在句中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。 非谓语动词分为三种形式： 不定式、 动名词和分词（分词包括现在分词和过去分词）
一、 不定式的作用 1、 作主语 不定式作主语时，谓语用单数。往往用 it 作形式主语，把不定式放在谓语后面。如：
（2）It is+ adj. of / fo
r sb. to do sth. 结构中，当不定式的逻辑主语和前面的形容词可以构成系表结构时，用 of, 否则用 for. 2、 作宾语 （1） 动词+不定式。如： 注： 下列动词通常用不定式作宾语： want, try, hope, wish, need, forget, know, promise, refuse, help, decide, begin, start, learn, agree, choose, get 等 （2） 动词+疑问词+to , “特殊疑问句+不定式”相当于名词，作宾语。如： 注意：不定式短语作宾语时，如果还带有宾语补足语，往往把不定式短语放在宾语补足语之后，用 it 作形式宾语。如： I find it necessary to learn a foreign language. 3、 作宾语补足语 （1） 动词+宾语+不定式（to do ） 。如： What makes you think so?（不带 to 的不定式） （2）在动词 feel （一感） ，hear, listen to（二听） ，have, let, make（三让） ，notice, see, watch, observe, look at （五看）后面的补足语中，不定式不带 to，但变为被动语态后，必须带 to。如： They saw the boy fall off the tree. The boy was seen to fall off the tree. (3)help 后面作宾语补足语的不定式可以带 to,也可以不带 to. I often help him （to）clean the room. I helped him (to) find his things. 4、 作定语 不定式作定语，修饰名词或代词，不定式和它所修饰的名词之间有逻辑上的主谓关系、动状关系、同位关系 或动宾关系。不定式通常要放在这些被修饰的词后。如： 注意：1.不定式的逻辑主语是句子的主语时，不定式用主动形式表被动。如： Do you have anything else to say? 2.如果作定语的不定式是一个短语，则要保留不定时短语中的副词或介词。如： I need a pen to write with . (I will wirte with the pen ) (我需要一直钢笔写字) 作状语，表示目的、结果、原因等，有时还有一些固定搭配的不定式短语，如 in order to , so as to, so…as to, such …as to, ….enough to, too…to 等。 （1） 做目的状语，to, only to （仅仅为了）, in order to, so as to, so(such)….as to…（如此· · ·以便· · · ）如：
He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。 （2） 作结果状语，表事先没有预料到的，要放在句子后面。如： He hurried to the post office only to find it was closed. （3） 做原因状语。如： I’m glad to see you. （4） 做条件状语。如： 5、 作表语 不定式可放在 be 动词后面，构成表语。如： The question is how to put it into practice. 注意：1.不定式在句中作表语时，对应的谓语动词用单数。 6、 独立结构。如： To tell you the truth, I don’t agree with you. 二、 不定式的时态和语态 1、 不定式的时态 （1） 现在时：有时与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生，有时发生在谓语动词的动作之后。如： （2） 完成时：表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。如： （3） 进行时：表示动作正在进行，与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。如： （4） 完成进行时：表示动作从过去某个时间开始，一直延续到现在，并有可能持续下去。如： 2、 不定式的语态 当不定式的逻辑主语是其动作的承受者时，就用被动式。如： 四、 动词不定式的否定式。 Mrs. Smith warned her daughter ______ after drinking. A never to drive B to never drive C never driving D never drive The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ______. A not to B not to do C not do it D do not do
一、 动名词的作用 1、 作主语 谓语用单数。It 代替动名词作主语，常用于如下结构： It’s no good/use doing· · ·如： It’s no good waiting here. 2、 作宾语 (1) 只能接动名词作宾语的动词： admit，advise 建议，risk，appreciate，envy 嫉妒，avoid 避免， consider 考虑，delay 延迟，deny 否认，dislike 不喜欢，enjoy，escape 逃避，excuse 原谅、宽恕， finish 完成，forgive 原谅，understand 理解，give up 放弃，imagine 想象，keep 保持，mind 介意、在乎，miss 未达到，practise 训练，put off 推迟，resist 抵抗，suggest 建议、暗示 can’t help 禁不住，can’t stand 无法忍受，devote to(to 为介词)致力于· · · ，look forward to 期望、盼望， stick to 坚持，be used to 习惯于，object to 反对，be busy 忙于· · · ，fee like 想要· · · be surprised at 对??感到惊讶 be proud of 以??为骄傲 succeed in 在某方面成功 be afraid of 害怕 give up 放弃
(2) 只能接不定式作宾语的动词： happen 碰巧，offer 主动提出，promise 答应，agree 同意，refuse 拒绝，decide 决定， determine 决定、决心，pretend 假装，fail 未能够，learn，wish 希望，hope，expect，afford 负担得起。 (3) 接动名词、不定式均可，意义相同的动词：like，love，dislike，hate，begin，star，continue，prefer， can’t bear/endure 无法忍受，cease 停止 (4) 下列词接动名词和不定式均可，但意义不同的动词：forget，go on，mean，regret，remember，stop，try 等 Stop to do 停下来去做 stop doing 停止做 Forget to do 忘记要做 forget doing 忘记做过 Remember to do 记得要做 remember doing 记得做过 Regret to do 遗憾要做 regret doing 后悔做过 Try to do 企图做，尽力做 try doing 试着做 Go on to do 继续做（另一件事） go on doing 继续做（同一件事） Mean to do 打算做 mean doing 意味做 In some parts of London, missing a bus means _______ for another hour. A waiting B to waiting C wait D to be waiting
3、 作表语 此时的动名词可以和主语调换位置。如： Her job is washing, cleaning and taking care of the child. 4、 作定语 动名词作定语，一般表示用途。如： there are a lot of swimming pools in the city. （2）动名词作定语通常表示它所修饰的名词的用途或性质，可改写成一个 for 的短语，两者不存在逻辑上的主谓 关系。 如：a washing machine = a mashine for washing a swimming pool = a pool for swimming 二、 动名词的时态和语态 及物动词 主动 一般时 完成时 doing having done 被动 being done having been done 不及物动词 主动 doing having done
现在分词和过去分词的区别： 在语态上，现在分词表示主动意义，过去分词表示被动意义； 在时间上，现在分词表示的动作往往正在进行或者与谓语动词同时发生，过去分词表示的动作已经完成或没有一
定的时间性。 如：falling leaves 正在下落的树叶 fallen leaves 已经落在地上的树叶 一、分词的作用 1、 作定语 （1） 单个分词作定语，分词前置。如： The sleeping boy is my son. （2） 分词短语作定语，分词后置 The girl standing under the tree is my niece. The building built last year is our library. This is the question given. There is nothing interesting. （3） 过去分词作定语与其修饰的词是被动关系，相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。如： Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists What’s the language ______ in Germany? A speaking B spoken C be spoken D to speak When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door ______ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.” A read B reads C to read D reading 2、 作状语 现在分词和过去分词在句中可以作时间、原因、方式、伴随、条件、结果等状语。 If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.(条件) Bitten by a snake, he was taken to hospital(原因). Though defeated, he didn’t lose heart.(让步) He lay on the grass, looking into the sky.(伴随) He came running to tell me the good news.(方式) There was a terrible noise______ the sudden burst of light. A followed B following C to be followed D being followed 作表语 现在分词作表语多表示主语具有的特征，过去分词作表语多指主语所处的状态。如： The glass is broken. —I’m very______ with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious. —Mm, it does have a ______ smell. A pleasant; pleased B pleased; pleased C pleasant; pleasant D pleased; pleasant 3、 作宾语补足语 分词和不定式一样，在一些感官动词或使役动词后作宾语补足语。如： I smell something burning. 一、 分词的语态 1、 通常情况下，现在分词表示主动，过去分词表示被动。如： He is the man giving you/who gave you the book 他就是给你书的那个人 She is the girl stopped by/who was stopped by the car.她就是那个被车拦住的女孩。 课堂综合练习题： 1、 We often provide our children with toys, footballs or basketball, ______ that all children like these things. A thinking B think C to think D thought 2、 There have been several new events ______ to the program for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.
A add B to add C adding D added 3、 I can’t stand ______ with Jane in the same office. She just refuses ______ talking while she works. A working; stopping B to work; stopping C working; to stop D to work; to stop 4、 A good story does not necessarily have to have a happy ending, but the reader must not be left ______. A unsatisfied B unsatisfying C to be satisfying D being satisfied 5、 No matter how frequently ______, the works of Beethoven still attract people all over the world. A performed B performing C to be performed D being performed 6、 ______ this cake, you’ll need 2 eggs,175g sugar and 175g flour. A Having made B Make C To make D Making 7、 If you think that treating a woman well means always ______ her permission for things, think again. A gets B got C to get D getting 8、 As the twentieth century came to a close, the raw materials for a great national literature were at hand, waiting ______ A to use B to be used C to have used D to be using 9、 It took a long time for the connection between body temperature and illness ______. A to make B to be made C making D being made 10、 The Chinese are proud of the 29th Olympic Games ______ in Beijing in 2008. A hold B holding C held D to be held 11、 ______ with so much trouble, we failed to complete the task on time. A Faced B Face C Facing D To face 12、 AIDS is said ______ the biggest health challenge to both men and women in that area over the past few years. A that it is B to be C that it has been D to have been 13、 Don’t sit there ______ nothing. Come and help me with this table. A do B to do C doing D and doing 14、 Faced with a bill for $10,000, ______. A John has taken an extra job B the boss has given John an extra job C an extra job has been taken D an extra job has been given to John 15、 He hurried to the booking office only ______ that all the tickets had been sold out. A to tell B to be told C telling D told 16、 Five people won the “China’s Green Figure” award, a title______ to ordinary people for their contributions to environmental protection. A being given B is given C given D was given 17、 Police are now searching for a woman who is reported to ______ since the flood hit the area last Friday. A have been missing B have got lost C be missing D get lost 18、 The bird flu ______ through Asia has jumped from birds to humans at least 20 times so far,______ 16. A sweeps; killed B swept; killing C sweeping; to kill D sweeping; killing 19、 The man ______ of shooting 6 school children was caught by Beijing police, the Xinhua News Agency reported on Friday. A being suspected B suspecting C suspected D to be suspected 20、 The students entered the classroom, smiling and ______ , and ______ down to have their lessons. A talked; sat B talking; sitting C talking; sat D talked; sitting 21、 ——Have you ever heard of an American president called Chester A. Arhur? ——No , and he’s not mentioned in my history book at all. He seems ______ A to have been completely forgotten B having completely forgotten
C to have completely forgotten D completely forgetting 22、 With the magazine An Express Way to English ______ us , we will improved our language skills a lot. A helping B helped C has helped D to help 23、 It displeases my parents when Richard and I stay out late at night. My parents don’t approve ______ A of Richard and me staying out late at night B of me and Richard staying out late at night C to Richards’s and my staying out late at night D when Richard and me stay out late at night 24、 A communicative satellite ______ as much as 3.5 tons was sent up into space last week. A weighing B weighed C to be weighed D being weighed 25、 ______ of stealing money from the bank, he was questioned by the police. A Accusing B Accused C Having accused D To accuse 答案：1~5 ADCAA 6~10 CDBBD 11~15 ADCAB 16~20 CADCC 21~25 ADAAB
语法复习三：非谓语动词 非谓语动词专练 1.______ more attention,the trees could have grown better. A.To give B.Having given C.Given D.Giving 2.The first textbooks ______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A.to be written B.written C.being written D.having written 3.The missing boys were last seen ______ near the river. A.to play B.play C.to be playing D.playing 4.______ in thought,he almost ran into the car in front of him. A.To lose B.Lost C.Having lost D.Losing 5.When passing me he pretended ______ me. A.to see B.not having seen C.to have not seen D.not to have seen 6.The children insisted ______ there on foot. A.they going B.they would go C.on their going D.going 7.He still remembers ______ to Shanghai when he was very young. A.taking B.being taken C.taken D.having taken 8.______ the railway station,we had a break,only ______ the train had left. A.Arriving at;to find B.Coming to;discovering that C.On arriving at;finding out D.Hurrying to;to have found out 9.With the boy ______ the way,we had no trouble ______ the way ______ to Zhongshan Park. A.leading;finding;leading B.to lead;found;to lead C.led;finding;led D.leading;found;led 10.______ these pictures,I couldn’t help thinking of those days when I was in Being and ______ from the top of a thirty-storeyed building,Beijing looks more beautiful. A.Seeing;seen B.Seen;seeing C.Seeing;seeing D.Seen;seen 11.I can hardly imagine Peter ______ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A.to have sailed B.to sail C.sailing D.sail 12.If you wave your book in front of your face,you can feel the air ______ against your face. A.moved B.moving C.moves D.to move 13.______ is known to all,China will be an ______ and powerful country in 20 or 30 years’ time.
A.That;advancing B.This;advanced C.As;advanced D.It;advancing 14.While shopping,people sometimes can’t help ______ into buying something they don’t really need. A.persuade B.persuading C.being persuaded D.be persuaded 15.There was terrible noise ______ the sudden burst of light. A.followed B.following C.to be followed D.being followed 16.Please excuse my ______ in without ______ . A.come;permitted B.coming;permitted C.comimg;being permitted D.to come;being permitted 17.______ his head high,the manager walked into the room to attend the meeting ______ then. A.Holding;being held B.Held;holding C.Having held;held D.Held;to be held 18.——Did you hear her ______ this pop song this time the other day? ——Yes,and I heard this song ______ in English. A.sing;singing B.sung;sung C.sung;singing D.singing;sung 19.The question ______ now at the meeting is not the question ______ yesterday. A.discussed;discussed B.discussing;had discussed C.being discussed;discussed D.discussing;discussing 20.With the cooking ______ ,I went on ______ some sewing. A.done;to do B.being done;doing C.to be done;doing D.to have done;doing 21.It is no use ______ your past mistakes. A. regretting B. regret C. to regret D. regretted 22.Her husband died in 1980 and had nothing ______ to her,only ______ her five children. A.left;to leave B.leaving;leaving C.leaving;left D.left;leaving 23.I am very busy.I have a very difficult problem ______ . A.to work B.to work out C.to be worked out D.to work it out 24.I would appreciate ______ back this affernoon. A.you to call B.you call C.your calling D.you’re calling 25.Climbing mountains was ______ ,so we all felt ______ . A.tiring;tired B.tired;tiring C.tiring;tiring D.tired;tired 26.I saw some villagers ______ on the bench at the end of the room. A.seating B.seat C.seated D.seated themselves 27.She was glad to see her child well ______ care of. A.take B.to be taken C.taken D.taking 28.It is one of the important problems ______ tomorrow. A.to solve B.to be solved C.solved D.solving 29.______ maps properly,you need a special pen. A.Drawn B. Drawing C.To draw D.Be drawing 30.There is a river ______ around our school. A.to run B.run C.running D.to be running 31.How about the two of us ______ a walk down the garden? A.to take B.take C.taking D.to be taken 32.I was fortunate to pick up a wallet ______ on the ground on the way back home, but unfortunately for me,I found my colour TV set. ______ when I got home. A.lying;stolen B.laying;stealing C.lay;stolen D.lying;stealing 33.Whth the kind－hearted boy ____ me with my work,I’m sure I’ll be able to spare time ___ with your work. A.to help;help you out B.helping;helping you C.helped;to help you out D.to help;to help you 34.Greatly movedd by her words, ______ . A.tears came to his eyes B .he could hardly hold back his tears
C. tears could hardly be held back D. his eyes were filled with tears. 35.——I hope the children won’t touch the dog. ——I’ve warned them ______ . A.not B.not to C.not touch D.not do 36.I would love ______ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A.to go B.to have gone C.going D.having gone 37.When ______ why he walked in without permission,he just stared at us and said nothing. A.been asked B.asked C.asking D.to be asked 38.The man kept silent in the room unless ______ . A.spoken to B.spoke to C.spoken D.to speak 39.He was often listened ______ in the next room. A.sing B.sung C.to sing D.to to sing 40.Rather than ______ on a crowded bus,he always prefers ______ a bicycle. A.ride;ride B.riding;ride C.ride;to ride D.to ride;riding 41.The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street,but his mother told him ______ . A.not to B.not to do C.not do it D.do not to 42.What’s troubling them is ______ enough experienced workers. A.that they have to B.they have not C.their not having D.not their having 43.______ his telephone number,she had some difficulty getting in touch with Bill. A.Not knowing B.Knowing not C.Not having known D.Having not know 44.Bamboo is used ______ houses in some places . A.to build B.to building C.to be built D.being built 45.Go on ______ the other exercise after you have finished this one. A.to do B.doing C.with D.to be doing 46.The day we looked forward to ______ . A.come B.coming C.has come D.have come 47.Whom would you rather ______ the work? A.to have to do B.to have do C.have to do D.have do 48.Do you think it any good ______ with him again? A.to talk B.talking C.to talking D.having talked 49.Sometimes new ideas have to be tested many times before ______ . A.accepting fully B.being fully accepted C.fully accepting D.fully being accepted 50.The government forbids ______ such bad books. A.published B.to publish C.publish D.publishing
语法复习四：非谓语动词专练 --------------分词（包括现在分词和过去分词） 、不定式、动名词 I .单项选择 1.Most of the people _____ to the party were famous scientists. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. inviting 2. ______ many times, but he still couldn’t understand it . A. Having being told B. Though had been told C. He was told D. Having told 3. She reached the top of the hill and stopped _____ on a big rock by the side of the path . A.to have rested B. testing C. to rest D. rest 4. The next morning she found the man ______ in bed , dead . A. lying B. lie C. lay D. laying 5. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier , _______ it more difficult .
A. to make B. not to make C. not making D. to not make 6 . The Olympic Games , _____ in 776 B.C., did not include women plays until 1912 . A.first playing B.to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing 7 . ---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting . ---- Well , now I regret ____________that . A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done 8 . The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with talks , _______ that he had enjoyed his stay here . A. having added B. to add C. adding D. added 9 . _______ a reply , he decided to write again . A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received 10.The speaker raised his voice, but he still couldn’t make himself ________ . A. hear B. to hear C. hearing D. heard Robert is said ___ abroad , but I don’t know what country be studied in . to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying II . 用动词的正确形式填空 1. Little Tom should love ________ ( take ) to the theatre this evening . 2. Paul doesn’t have to be made _______ ( learn ) . He always works hard . 3. The computer centre , ______ ( open )last year , is very popular among the students in this school . 4. Go on _____( do ) the other exercise after you have finished this one . 5. How about two of us ______ ( take ) a walk down the garden . 语法复习三：非谓语动词 1―5 C B D B D 6―10 C B A A A 11―15 C B C C B 16―20 C A D C A 21―25 A D B C A 26―30 C C B C C 31―35 C A D B B 36―40 B B A D C 41―45 A C A A A 46―50 C D A B D 语法复习四：非谓语动词专练 I 1.A 2.C 3.C 4.A 5.B 6.C 7.D 8.C 9.C 10.D II 1.to be taken ; 2.to learn ; 3.opened ;4.to do ; 5.taking