Unit 1 Grammar
Revise the Infinitive
Do you believe I can fly like a bird?
How can you bel
ieve I can fly like a bird?
? _______ To see is to believe. ? It’s impossible for humans _______________ to fly like a bird now.
语法讲解建议采用归纳法，如 尽可能多的呈现一些相关例句， 或可让学生从已学课文中找相 应例句，引导学生试着从所观 察到的语言现象中总结出语言 规则和语法规律。
Marty says …
1. Unfortunately, the doctors don’t know how to make me better, but I am very outgoing and have learned to adapt to my disability. 2. I used to climb trees, swim and play football. 3. Then I started to get weaker and weaker.
4. Even after all that, no one could give my disease a name and it is difficult to know what the future holds.
Marty says …
5. Sometimes, too, I was too weak to go to school so my education suffered.
6. My ambition is to work for a firm that develops computer software when I grow up.
Marty says …
7. Last year I invented … and a big company has decided to buy it from me. 8. I also have to do a lot of work, especially if I have been away for a while.
9. Just accept them for who they are, and give them encouragement to live as rich and full a life as you do.
不定式由“to+动词原形”构成,其否定形 式是“not/never to do”,不定式可以带宾 语或状语构成不定式短语,没有人称和数 的变化,但有时态和语态的变化。不定式 可以作主语、宾语、状语、表语和定语， 但不能单独作谓语。不定式的逻辑主语有 时用“for+名词或代词宾格”构成。
动词不定式的作用 Functions of Infinitive 1 主语 (subject) 2 表语 (predicative) 3 宾语 (object) 4 宾补 (object complement) 5 定语 (attribute) 6 状语 (adverbial) 7 独立结构 (absolute construction)
1 不定式作主语 (subject)
To keep smiling is healthy for you. It’s important to look up the new words in the dictionary when you study English. 单个不定式作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。 若不定式太长, 往往用it作形式主语, 不定 式后置。
2 不定式作表语 (predicative)
? My job is to protect the world. ? Your task is to _____________.
不定式常用在系动词 be, seem, appear, get, remain等后作表语。 Seeing is to believe. × To see is believing. × Seeing is believing. √ To see is to believe. √ All you have to do is (to) finish the job quickly.
3 不定式作宾语 (object) ? Yao Ming likes to play basketball. ? I find it still necessary (for him) to _________ if he wants to win. 句型: think / consider / find it + adj. + to do
常接动词不定式作宾语的动词有： agree, afford, appear, ask, attempt, care, choose, claim, dare, decide, demand, deserve, determine, expect, fail, get, hate, hesitate, hope, hurry, intend, learn, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, tend, threaten, want, wish。
4 不定式作宾补 (object complement) My mum asks me to play the piano two hours every day.
warn, tell, allow, help, ask, force等 + sb. to do sth.
The teacher told me to clean the blackboard. I expect you to give me some help.
watch see 五看 look at observe notice
let 三使 make have
+ sb. do sth. （不带to）
listen to hear
1. They saw the boy fall suddenly from the tree. The boy was seen to fall suddenly from the tree. 2. Mother made John wash the car for a week. John was made to wash the car for a week.
1 不定式在感官动词(feel, hear, listen to, watch, look at, notice, observe)后；
2 使役动词 (let, have, make)后边作 宾补时, 省去to, 但是在被动语态中 要还原to；
3 不定式用在介词but, except, besides 后时, 如果这些介词前有行为动词do的 各种形式, 那么介词后的不定式不带to, 相反则带to。 1. She could do nothing but cry. 2. I have no choice but to go. 3. What do you like to do besides sleep.
5 不定式作定语 (attribute) 1. Kate is looking for a suitable coat to wear. 2. Tom has a nice pen to write with.
1. 不定式做定语时常放在被修饰的名 词或代词之后 (a) She was very busy and had no time to visit her friends. (b) Ladies and gentlemen, I have something important to tell you.
不定式作定语与所修饰的词之间有 三种关系： (1) 动宾关系 I have a lot of work to do. 我有很多工作要做。 (2)主谓关系 He is always the first to come. 他总是第一个来。 (3)同位关系 We all have a chance to go to college. 我们都有上大学的机会。
2. 当名词被the first, the last, the only 等词以及形容词最高级修饰时 eg: She is always the first to come and the last to leave. 3. something, anything, nothing, everything等复合不定代词常用不定式 做后置定语。
注意比较： 1) Have you anything to send? 你有什么东西要寄吗？ （不定式to send的动作执行者是you） 2) Have you anything to be sent? 你有什么要（我或别人）寄的东西吗？ （不定式to be sent的动作执行者是 已被省略的me或someone else）
3. 也可用在have … to do和there be 句型中。 There is no one to take care of her. I have no jewelry to wear. 4. 如果不定式是不及物动词, 则后面需 适当的介词。 Please pass me some paper to write ____. on
6 不定式作状语 (adverbial) catch the train I got up early to _____________. You came here to ________. 在一些短语中也有体现 in order to, so as to, enough to, only to, too ... to
1. 表示目的: to
in order to so as to
eg: He spoke loudly (so as / in order) to be heard.
2. 表示原因: 不定式可以用在作表语的形容词后作 状语, sorry, surprised, happy, glad, eager, angry, foolish, right, wrong, slow, quick, rude, cruel, disappointed等。 eg: I’m glad / pleased to see you. We were surprised to hear the news.
3. 结果状语: so + adj. / adv. + as to do … such + n. + as to do … adj. / adv. + enough + to do too + adv. / adj. + to do He was so foolish as to believe it.
= He was such a fool as to believe it. = He was foolish enough to believe it.
7 独立结构 (absolute construction) To tell the truth, I am not happy at the moment. ? to be frank ? to be honest ? to tell the truth
Identify its function.
1. It is good to help others. (subject) 2. It is my ambition to make sure that the disabled people in our neighborhood have access to all public buildings. (subject) 3. My ambition is to work in the computer industry when I grow up. (predicative)
4. I don’t have time to sit around feeling sorry for myself. (attribute) 5. I am the only student in my class to have a pet snake. (attribute) 6. A big company has decided to buy it from me. (object) 7. My fellow students have begun to accept me for who I am. (object)
8. I have had to work hard to live a normal life. (adverbial) 9. Some days I am too tired to get out of bed. (adverbial) 10. We must call on local government to give financial assistance to disabled people. (object complement)
to do to be doing
to be done to have been done
完成式 完成进 行式
to have done to have been doing
(1) They pretended not to see us. (一般式表示与谓语的动作同时/几乎/发 生在它之后。) (2) He pretended to be sleeping. (在谓语动词发生的同时,不定式的动作也 正在进行。) (3) She pretended to have known it before. (完成式表示动作发生在谓语动作之前。) (4) We’re happy to have been working with you. (完成进行式表示谓语动作发生之 前,不定式的动作一直在进行而且可能之 后也继续。)
不定式的时态 不定式的一般式 to do
I am glad to see you.
He has decided to give her some money. 表示的动作通常与谓语所表示的动作 或状态同时或者几乎同时发生，或是 在它之后发生。
不定式的进行式to be doing
I am very glad to be working with you. He pretended to be working hard when his boss passed him. 表示的动作通常与谓语动词表示的动 作同时发生。
不定式的完成式 to have done
He happened to have seen the film before. The novel is believed to have been translated into Chinese. 不定式所表示的动作发生在谓语动作 或状态之前。
He wanted to have met you at the airport, but he didn’t get there in time. 表示过去没有实现的期待或者计划 hoped, promised, wanted, wished, expected, planned … He would like to have played the violin at the concert. 不定式的完成式在would like后边表示 未能实现的愿望。
主动语态 to do 被动语态 to be done It is an honor for me to be invited to attend the meeting. Everyone likes the hero to be praised.
省略to与省略do We asked him to stay till the next day, but he refused to. — Are you a teacher? — Yes, and I have to be. What we want to do now is lie down and have a good rest. I didn’t say anything but to make a gesture.
固定词组和句型 1. prefer n. (doing) to n. (doing) 2. prefer to do sth. rather than do sth. 3. would rather do 4. would rather + 句子（虚拟语气） 5. advise / allow / permit / forbid sb. to do advise / allow / permit / forbid) doing
stop to do sth. 停下来去做某事
doing sth. 停止做某事
forget to do sth. 忘记去做某事 doing sth. 忘记已做了某事 remember to do sth. 记得去做某事 doing sth. 记得曾经做某事
主动形式表被动意义的不定式 1. 主语 + be + adj. + to do 能用于此句型的形容词有: difficult, easy, comfortable, fit, hard, pleasant, tiresome (使人疲劳的), interesting, nice, heavy, dangerous, light, important, etc. The question is very difficult to answer. The problem is difficult to deal with.
2. 主语 + be + adj. + enough + to do The box is light enough to carry. The river water is warm enough to swim in. 3. 主语 + be + too + adj. + to do The books seemed too heavy to carry. The ice is too thin to skate on.
1. Last summer I took a course on ____.
A. how to make dresses
B. how dresses be made C. how to be made dresses
D. how dresses to be made
2. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what _____ in my new job. A. expected C. to be expecting B. to expect D. expects
3. There are five pairs ____, but I am at a loss which to buy. A to be chosen C to choose B to choose from D for choosing
4. I find these problems are easy _____. A. to be worked out B. to work them out C. to work out D. to be worked them out 5. ______ late in the morning, Bob turned off the alarm. A. To sleep B. Sleeping C. Sleep D. Having slept
6. I would love _______ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A. to go B. having gone C. going D. to have gone 7. John was made _____ the truck for a week as a punishment. A. to wash B. washing C. wash D. to be washing
8. Tom kept quiet about the accident
＿＿ lose his job.
A. so not as to C. so as to not B. so as not to D. not so as to
9. The patient was warned _____ oily food after the operation. A. to eat not C. not to eat B. eating not D. not eating
不定式可以作主语、表语、宾语、宾 补、状语和定语。 不定式的完成式： to + have + 动词的过去分词 不定式的被动式： to + be + 动词的过去分词
Quiz I: Multiple choice. 1. ____ this cake, you’ll need 2 eggs, 175g sugar and 175g flour. (2006广东) A. Having made B. Make C. To make
2. Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519) _____
birds kept in cages in order to have the pleasure of setting them free. (2007重庆) A. is said to be buying B. is said to have bought C. had said to buy D. has said to have bought
3. I like getting up very early in summer. The morning air is so good _____. (2008全国)
A. to be breathed
B. to breathe
D. being breathed
4. – Did the book give the information you
needed? – Yes. But ______ it, I had to read the entire book. (2008北京) A. to find B. find C. to finding D. finding
5. David threatened _______ his neighbor
to the police if the damages were not
A. to be reported
C. to report
D. having reported
6. With the world changing fast, we have
something new _______ with all by
ourselves every day. (2009重庆)
C. to deal
7. The children all turned _______ the
famous actress as she entered the
A. looked at
B. to look at
C. to looking at
D. look at
8. All of them try to use the power of the workstation ______ information in a more effective way. (2009北京) A. presenting B. presented C. being presented D. to present
9. With Father’s Day around the corner, I have taken some money out of the bank ______ presents for my dad. (2010全国I) A. buy B. to buy C. buying D. to have bought
10. We were astonished _______ the temple
still in its original condition.
B. to find
C. find D. to be found
11. I have a lot of readings _____ before the end of this term. (2010山东) A. completing
B. to complete
D. being completed
12. In many people’s opinion, that
company, though relatively small, is pleasant ___________. (2010四川) A. to deal with B. dealing with C. to be dealt with D. dealt with
13. Harrison Ford is thought to be one of the few movie stars ______ as a carpenter before. (2011上海春) A. to work B. to be working C. to have worked D. to have been working
14. The difference in thickness and weight from the earlier version makes the iPad 2 more comfortable ______. (2011福建) A. held C. be held B. holding D. to hold
15. The ability _____ an idea is as important as the idea itself. (2011湖南) A. expressing B. expressed C. to express D. to be expressed
Quiz II: 翻译下面的句子。 1. 爱和被爱都是最大的幸福。 ____________________ To love and to be loved are both great happiness. 2. 据说他已经完成了他的工作。 He is said _________________________ to have finished/completed ________. his work 3. 根据报道他们已安全到达。 They are reported ___________________. to have arrived safely
4. 我想叫人立刻修理这辆自行车。 I want this bike _____________________ to be repaired at once ______________. /immediately 5. 玛莉仿佛已经被告知此事了。 Mary seemed ______________________. to have been told about it 6. 众所周知，奥运会上他被授予了一枚 金牌。 He is known _________________ to have been given a gold medal at the Olympics.
Make up a short passage using the infinitive as much as possible. The beginning of the passage is given below.
I want to tell you something ...
For example Hi, I want to tell you something. I will go to Ruian for shopping this afternoon. Do you want to go with me? First, I’d like to go to Kaitai Store. But to be frank, most of time I am there only to do some window shopping, because everything is expensive. Then, I plan to go to HongQiao
Road to buy some clothes. I like to try the new fashion style of this season. By the way, do you know anything to entertain us? If so, I can’t wait to have a try! Why not come and join me?
Homework: 1. Revise the infinitive.
2. Finish the exercises
on P.P. 4-5.