held
the hope that good government and education would lead to the moral improvement of the individual. Psychology and Education

?Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689) provided the theoretical foundations for an
unprecedented interest in education. Locke view that at birth the mind is blank—a clean.

?In

Emile, Rousseau suggested educational reforms that would instill in children self-confidence, self-reliance, and emotional security, necessary qualities if they are to become productive adults and responsible citizens.

?Rousseau understood that children should not be treated like little adults, for children have their own
ways of thinking and feeling. He urged that children experience direct contact with the world to develop their curiosity, ingenuity, resourcefulness, and imagination. Crime and Punishment

?No society founded on the principles

of the Enlightenment could condone the torture of prisoners and the inhumanity of a corrupt legal system. In On Crimes and Punishments (1764), Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794), an Italian economist and criminologist inspired in part by Montesquieu, condemned torture as inhuman. Slavery

?On

both sides of the Atlantic during the 18th century, criticism of slavery was growing. The Enlightenment must be credited with bringing the problem of slavery into the forefront of public discussion in Europe and the American colonies. In 1755, the great Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment, edited by Denis Diderot, condemned slavery in no uncertain terms. Women

?Not entirely unlike slaves, women had few property rights within marriage, and their physical abuse
by husbands was widely regarded as beyond the purview of the law. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797), an English writer familiar with Enlightenment ideas, extended the principles of the Enlightenment to the position and status of women. Economic Thought

?The Enlightenment’s emphasis on property as the foundation for individual rights and its search for
uniform laws inspired by Newton’s scientific discoveries led to the development of the science of economics. The Enlightenment on the whole approved of the independent businessman—the

33

entrepreneur.

?Adam Smith (1732-1790), whose Wealth of

Nations (1776) became a kind of bible for those who regarded capitalist activity as uniformly worthwhile and never to be inhibited by government regulation. He was one of the first theorists to see the importance of the divis ion of labor in making possible the manufacture of more and cheaper consumer goods. The High Enlightenment ?Encyclopedia, edited by Denis Diderot (1713-1784), published in 1751 and in succeeding years and editions, the Encyclopedia initiated a new stage in the history of Enlightenment publishing. The new era thus ushered in, called the High Enlightenment, was characterized by a violent attack on the church’s privileges and the very foundations of Christian belief. From the 1750s to the 1780s, Paris became the capital of the Enlightenment. War, Revolution, and Politics

?The 18th century was dominated by two areas of extreme conflict: Anglo-French rivalry over control
of territory in the New World and intense rivalry between Austria and Prussia over control of central Europe. It also saw the outbreak of the American and French revolutions which were instrumental in shaping the liberal-democratic tradition. Warfare and Revolution

?Frederick the Great ?Maria Theresa ?It did not significantly change Europe, but it did reveal Prussia’s growing might. ?Delegates from the various colonies adopted the Declaration of Independence, written mainly by
Thomas Jefferson. The Enlightenment and the Modern World

?Enlightenment thought was the culmination of a trend begun by Renaissance artists and humanists. ?The philosophes sought to analyze nature, government, religion, law, economics and education
through reason alone.

?The political philosophy of the Enlightenment was based on an entirely new and modern concept of
the relationship between the state and the individual: the state derived its power to govern from the governed, and its purpose was to enhance human happiness and protect individual freedom.

?The

idea of secular progress, another key element of the modern outlook, also grew out of the Enlightenment.

Chapter 11 The Era of the French Revolution: The Affirmation of Liberty and Equality The Old Regime

?The causes of the French Revolution reach back into the aristocratic structure of society in the Old th
Regime. 18 -century French society was divided into three orders, or Estates.

?Inefficient Administration and Financial Disorder ?The Roles of the Enlightenment and the American Revolution
The French Revolution

34

The Meaning of the French Revolution

?The French Revolution was a decisive period in the shaping of the modern West. It implemented the
thought of the philosophes, destroyed the hierarchical and corporate society of the Old Regime, promoted the interests of the bourgeoisie, and speeded the growth of the modern state.

?Weakened the aristocracy ?Transformed the dynastic state of the Old Regime into the modern state: national,
and rational.

liberal, secular,

?Absolutism and divine right of monarchy were invalidated by constitutions. ?Unleashed two potentially destructive forces identified with the modern
nationalism.

state: total war and

Chapter 12 The Industrial Revolution: The Transformation of Society

?In the last part of the 18th century, as a revolution for liberty and equality swept across France and
sent shock waves through Europe, a different kind of revolution, a revolution in industry, was th transforming life in Great Britain. In the 19 century, the Industrial Revolution spread to the United States and to the European continent. The Rise of the Industrial Age A number of reasons:

?Western Europe was wealthier than much of the world. ?Engaged in fierce military and commercial rivalries,
industry with both consumers and labor.

early modern states, actively promoted industries to manufacture weaponry, uniforms, and ships, and encouraged commerce for tax revenues.

?The rise in population and agricultural productivity also helped to spur industrialization; provided ?Land use grew more efficient. ?Two European cultural traditions

played crucial roles in the rise of industrialism—one was individualism ; the second was the high value westerners placed on the rational understanding and control of nature. Changes in Technology

?The Cotton Industry ?The Steam Engine ?The Iron Industry ?Transportation
The Industrial Revolution Society Transformed The changes in agricultural production, business organization, and technology had revolutionary consequences for society, economics, and politics.

35

Changes in Social Structure

?The

Industrial Revolution destroyed forever the old division of society into clergy, nobility, and commoners.

?caused bourgeoisie—a middle class—bankers, factory and mine owners, and merchants, shopkeepers,
managers, lawyers, and doctors.

?The proletariat encompassed different economic levels: rural laborers, miners, and city workers. ?The artisans were the largest group of workers in the cities. ?Their livelihoods were threatened. ?Servants were especially numerous in capital cities.
Industrialism in Perspective

?Like

the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution was instrumental in modernizing Europe. Eventually, it transformed every facet of society.

?The Industrial Revolution accelerated the pace of modernization.

In time, agricultural villages and handicraft manufacturing were eclipsed in importance by cities and factories. In the society fashioned by industrialization and urbanization, aristocratic power and values declined; at the same time, the bourgeoisie increased in number, wealth, importance, and power.

?Increasingly, a person was judged by talent rather than by birth. ?The Industrial Revolution also hastened the secularization of European life. ?In a world being reshaped by technology, industry, and science, Christian mysteries lost their force,
and for many, salvation became a remote concern.

?Ultimately,

it made possible the highest standard of living in human history and created new opportunities for social advancement, political participation, and educational and cultural development. It also widened the gap between the West and the rest of the world in terms of science and technology. By 1900, western states, aided by superior technology, extended their power over virtually the entire globe, completing the trend that had begun with the Age of Exploration. Chapter 13 Thought and Culture in the Early Nineteenth Century Romanticism: A New Cultural Orientation Began in the closing decades of the eighteenth century, dominated European cultural life in the first half of the nineteenth century.

?Exponents:
Shelley; Wordsworth; Keats; Byron Victor Hugo; Chateaubriand A. W., Friedrich Schlegel; Schiller; Schelling Beethoven; Schubert; Chopin; Wagener Exalting Imagination and Feelings

?Central message of the romantics was that the imagination of
form and content of an artistic creation.

the individual should determine the

?It emphasized human diversity and uniqueness. ?Feelings were the essence of being human; ?They saw spontaneous, unbounded feelings as the avenue to truth.

36

Nature, God, History

?To the romantics, nature was alive and suffused with god’s presence; ?View God as an inspiring spiritual force; ?A historical period, like an individual, was a unique entity with its own soul;
Paintings

?a lavishness, brilliance and fruidity in the use of color; ?free in contours and outlines; ?direct visions in the open air
The Death of Socrates by David

music

?allow

freedom of form and stress strong feeling, imagination, the love of nature and the use of national folk-rhythms and turns of melody. The Impact of the Romantic Movement ? the romantics shed light on a side of human nature that the philosophes had often overlooked or undervalued. They greatly enriched European cultural life. ? Helped to create the modern historical outlook. Because it valued a nation’s past, romanticism contributed to modern nationalism and conservatism. ? But, the excessive zeal of the romantics’ attack on reason undermined the rational foundations of the West.

Conservatism: the Value of Tradition Hostility to the French Revolution ?They, like the romantics, venerated the past and view the revolution as arrogance and wickedness. ?Recognized the limitations of reason ?Did not view human beings as good by nature ?Monarchy, aristocracy, and the church had endured for centuries, they had worth. ?Regarded god and history as the only legitimate sources of political authority. The Quest for Social Stability

?Conservatives

believed that society was not a mechanical arrangement of disconnected individuals, but a living organism held together by centuries-old bonds.

?They viewed equality as another pernicious abstraction, which contradicted all historical experience.
Liberalism: The V alue of the Individual

?Liberals

wanted to alter the status quo and to carry out the promise of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution.

?Focused on individual freedom ?Insisted that achievement, not birth, measured a person’s value ?Had confidence in the goodness of human nature and the capacity of individuals
own lives The Sources of Liberals

to control

their

37

?19th century liberalism had its immediate historical roots in 17 th century England. ?The French philosophes helped to shape liberalism. ?The American and French revolutions were crucial phases in the history of liberalism.
Individual Liberty ?The liberals primary concern: the enhancement of individual liberty. ?Attacked the state and other authorities that prevent the individual from exercising the right of free choice, interfered with the right of free expression, and blocked the individual’s self-determination and self-development. ?Demanded written constitutions that granted freedom of speech, the press, and religion. ?Maintained that an free economy was important. Nationalism: the Sacredness of the Nation

?Nationalism demands that one’s highest loyalty and devotion should be given to the nation. ?Exhibit great pride in their people’s history and traditions and often feel that their nation has been
specially chosen by God or history. The Emergence of Modern Nationalism ?The essential components of modern nationalism emerged at the time of the French Revolution. ?The Romantic Movement also awakened nationalist feelings.

Nationalism and Liberalism In the early 19th century, liberals were the principal leaders and supporters of nationalist movements. contradiction between Liberalism & Nationalism ?The idea of universal natural rights transcended all national boundaries. but nationalism…; ?Liberalism grew out of the rational tradition of the west, but nationalism from an emotional attachment to ancient customs and bonds; ?Liberalism demanded objectivity in analyzing tradition, society, and history, but nationalism evoke a mythic and romantic;

Chapter 14 Surge of Liberalism and Nationalism: Revolution, Counterrevolution, and Unification

?The Congress of Vienna ?Revolutions, 1820-1829 ?Revolutions, 1930-1832 ?The Revolutions of 1848: France ?The Revolutions of 1848: Germany,
Austria, Italy

?The Unification of Italy ?The Unification of Germany
The forces unleashed by the French Revolution and the traditional outlook of the Old Regime clashed during the years 1815 through 1848. The period opened with the Congress of Vienna, which drew up an peace settlement after the defeat of Napoleon, and closed with the revolutions that swept across most of Europe in 1848.

38

The

Congress of Vienna to draw

?After the defeat of
The Settlement

Napoleon, a congress of European powers met at Vienna(1814-1815) up a peace settlement. Included Austria, Britain, Russia, France and Prussia

?After

months of discussion, quarrels, and threats, the delegates to the Congress of Vienna finished their work. Power balance was restored again. No one country was strong enough to dominate the Continent, and no great Power was so unhappy that it resorted to war to undo the settlement. Europe in 1815 Revolutions, 1820-1829

?Repression (of Concert of Europe ) ?The first revolution occurred in Spain in 1820. ?Italian revolution in 1820 (Carbonari) ?Russian revolution in 1825 ?Greeks against Turkey in 1821
Revolutions, 1930-1832

?Revolution in France (1830)
Louis XVIII (1814-1824) Charles X (1824-1830) Louis Philippe (1830-1848)

?The revolution of 1830 in France set off shock waves in Belgium, Poland, and Italy.
Liberty Leading the People (28 July 1830) Oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris, France1830 The revolutions of 1848: France The year 1848 is often called the year of revolution, for throughout Europe, uprising liberty and nationhood took place.

for political

?The February Revolution ?The June Days
The February Revolution

?February 1848, the bourgeoisie, students and workers took to the streets to demand reforms. This led
to a violent confrontation with soldiers.

?Unable to pacify the enraged Parisians, Louis Philippe abdicated, and France became a republic.
The June Days: Revolution of the Oppressed

?The

June revolution in Paris was a revolt against poverty and a cry for the redistribution of property.

?The June Days left deep scars on French society. For many years, workers would never forget that
the rest of France had united against them; the rest of France would remain terrified working-class radicalism. The Revolutions of 1848: Germany, Austria, Italy The German States: Liberalism Discredited German liberalism had failed to unite Germany or to create a constitutional government dominated by the middle class. Liberalism, never securely rooted in Germany, was discredited. In the following decades, many Germans, identifying liberalism with failure, abandoned liberal values and turned to authoritarian Prussia for leadership in the struggle for unification.

39

Austria: Hapsburg Dominance

?The ethnic composition of the empire was enormously complex. ?In 1848, revolutions spread throughout the Austrian Empire, starting in Vienna. ?Czechs in Bohemia ?The most serious threat: Magyars
Italy: Continued Fragmentation

?Eager to end the humiliating Hapsburg occupation and domination and to link the
The Revolution of 1848: An Assessment The Revolutions of 1848 began with much promise, but they all ended in defeat.

disparate states into a unified and liberal nation, Italian nationalists rose in rebellion in 1848, but end in failure. Italy was still an fragmented nation.

?Class divisions weakened the revolutionaries. ?Intractable nationalist animos ities helped to destroy all the revolutionaries. ?The liberal and nationalist aims of the revolutionaries were not realized, but liberal gains were not
insignificant. The Unification of Italy

?The ?As

success of Italian unification was due to the efforts of three men: Mazzini, Cavour, and Garibaldi. Mazzini: the Soul of the Risorgimento a liberal, he fought for republican and constitutional government and held that national unity would enhance individual liberty.

?He founded the organization, Young Italy.
Cavour and Victory over Austria

?Cavour(1810-1861), the chief minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, became the architect of Italian unity. ?Launched a reform program to strengthen the economy. ?In 1855, joined England and France in the Crimean War against Russia. ?Supported by French forces, Piedmont conquered Lombardy and occupied Milan.
Garibaldi and Victory in the South

?Garibaldi(1807-1882), leading his
Naples and prepared to advance on Italian Unification Completed

red-shirt adventurers and patriots ,landed in Sicily. He occupied Rome.

?1866,Venetia was back. ?1870, Rome was declared the

capital of Italy. The Unification of Germany After the failed revolution, all German liberals came to doubt the effectiveness of revolution as a way to transform Germany into a unified state. They thought that German unity would be achieved through Prussian arms, not liberal ideals. Bismarck and the Road to Unity Bismarck(1815-1898) was a staunch supporter of the Prussian monarchy and the Junker class and a devout patriot. He was a shrewd and cal-calculating practitioner of realpolitik.

40

?Fighting between Bismarck and German lower

chamber Bismarck (1815-98) 俾斯麦 German statesman and Prussian junker, known as ―The Iron Chancellor‖. He was appointed prime minister of Prussia (1862) in order to push army reform through parliament. In 1871, he became the first chancellor of the German Riech. Bismarck and the Road to Unity

?Wars with Denmark and Austria
the dominant power in Germany.

Austria was removed from German affairs, and Prussia became

?War with France

the France-Prussian War completed the unification of Germany. The new German Empire would be eager to play a greater role in world affairs. Schleswig-Holstein The duchies of Schleswig and Holstein became the personal possessions of the king of Denmark in 1460, though the population was largely German. Prussia, to stop a Danish attempt to annex the duchies, with Austria force Denmark to give them up(1864), Prussia taking Schleswig and Austria Holstein. Austro-Prussian War (1866) The Austro-Prussian War, provoked by Bismarck over the Schleswig-Holstein controversy. Prussia was supported by Italy, while Austria was allied with Saxony, Hanover and several S. German states. The Prussian army under von Moltke won rapid victories, ending with decisive Battle of Sadowa and the treaty of Prague. German Empire ( Deutsches Reich,1871)

41


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