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高中英语必修一知识点4


Module 4 A Social Survey ----My Neighborhood
1.survey 调查(统计性) 辨析:survey/investigation/research/poll ①investigation:事件调查(为什么) ②research 研究性调查 ③poll 民意调查 2.presentation ①The Queen will mak

e the presentation herself.女王将亲手赠送礼品 ②His presentation was clear and incisive.他的报告清晰而犀利 ③the school?s annual presentation evening.学校一年一度的颁奖晚会 3.brief 形容词:①the president made a brief working visit to Moscow.总统对莫斯科作了短暂的工 作访问 ②be brief and don?t talk for longer than is necessary.简明扼要一点,别说的过长 动词:She briefed him on last week?s decision.她向他介绍了上周决定的情况 短语:in brief 简言之 ① He is,in brief,the embodiment of evil.简言之,他是邪恶的化身 ② the news in brief 简明新闻 4.block 名词:大楼,街区 动词:封锁 They blocked the entrance with big stones.他们用大石块堵住了入口 5.countryside in the countryside/in town (无冠词) 在城里 6.local 两个词性:名词、形容词 同源词:location 7.mile 基本英制单位:yard/pound/inch 8.second floor ①floor 和 storey 表示楼层的区别 nine-storey ninth floor ②second floor 表示几楼:英:三楼 美,中:二楼 一楼:ground 9.lively 【区别】lively/lovely/alive/live ①lively:生动活泼的 ②lovely:可爱的 ③alive:活着,不做前置定语 ④live:?现场的:live performance 现场表演 ?活的,前置定语:live animals 【例句】He eats live animals 活着的动物 animals alive 把动物活着吃

10.it?s great to see you again nice to meet you/nice to have met you/nice meeting you 11.it?s been six years since we last saw each other 【比较】It is two years since we last met. It was two years since we had met. It is two years since we lived here.(It is two years since we smoked.)

【理解】① 若 since 引导的状语从句的谓语为持续性动词的现在完成时,则表示动作
和状态延续到现在(说话时刻),其表示的时间的起点应从动作发生之时算起。如: I haven?t heard from him since he has lived there。 这里 has lived 表示动作的持续性,时间的起点应从:“开始居住”时算起。因 此此句可理解为“自从他(开始)住在那儿起,我就一直没收到他的来信”。 ② 若 since 引导的状语从句的谓语动词是非持续性动词或表示状态的动词的 过去时时,则从句表示的时间是“从那持续动作或状态结束时算起”。如: I haven?t heard any noise since I slept. Sleep 为持续性动词,为过去时 sleep 的动作结束时,即“醒来”时,这句应译为“我醒后还未听到任何声音”。 12.this is the first time I?ve visited your hometown. 【比较】It (this) was the second time I had visited your hometown.)——过完 It was + 过完 某人第几次做某事 This is +现完 13.on the coast 【比较】coast/seaside/beach ①coast 大的地理概念,海岸线 ②seaside 海边,可近可远 ③beach 沙滩,石滩 【用法】①We are 20 km 车:from the coast. 海:off ②in the south of 在... ...内的南部 on the south of 在... ...的南部(相邻且接壤) to the south of 在... ...的南部(相邻不接壤) ③South China 华南 the south part of China 中国的南部 14.【比较】①I feel very fortunate living here.强调居住 ②I feel very fortunate living here.强调暂住 15.【比较】fairly/quite/rather/pretty ① 含义上的区别 ? fairly 语气最轻,尽管经常与褒义词连用,但由于语气较弱,往往不带明显的 恭维或赞赏,通常译为“还算”、“相当”。比如要说某部电影 fairly good,指的可能是还勉强 过得去,只是没有否定。 此外,fairly adv.还可表示“公正地”,“按规矩地”;“光明正大地” He told the facts fairly.他实事求是地叙述这些事实。 ? quite 语气稍重,意为“颇”或“相当”。要是说某一部电影 quite good,那是说这 部电影相当不错,虽不是最好,但至少值得看。

? rather 或 pretty 在语气上又稍重一点,意为“十分”或“相当” (pretty 不如 rathe r 正式)。要是说某一部电影 rather / pretty good,指的是这电影相当不错,语气比较重, 意指要高出一般水平或出乎意料地好。 两者均可与褒义或贬义形容词连用。与褒义词连用,表示一种愉快的心情 与贬义(包括不褒不贬)词连用,表示一种不赞成或不满意的心情。如: a rather [pretty] good play 相当好的戏 rather [pretty] poor work 相当差的工作 ? very 语气最强,意为“很”或“非常”。要是说某一部电影 very good,这是说这 部电影很不错,算得上是精品之作。 这些词语气的轻重可大致描述为: (not) → fairly → quite → rather / pretty → very ② 用法上的差别 ? 以上各词中,只有 rather 可以与比较级以及副词 too (太) 连用。如: ⅰ It?s rather colder today. 今天冷多了。 ⅱ This one is rather too large. 这个稍大了一点。 注:quite 有时也与比较级连用, 但通常只限于 quite better (身体好)这一表达中。 ? rather 和 quite 有时可直接修饰动词, 而其他几个副词一般不这样用。如: ⅰ I quite agree with you. 我完全同意你 (的意见)。 ⅱ We rather like the book. 我们很喜欢这本书。 ⅲ I was quite busy last week.我上星期相当忙。 ⅳ She is quite pretty, but unhealthy-looking.她颇有几分姿色,但看起来并不健 康。 ⅴ She was quite behind the age.她完全落后于时代了。 ⅵ This is a quite comfortable house.这是所相当舒适的房子。 ? rather, quite 与“冠词+形容词+名词”连用时, 通常置于冠词之前,有时也可放 在冠词之后。如: ⅰ It?s quite [rather] a good idea. ⅱ It?s a quite [rather] good idea. 那可真是个好主意。 【注意】若此结构中没有形容词,则 quite 和 rather 则只能放在冠词之前。如: ⅰ It was quite [rather] a success. 那事相当成功。 ⅱ Our maths teacher is quite a character 我们的数学老师真有点与众不同。 ⅲ He is quite a good actor.他是一个相当好的演员。 ⅳ He was rather tired.他有些疲倦了。 ⅴ You have done rather well.你做得相当不错。 ? rather(常与 than 连用)更 ⅰ These shoes are comfortable rather than pretty.这双鞋不好看,但是舒服。 ⅱ American young people would rather get advice from strangers.美国的年轻人 宁可从陌生人那里获取咨询。 ⅲ We would rather receive money than the usual gifts.我们宁可接受钱而不希望 受到通常的礼物。 ⅳ We would rather rent the house than buy it outright. 我们宁可租这幢房子,也 不愿直接买下它。 ⅴ I had rather be dead than be a slave. 我宁可死去,也不愿意当奴隶。

ⅵ He resigned rather than take part in such a dishonest transaction .他宁愿辞职 也不愿意参加这样一种欺骗的交易。 ? 通常只用 quite 修饰不可分级的形容词(如:right, wrong, ready, full, empty, per fect, impossible, alone, unique 等,此时 quite 并不表示“相当”或“很”,而表示“完全”。如: ⅰ You?re quite right (wrong). 你完全正确(错了)。 ⅱ That?s quite impossible. 那完全不可能。 ? fairly 语气最轻,尽管经常与褒义词连用,但由于语气较弱,往往不带明显的恭 维或赞赏,通常译为“还算”、“相当”。比如要说某部电影 fairly good,指的可能是还勉强过 得去,只是没有否定。 ⅰ She paints fairly well.她画得相当好。 ⅱ This bed is fairly soft.这个床还算软。 ⅲ The speaker seems to be fairly apprised of the situation in the Far East.报告人似乎 对中东局势相当熟悉。 ⅳ She speaks Spanish fairly well.她的西班牙语说得相当好。 ⅴ I was fairly sure that I would go to the party.我很可能去参加晚会(fairly 适当的程 度)。 ⅵ He was fairly beside himself with joy. (fairly 完全地;全然地)他欣喜若狂。 ⅶ be fairly beside oneself 简直疯了 ⅸ He was fairly beside himself with rage.他气得快疯了。 ⅹ He was fairly beside himself with joy.他欣喜若狂。 16.Don?t they bother you bother 用法:①不及物动词 Scientists rarely bother with such niceties. 科学家们很少为这些细节问题操心 not bother to do (完形填空)不想费事做某事 The driver didn?t bother to ask why.这司机没有费心去问为什么 ②及物动词 It bothered me that I hadn?t done anything.我什么也没做,这使我不安 He wasn?t to bother himself with day-to-day things.他根本不关心日常事务 I?m not particularly bothered about how I look.我并不特别在意自己的外表 They couldn?t be bothered to look it up.他们根本不想花什么气力去查这件事 ③名词的用法 What a bother! We missed the bus.真恼人!我们错过了公交车 I hope she hasn?t been a bother.我希望她不要这么讨厌 17.they can be a nuisance in the summer. can 表示有时会 ?Among the 15-year-old children,some studying in university while others are still learning to read and write. A.should have been B.would have been C.can be D.must be ?Our house is on the top of the hill, and in winter the winds be pretty cold. A.must B.ought to C.can D.need 18.maybe I could buy a few presents there present 用法 ①形容词 The speech caused embarrassment to all those present.这些话使所有在场的人 感到尴尬

She did not expect to find herself in her present situation. 她没料到自己会是 现在这样的处境 The present article cannot answer every question. 这篇文章无法回答每个问题 present company excepted.在场的除外 ②名词 They refuse to think beyond the present.他们不愿想以后的事 Membership at present stands at about 5,000.眼下会员数已达 5,000 左右 for the present 眼下,暂时 ③动词 The arguments were well researched and clearly presented.这些论点被进行了透 彻的研究,并以条理清楚的语言表述出来。 He likes to present himself as a radical politician.他喜欢把自己标榜为激进的 政治家 (定义) He presented the information to his colleagues.他把信息告诉了同事 19.approaching the harbor approach 的用法 ①动词(vi/vt) ?空间上的接近:She hadn?t heard him approach (her room) ?时间上的接近:Christmas was approaching. ?数量程度上的接近:The population will approach 12 million by the end of the decade. ?One must approach the matter with caution.(处理=deal with) ?与某人接洽,商谈:Have you approached John about doing a concert? ②名词(与 to 搭配) ?I liked her approach to the problem.解决问题的方法 ?The landowner made an approach to the developer.与某人接洽 ?the approach of winter 接近,临近 20.just across the water ①across 这里作介词用,表示位置“在... ...对面、另一边” across the classroom 在教室的另一端 There?s a hotel across the road.路的另一边有一家旅馆 He lives across the street.他住在街对面 ②表示“横在,披在... ...上” She was wearing a sliver fox fur across her shoulders.她肩上披了一张银狐皮 ③表示“透过,略过” A smile of pleasure passed across his face.他脸上略过一丝快乐的微笑 A straight line was ruled across the map.一条直线横划在地图上 This policy stretches across several different departments.这项政策影响着几个不同的部 门 21.architecture ①architecture 为不可数名词,可以指“建筑学,建筑风格,复杂结构 ?She studied architecture and art history at the university.她在大学里学习建筑和艺术史 ?I?m interested in classical archienture.我对古典建筑风格感兴趣 ?the chemical architecture of the human brain 人脑的化学结构

②architect 建筑师 词根:arch 表示“大、总”,比如,The Archbishop (基督教会)大主教 22.So they tell me 人们也是这样告诉我的。类似的还有 So it is.确实如此 23.a nice little fish retaurant 前置定语排序的原则:限,数,描,特,颜,类 限:人物代词,冠词 数:序数词基数词 描:形容词,描述性的 ,好坏优劣 特:大小形状 颜 类:国家,材料,用途 24.I?m starving ①starve 作动词,vi/vt 皆可 Beause there is no food, the people are starving.由于没有视频,所以人们在挨饿 She?s starving herself , trying to lose weight.她在饿肚子减肥 ②seven million starved to death 饿死的有七百万人 ③starve to death 是真的饿死了,文中 I?m starving 意为“饿坏了” ④the world?s starving chileren 世界上处于饥饿中的孩子(starving 作形容词) ⑤They tried to starve the army into surrender.他们试图使守军因饥饿而投降 ⑥starve for news 渴望消息 ⑦The baby had been starved of wxygen at birth.这个婴儿出生时缺氧 25.现在完成时 26.What do you think the passage is about. About 此处表示“关于,涉及到”: What is the book about?这本书是关于什么内容的 There?s nothing we can do about it.我们对此无能为力 It?s all about having fun.都是为了好玩 27.neighborhood 【含义】 ①地区,类似中国的小区或街区 She lived in a wealthy neighborhood of Boston ②本地区的人 the party disturbed the whole neighborhood ③邻里关系 the importance of neighborhood to old people 【词根】hood 用来构成名词,表示某种“状态、特性”或“集合” childhood brotherhood 28.committee committee 为集合名词,其后面的动词既可为单数也可用复数(指一个集体还是许多 人) ①The committe meets at four today.委员会今天四点开会 The committee get together with difficulty.委员们开会很难召集齐 ②central committee 中央委员会 joint committe 联合委员会 standing committe 常务委员会 executive committee 执行委员会 29.organization 相关词:organic food 有机食品/organized 形容词,过去式/disorganization 解体

30.club ①football club/ photograghic club / book club ②If you ?re confised,join the club!如果你感到困惑,我也一样! 31.unemployed 失业 ①employ 雇佣 employment ②unemployment/lay off/fire/dismiss unemployment 译为失业,lay off=fire=dismiss 解雇 Laid off works 下岗工人 ③She?s unemploy,isn?t she?否定前缀,不影响前否后肯 32.information 常见不可数名词:news/weather/progress/furniture/architecture 常见搭配有: fresh/new/lastest/up-to-date 最近的 /additional/extra/further/general/basic/background/detailed/classified/confidential/secret information 33.household ①名词:一家人,一户 I grew uo as part of a large household.我生长在一个大家庭 The whole households were up early.全家人都起得很早 ②形容词:家庭的,家用的,家喻户晓的 Microsoft is a household name.微软是一个家喻户晓的品牌 34.population 【背】①Shenyang has a population of 10 million ②Shenyang is a city with a population of 10 million ③What?s the population of Shenyang ? ④The population of Shenyang is 10 million. ⑤20% of Shenyang?s population are farmers.集合名词,百分数=复数 【同根词】popular/populous/popularity/普及;流行 populism 大众的 35.occupation 名词“职业”,同义词还有 job/work/career/profession 【同源词】occupy 表示“占有,使... ...忙于”(这个词在高二高三阶段是考查重点) Enemy troops occupied the country.敌军占领了这个国家 He occupied himself in/with collecting stamps.他忙于集邮 国外的卫生间里:occupied 有人 vacant 无人 36.Professional Professor 专业的/profession 职业/amateur 业余的 37.manual 名词译为“手册”,形容词译为“手工的” a computer manual 计算机操作指南 a training manual 培训手册 a manual worker 体力劳动者 manual gear 手动挡 38.现在完成时时间状语 recently,lately,already,yet,before,still,ever,never,up to now,up to the present, ill,now,until,now,so for,in the last few years,in the past 30 years,these days, these weeks,these years 等

39.【比较】a great many/a good many a good deal of 大量的,多的。后面跟不可数名词单数谓语 a great many of 大量的,很多。后面跟可数名词复数加复数谓语 a good many of 大量的,很多的。后面跟可数名词复数加复数谓语 例句:There are a great many books in the library.图书馆里有许多书。 A great dear of money was spent on the project.那项工程花费了大量金钱。 【例句】a great many 后面直接加复数可数名词 a great many of 后面跟限定语再跟名词 例如: a great many students a great many of "my" classmates 40.congratulations congration sb on sth 41.it?s fascinating 令人着迷的 I?m fascinated by... ...被... ...迷住了 42.we make it 1,400 ---------------------------------------------------------------含义 注意区别单独使用的 make it(做成了) 43.life life 究竟可数还是不可数,分成两大类四种情况讨论 ?to live a quiet happy life?in people?s lives 可数 在生活中 ?in life;life is hard for Mary 不可数 ?The fire took away 20 lives. 可数 生命 ?There?s no life on the moon. 不可数 We could feel life in Van Gogh?s paintings. 44.number ①a number of/the number of ②a large/small number of ③random number 随机数 an even[odd] number 偶[奇]数 winning number 中奖号码 the winning numbers in tonight?s lottery 今晚的中彩票的 号码 ④Your days are numbered!你离死期不远了 45.secondly 【注意】first/second/third 一起使用 firstly/secondly/thirdly 一起使用,不能混用 46.Remain ①不及物动词,不接宾语,没有被动 ② remain at home/remain where you are 相当于 stay ③ She remained calm in case of fire/she remained a farmer throughout her life.保持 in case of 在... ...情况下 in case 预备某种情况出现 ④ nothing remains/nothing is left 什么也不剩 ⑤ It remains to be seen whether Tom is a man or not. A lot of work remains to be finished. 有待于被

⑥the remaining 20 dollars=the 20 dollars left ⑦the remains of ... ...剩余的 47.a second home I?d like to take a second Baozi/the second Baozi 再来一个,表示数量增加 She?s considered a second Newton. 48.at weekends ①at the weekend:What are you doing at the weekend?你本周末打算干什么? ②at weekends: What are you doing at weekends?你周末通常干什么 ③over the weekend:The office is closed over the weekend.办事处周末关门 ④It will be a wet weekend for much of England and Wales.这个周末将有降水 49.price ①有关 price 的短语 ?They wanted victory at any price.他们不惜一切代价争取胜利 ?These paintings are almost beyond price.这些画几乎都是无价之宝 ??What about joining the army???Not at any price.That?s the last thing Iwant to go.“想参 军吗?”“给多少钱也不去。我最不希望做的事就是去参军。” ?Any businessman will tell you it?s hard to put a price on public confidence.任何商人都 会告诉你公共信任是无法用金钱衡量的 ②交易过程中的一些说法 charge 交换/offer 出价/bargain 讨价还价/deal 成交/fos sale 销售/on sale 减价出售 /discount 打折/order 下订单 ③谈及 price 常用的表达法 上涨:price go up /rise/shoot up/skyrocket/soar 下降:price drop/fall/go down/slump 价格范围:price go from...to .../range from... to ... 各种价格:full price 全价 half price 半价; starting price 起价 retail price 零售价 wholesale price 批发价 cost price 成本价 average price 均价 代价:at the price of/at the cost of/at the expense of 50.afford afford sth/afford to do sth 多指金钱和时间方面 She can well afford to pay for her self.她完全能够自己付钱 It was taking up more time than he coule afford.要占的时间超出他能抽出的时间 51.fighting to survive 努力去做 =struggle to survive ①survive(vi/vt) 幸存者:surviver survival of the fittest 适者生存 ②Few survived after the flood.洪水后生还者极少 Did anyone survive the explosion?那次爆炸事故中有人幸免吗 He has survived several assassination attempts.他逃过了几次暗杀 52.chart ①chart 图表,常见的有:bar chart,pir chart,circular chart.cubic chart 立体图表 grade-distribution chart 学生成绩分布图 ②近义词:form,table,graph,diagram.grid 53.contact

①动词(vi/vt) If the exposed wires contact,we shall have a short circuit 如果暴露的电线接触,就会短 路 contact sb .by telephone 打电话与某人联系 ②名词 contact officer 联络官 contact lenese 隐形眼镜 与... ...取得联系:have/make contact with ... ...be/throw in contact with bring/come into contact with 与... ...失去联系:lose contact with ... ...;be out of contact with


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