二、命题人到底怎么设题？ 我在发送给大家邮箱的《任务型阅读基本技能讲练十五讲与练》中具体意见列出来了。 （如 何得到此文件，见文末） 1）从短语转换入手 做此类题首先要理解题意，其次仔细比较原句和题目，明白出题人的意图，只要找出题眼就 不难得出答案。 1.原文： I hope the new policy can free the students from their pile
s of homework to make them have a good holiday. 转换成表格中：I hope the new policy can _____ the students off their piles of homework to make them have a good holiday. 分析：首先要将原文句意理解透彻，题意为：其次分析出题人的意图，找出题眼，本题是如 何将题眼 free the students from 转换为_____ the students of。答案为：relieve. 2.原文：There is no doubt that her fluent Frenchgives her certain advantages over other students in her class. 转换成表格中：There is no doubt that she is ______ to others because her fluent French stands out in her class. 分析：本题题意不难理解，即：她流利的法语使她比其他人有优势。出题人的意图是：gives her certain advantages over = be____?___ to others. 答案为：superior 3.原文：Don’t worry, I'll stay here and keep you company the whole day. 转换成表格中：Don’t worry, I’ll stay here and ______ you the whole day. 分析：很容易看出本题的意图：keep you company= ____?___. 答案为：accompany 2）从同义、反义入手 对所给的短语或单词，在空中用与之相反或相近的词或短语来表达。例如： 1.原文：Why doesn’t the media present a positive view of this splendid city? 转换成表格中： Why does the media present such a _______ view of this splendidcity?
分析：抓住关键词 positive，由题意知应该将它转换成反义词。答案为 negative。 2. 原文：Generally, her work has been good, butthis essay is hard to understand. 转换成表格中：In general her work has been good, but this essay is hard tounderstand. 分析：关键是考虑如何转换 generally 为 in ______。答案为：general。 3）从词语释义入手 对所给的词语释义，在空中用相应的词或短语来表达。首先要理解头原句的意思，充分发挥 合理的想象。例如： 1.原文：Passengers are requested to leave the aircraft by the emergency doors. 转换成表格中：Passengers are requested to ________ from the aircraft by the emergency doors. 分析：题目的关键是解决：_______ from the aircraft = leave the aircraft。最佳答案为： exit。 2. 原文：During certain scenes of the play there isn't any script and the actors just make it up as they perform it. 转换成表格中：During certain scenes of the play there isn't any script and theactors just _______. 分析：题目的关键是解决是：_______ = make it up as they perform it。最佳答案为： improvise。 4）从词性转换入手 即将一种词类转换成另一种词类，主要包括动词与名词转换、形容词与副词转换、形容词与 名词转换。解题方法很简单，只要在文中找到关键词即可。例如： 1. Keep in mind that exposure of the body to strong sunlight can be harmful.
转换成：Be careful that it can be harmful when your body is _______ tostrong sunlight. 分析：抓住关键词 exposure，将它转换为动词的被动语态。答案为 exposed。 2. It was not profitable for you within the first couple of years of setting up a company. 转换成：You don't expect to make much ______ within the first couple ofyears of setting up a company. 分析：抓住关键词 profitable，将此形容词转换为名词，答案为：profit。 3. Much of thebook’s humour is no longer effective when translated. 转换成：Much of the book's humour has been lost in _______. 分析：抓住关键词 translate，将此动词转换成名词。答案为：translation。 5）从归纳概括入手 。 根据考纲要求， 此项能力具体指 “根据所读， 用恰当的词语补全文章提纲、 概括关键内容” 。 解题关键是根据问题查找定位信息，找共性的东西。归纳词的特征有：概括性，在最大程度 上覆盖栏内信息；针对性，量体裁衣，大小适度；醒目性，简洁。常见概括性词有：原因： reason, cause； 结果： result, effect； 目的： aim, purpose； 方法： measure, solution, way, method；观点：opinion, view, attitude；异同：differences, similarities；优劣： advantages, disadvantages；其它：time, purpose, behavior, feeling。 1.原文： Then how to solve the problems? …Thereare numerous ways… 转换成表格中：_______ to the problem. (2009，湖南卷) 分析：原文中此段的核心句是第一句：Then how to solve the problems?最佳答案为： Solutions。
2.原文：Whatever the task your group is assigned,a few rules need to be followed to ensure a productive and successfulexperience…What comes first is to...Secondly,...Thirdly,... 转换成表格中的一个词：________.(2008，江苏卷) 分析：由 first, secondly, thirdly 等知这里是讲建议措施。最佳答案为：Suggestions。 3.原文：But this system can do a great deal ofgood…they can cut heat loss…green roofs can control temperature. 转换成表格中的一个词：________.(2008，湖南卷) 分析：由 do a great deal of good 以及后文的 they can...等，知此段讲的的系统的好处。 最佳答案为：Benefits 或 Advantages。 三、解题策略 第一步：看表初填词 这一步非常重要，不用看文章。而且看表格后能至少解决三题。这是笔者总结很多题发现的 规律。 第二步：定位细转换 这个定位一般都是找比较特别的词；如果找不到，请先根据下一题定位，基本就在这题定位 句上面。 转换的时候，请务必注意形式。 四、实战 南京市、盐城市 2015 届高三年级第一次模拟考试 第四部分任务型阅读(共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分) Simon Sinek isnaturally shy and doesn’t like speaking to crowds. At parties, he says he hidesalone in the corner or doesn’t even show up in the first place. He prefers thelatter. Yet, with some 22 million video views under his belt, the optimisticethnographer also happens to be the third most-watched TED Talks presenter ofall time.
Sinek’sunlikely success as both an inspirational speaker and a bestselling authorisn’t just dumb luck. It’s the result of fears faced and erased, trial anderror and tireless practice, on and off stage. Here are his secrets fordelivering speeches that inspire, inform and entertain. Don’t talk rightaway. Sinek says youshould never talk as you walk out on stage. “A lot of people start talkingright away, and it’s out of nerves,” Sinek says. “That communicates a littlebit of insecurity and fear.” Instead,quietly walk out on stage. Then take a deep breath, find your place, wait a fewseconds and begin. “I know it sounds long and tedious and it feelsexcruciatingly awkward when you do it,” Sinek says, “but it shows the audienceyou’re totally confident and in charge of the situation.” Show up to give,not to take. Often peoplegive presentations to sell products or ideas, to get people to follow them onsocial media, buy their books or even just to like them. Sinek calls thesekinds of speakers “takers,” and he says audiences can see through these peopleright away. And, when they do, they disengage. “We are highlysocial animals,” says Sinek. “Even at a distance on stage, we can tell ifyou’re a giver or a taker, and people are more likely to trust a giver — aspeaker that gives them value, that teaches them something new, that inspiresthem — than a taker.” Speakunusually slowly.
When you getnervous, it’s not just your heart beat that quickens. Your words also tend tospeed up. Luckily Sinek says audiences are more patient and forgiving than weknow. “They want youto succeed up there, but the more you rush, the more you turn them off,” hesays. “If you just go quiet for a moment and take a long, deep breath, they’llwait for you. It’s kind of amazing.” Turnnervousness into excitement. Sinek learnedthis trick from watching the Olympics. A few years ago he noticed thatreporters interviewing Olympic athletes before and after competing were allasking the same question. “Were you nervous?” And all of the athletes gave thesame answer: “No, I was excited.” These competitors were taking the body’ ssigns of nervousness — clammy hands, pounding heart and tense nerves — andreinterpreting them as side effects of excitement and exhilaration. When you’re upon stage you will likely go through the same thing. That’s when Sinek says youshould say to yourself out loud, “I’m not nervous, I’m excited!” Say thank youwhen you’re done. Applause is agift, and when you receive a gift, it’s only right to express how grateful youare for it. This is why Sinek always closes out his presentations with thesetwo simple yet powerful words: thank you. “They gave youtheir time, and they’ re giving you their applause.” Says Sinek. “That’s a gift,and you have to be grateful.”
Passage outline ●He is by (72) (71) ▲ to Simon Si ●Through his (73) nek eeches. ●Avoid talking (74)
Supporting details ▲ shy and dislikes making speeches in public. ▲ effort, he enjoys great success in giving sp
▲ for it indicates you’re nervous.
●Keep calm and wait a few seconds before talking, which will crea te an (75) ▲ that you are confident. ▲ with a
●Try to be a giver rather than a taker because in (76) taker, a giver can get more popular and accepted. Tips on delivering speeches ●Teach audience something new that they can (77) ●Speak a bit slowly just to help you stay calm. ●Never speed up while speaking in case you (78) ce. ●Switch nervousness to excitement by (79) lympic athletes. ●Express your (80)
▲ the audien
▲ the example of O
▲ to the audience for their time and applaus
e to conclude your speech. 第一步：看表初填词 我们至少能填出以下四个空： (71) ▲ to Simon Sinek Teach audience something new that they can (77) Switch nervousness to excitement by (79) ▲ from.
▲ the example of Olympic athletes.
Express your(80) speech.
▲ tothe audience for their time and applause to conclude your
先说 71 空：右栏开头 He is…遇到这类的如果指人，基本就是人物介绍；如果指物，基本 就是 definition 或 introduction。 77 空：翻译一下，他们能_______被教授的新知识。加上我们学过的短语：learn from 79 空：和 example 搭配的短语很少，除了 take, follow 就是介词 for 了，那么结合句意应 该是表达“以某人为榜样”。 80 空：在演讲结束后，向观众表达_______,因为他们花了时间来听和鼓掌。根据我们的常识 以及 express 后的常见搭配，肯定是感激之情，故 thanks,gratitude, appreciation。 第二步：定位细核对 表格的题目基本上都是遵循段落循序，如下：（标黄色的为关键词，请读者仔细体会为什 么选它们为关键词） a) Simon Sinekis naturally shyand doesn’t like speaking to crowds. =He is by (72) ▲ shy and dislikes making speeches in public.
By nature =naturally，此题必须拿下的。
b) It’s theresult of fears faced and erased, trial and error and tireless practice Through his(73) ▲ effort,he enjoys great success in giving speeches.
c) Don’t talk right away. Avoid talking (74) Right away= ? 短语转换
▲ for it indicates you’re nervous.
d) …which will create an (75)
▲ that you are confident.
…but it shows the audience you’ re totally confident and in charge of the situation.” 此题需要思考一会，根据句意：这向观众显示。。。=给观众产生一种__?__ 我相信读者能看出来是“印象”。
e) Try to be agiver rather than a taker because in (76) get more popular andaccepted.
▲ with a taker, a giver can
Sinek calls these kinds of speakers “takers,” and he says audiences can see through these people right away. And, when they do, they disengage. 此题既要结合短语搭配，还要结合文意。文章明显是将两种人做比较，而还必须有 in _____ with 这个短语。答案很清楚了。
f) but themore you rush, the more you turn them off Never speed upwhile speaking in case you (78) Turn sb. off =______ sb. 这个短语相当有挑战性的，意为“让人厌烦”。 ▲ the audience.
答案： 71. Introduction continuous contrast 72. nature 73.constant / tireless / 76. comparison /
74.immediately / instantly 75. impression
77.benefit / learn 78. bore / disgust 79.following / copying 80.
gratitude / thanks/ appreciation 南京市、盐城市 2015 届高三年级第一次模拟考试
Escape from FoMO Here’ s a testyou might enjoy: rate these situations on a number scale, ranging from 1 formild discomfort to 7 for unbearable distress. Situation 1: you’ revisiting New York City and realize there’ s no way you’ ll be able to get to allthe exhibits, see all the recommended plays or take in even part of the “musts”. How do you feel now? Something like 5? Situation 2: you’ reat dinner with friends, and you’ ve all agreed to make it a strictly phone-freeevening. But your smartphone won’t stop beeping Twitter and text alerts.Something is obviously up in your social network, but you can’t check. Even 7wouldn’t match the stress you’re feeling now. Welcome toFoMO (Fear of Missing Out), the latest mental disorder caused by social mediaconnections sharing updates that leaves individuals feeling that they aremissing out on something more exciting, important, or interesting going onsomewhere else. It is an outcome of technological advancement and boomingsocial information. According to a recent study, 56 per cent of those who usesocial networks suffer this. It is notuncommon that at night when you’ve sworn again to put the phone aside or turnoff the computer, you cast one last glance at the screen on your way to bed incase you miss some titbit (趣闻)supplied by mere acquaintances or evenstrangers’ requesting your “friendship”. We all knowthe studies showing that end-of-life regrets centre on what we didn’t do,rather than on what we did. If so, constantly watching others doing things
thatwe are not is rich ground for a future of looking back in sorrow. Attractiveonline images—so charming from afar—make FoMO more destructive. Technology hasbecome the major construct through which we define intimacy (亲 密).You may look on in wonder as someonetaps out an endless text message instead of actually talking to the person they’rewith. Being connected to everyone, all the time, is a new human experience; we， re just not equipped to cope with it yet. Researcherssay our dependence on technology can be reduced if we manage to separateourselves, even for short periods of time, from our gadgets. However, theproblem can only be settled when we grasp that our brains and our humanity— notour technologies—enable this addiction. We cannot seek solutions withouthonestly asking ourselves why we are so afraid of missing out. Researchers findFoMO occurs mostly in people with unfulfilled psychological needs in fieldssuch as love, respect and security. FoMO levels are highest in young people, inparticular young men. What, then,can we do about something so damaging to our quality of life? The best way tocope with FoMO is to recognize that, at our fast-paced life, we are sometimesbound to miss out. Instead of trying to maximize our benefits, we seek a merely “good enough”result. If you still doubt that “good enough” is the best cure forFoMO, the words of the American essayist and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson mightstrike the right chord,“For everything you have missed, you have gainedsomething else, and for everything you gain, you lose something else.” Escape from FoMO
Main Points Concept of FoMO
Details FoMO, constantly (71) ▲ our peace of mind, refers to the unease of feeling that we are not part of social connection.
Examples of FoMO ?
When having dinner with friends, we feel extremel
y depressed when
(72) ▲ to check our social network.
Determined as we are to put aside phones, we ca
n’t shift our (73) ▲ from them until we go to bed. (74) ▲ behind Fo ? MO des. Technology develops and social information explo
Images of online friends (75) ▲ more to us, comp
ared to our real world friends.
Some of us attempt to feel(76) ▲ fulfilled on soci
al network. Bad effects of Fo MO
We are constantly (77) ▲ for things that we did
Communicating with friends in the virtual world gi
ves(78) ▲ to the decline of important relationships with friends and family. Suggestions on av ? oiding Get (79) ▲ from the modern technology. Recognize that missing out is part of our life.
Accept that (80) ▲ can sometimes be“a blessing
in disguise”. 第一步：看表初填词 Determined as we are to put aside phones, we can’t shift our (73) ▲ from them until we go to bed. 仔细分析这个空所在的句子，“尽管我们把手机收起来，但还是从它们身上转移走我们的 ______”，我相信，你应该知道这里是“注意力”，focus/attention/concentration (74) ▲behind FoMO 看右栏讲的是原因，这道题简单，Reasons/Causes / Triggers。这样的概括题，高考应该 很难遇到了。 Communicatingwith friends in the virtual world gives(78) ▲ to the decline ofimportant relationships with friends and family. 如果你知道 give rise to 这个常见的短语，这题也是秒杀啊。 Get (79) ▲ from themodern technology. 明显是摆脱现代技术，因为上面讲的是科技的问题，下面自然是如何克服。短语 get away from 或 separated 第二步：定位细核对 FoMO, constantly (71) ▲ our peace of mind,refers to the unease of feeling that we are not part of social connection. Welcome toFoMO (Fear of Missing Out), the latest mental disorder Disorder = 混乱，这里自然应是“扰乱宁静”，disturbing，不要忘记了分词形式啊。
you’re atdinner with friends, and you’ve all agreed to make it a strictly phone-freeevening.
When having dinner with friends, we feelextremely depressed when (72) ▲ to check our socialnetwork. 关键要理解 phone-free 的含义，这是禁止使用手机的意思。如此，这个空就好办了， forbidden
Images of online friends (75) ▲more to us, compared to our real world friends. Attractive online images—so charming fromafar—make FoMO more destructive. Attractive= ______ to，相信读者应该知道答案，appeal
Some ofus attempt to feel(76) ▲ fulfilled on social network. Researchersfind FoMO occurs mostly in people with unfulfilled psychological needs infields such as love 此题为送分题，psychological 为原词答案。
Acceptthat (80) ▲ can sometimes be “a blessing in disguise”. “Foreverything you have missed, you have gained something else, and for everythingyou gain, you lose something else.” Lose 的名词形式：loss，这里也可以为 losses。