当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >>

高中非谓语动词讲解(学案)


非谓语动词
在句中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。 非谓语动词分为三种形式: 不定式、 动名词和分词(分词包括现在分词和过去分词)

高考重点要求:
1、掌握不定式、分词、动名词在句子中的作用 2、区分不定式、分词作定语和状语的异同 3、掌握不定式、动名词作宾语,不定式和分词作宾补的惯用结构 4、注意非谓语动词与句子谓语动

词的时间关系,以确定非谓语动词的时态形式 5、弄清非谓语动词 与其逻辑主语的关系,以确定非谓语动词的语态形式 不定式、动名词和现在分词都有时态和语态的变化. 不定式 一般式 进行式 完成式 动名词 一般式 完成式 现在分词 一般式 完成式 主动语态 被动语态 主动语态 被动语态 ------------------主动语态 被动语态 与谓语动词的关系 动作发生在谓语动作之后 与谓语动作同时发生 动作发生在谓语动作之前 与谓语动词的关系 与谓语动作同时发生 动作发生在谓语动作之前 与谓语动词的关系 与谓语动作同时发生 动作发生在谓语动作之前

不定式
一、 不定式的作用 1、 作主语 不定式作主语时,谓语用单数。往往用 it 作形式主语,把不定式放在谓语后面。如: It took us two hours____________________________________(完成工作 It is impossible for us_____________________________________________(准时到那儿) 2、 作宾语 (1) 动词+不定式。如: He managed____________________________________________(从大火中逃生 I find it hard ___________________________________(与他相处) (2) 动词+疑问词+to , “特殊疑问句+不定式”相当于名词,作宾语。如: I don’t know ____________________________(要去做什么) I can’t decide ____________________________(什么时候去那儿) 3、 作宾语补足语

动词+宾语+不定式(to do ) 。如: He warned me________________________(小心) What makes you think so?(不带 to 的不定式) 4、 作定语 不定式作定语,修饰名词或代词,不定式和它所修饰的名词之间有逻辑上的主谓关系、动状关系、同位关系 或动宾关系。不定式通常要放在这些被修饰的词后。如: I have a lot of work to do.(动宾关系) He is looking for a room to live in.(动状关系) He is the first person to think of the idea.(主谓关系) He has got a chance to go abroad.(同位关系) 5、 作表语 不定式可放在 be 动词后面,构成表语。如: The question is ____________________________如何操作机器 His dream is ____________________________成为一名医生 Her work is ________________________________照顾小孩子 6、 独立结构。如: ________________________说实话,don’t agree with you. To make matters worse, it began to rain. 二、 不定式的时态和语态

1、 不定式的时态 (1) 现在时:有时与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,有时发生在谓语动词的动作之后。如: He seems ________________知道这件事 (2) 完成时:表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。如: I’m sorry ________________________给你造成这么多麻烦 He seems to_______________已经感冒 进行时:表示动作正在进行,与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。如: He seems ____________________正房间里玩游戏 完成进行时:表示动作从过去某个时间开始,一直延续到现在,并有可能持续下去。如: She is known___________________一直从事 the problem for many years. 2、 不定式的语态 当不定式的逻辑主语是其动作的承受者时,就用被动式。如: He was seen________________________进入大厅. 三、 省 to 的动词不定式 He asked ____________________送往前线

1、 情态动词(除 ought 外,ought to) 2、 Would rather, had better. 3、 感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice, observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel 等后作宾补,省略 to. 注意:在被动语态中 to 不能省略掉。如: I saw him dance. He was seen to dance. The boss made them work the whole night.

They were made to work the whole night. 4、 使役动词 let, have, make. 5、 由 and, or 和 than 连接的两个不定式, 第二个 to 可以省去。 如: He wants to move to France and marry the girl. 6、 Help 可带 to ,也可不带 to, help sb. (to) do sth. 7、 Why…/Why not… 8、 But 和 except 前 是 动 词 do 时 , 后 面 出 现 的 动 词 用 不 带 to 的 动 词 不 定 式 。 试 比 较 :

He wants to do nothing but go out.

He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine.

9、 通常在 discover, imagine, suppose, think, understand 等词后,可以省去 to be .如: He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。 ——I usually go there by train. ——Why not ______ by boat for a change? A to try going B trying to go C to try and go D try going Paul doesn’t have to be made ______ . He always works hard. A learn 四、 B to learn C learned D learning She pretended not to see me when I passed by.

动词不定式的否定式。 如: Tell him not to shut the window. Mrs. Smith warned her daughter ______ after drinking. A never to drive B to never drive

C never driving

D never drive

The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ______. A not to B not to do C not do it D do not do

The patient was warned ______ food before the operation. A to eat no B eating not C not to eat D not eating

动名词(动名词具有动词和名词的特征,在句中作主语、表语、宾语和定语)
一、 动名词的作用 1、 作主语 谓语用单数。It 代替动名词作主语,常用于如下结构: It’s no good/use doing· · ·如: Seeing is believing. _________________玩火 is dangerous。It is notgood_________等在这里 2、 作宾语 I enjoy____________听音乐 He often practices ________________在晚上练钢琴 Would you mind________________把收音机调小点 (1) 只能接动名词作宾语的动词: admit,advise 建议,risk,appreciate,envy 嫉妒,avoid 避免, consider 考虑,delay 延迟,deny 否认,dislike 不喜欢,enjoy,escape 逃避,excuse 原谅、宽恕, finish 完成,forgive 原谅,understand 理解,give up 放弃,imagine 想象,keep 保持,mind 介意、在乎,miss 未达到,practise 训练,put off 推迟,resist 抵抗,suggest 建议、暗示 can’t help 禁不住,can’t stand 无法忍受,devote to(to 为介词)致力于· · · ,look forward to 期望、盼望,

stick to 坚持,be used to 习惯于,object to 反对,be busy 忙于· · · ,fee like 想要· · · be surprised at 对??感到惊讶 be proud of 以??为骄傲 succeed in 在某方面成功 be afraid of 害怕 give up 放弃 (2) 只能接不定式作宾语的动词: happen 碰巧,offer 主动提出,promise 答应,agree 同意,refuse 拒绝,decide 决定, determine 决定、决心,pretend 假装,fail 未能够,learn,wish 希望,hope,expect,afford 负担得起。 (3) 接动名词、不定式均可,意义相同的动词:like,love,dislike,hate,begin,star,continue,prefer, can’t bear/endure 无法忍受,cease 停止 (4) 下列词接动名词和不定式均可,但意义不同的动词:forget,go on,mean,regret,remember,stop,try 等 In some parts of London, missing a bus means _______ for another hour. A waiting B to waiting C wait D to be waiting (5) Need, require, want 作“需要”讲,其后用动名词的主动式表示被动意义,be worth 也有类似用法。如: The flowers need____________________浇水 The problem is worth ____________讨论 3、 作表语 此时的动名词可以和主语调换位置。如: My hobby is ________________________集邮 4、 作定语 动名词作定语,一般表示用途。如: a waiting room,a diving board,a reading room,a dining hall swimming pools

动名词的时态和语态
动名词的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,通常要用完成式,否则都用一般式。如: We are interested in ________________打牌 I’m sorry for___________________________没有遵守诺言

He was praised for ________________________________提前完成工作

及物动词 主动 一般时 完成时 被动

不及物动词 主动

分词(分词分为现在分词和过去分词。在句中作定语、状语、表语和宾语补足语。 )
现在分词和过去分词的区别: 在语态上,现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词表示被动意义; 在时间上,现在分词表示的动作往往正在进行或者与谓语动词同时发生,过去分词表示的动作已经完成或没有一 定的时间性。 如:falling leaves 正在下落的树叶 一、分词的作用 1、 作定语 fallen leaves 已经落在地上的树叶

(1) 单个分词作定语,分词前置。如: The _________ boy is my son.熟睡的、正在睡觉的 The _________ people rushed into the building.激动的 (2) 分词短语作定语,分词后置;分词修饰不定代词 something 等要后置;个别分词如 give,left 等作定 语也后置。如: The girl _________under the tree is my niece.正站在 This is the question _________给予的 There is nothing _________有趣的、令人感兴趣的 (3) 过去分词作定语与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。如: Most of the people_________to the party were famous scientists 被邀请的 The first textbook ______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A have written B to be written C being written D written What’s the language ______ in Germany? A speaking B spoken C be spoken D to speak

Prices of daily goods ______ through a computer can be lower than store prices. A are bought B bought C been bought D buying. When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door ______ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.” A read 2、 作状语 现在分词和过去分词在句中可以作时间、原因、方式、伴随、条件、结果等状语。 _________any letter from him, I gave him a call.因为没有收到 As ____________________, I gave him a call. _________more attention, the trees could have grown better.给予 If ___________________________, the trees could have grown better.(条件) _________ along the street, I ran across my old friend.走着 when ____________________________________ _________ by a snake, he was taken to hospital(原因).咬 Though_________, he didn’t lose heart.(让步)击败 He lay on the grass, _________ into the sky.(伴随)看 He came_________ to tell me the good news.(方式)跑 ______ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army. A Followed B Followed by C Being followed D Having been followed B reads C to read D reading

There was a terrible noise______ the sudden burst of light. A followed B following C to be followed D being followed B To be heated C Heated D Heat

______ , liquids can be changed into gases.A Heating 作表语

现在分词作表语多表示主语具有的特征,过去分词作表语多指主语所处的状态。如: The film is_________令人感动的、感人的 The glass is _________坏的、破的 She looked _________with cooking.疲劳的 He remained_________ beside the table.站着 —I’m very______ with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious. —Mm, it does have a ______ smell. A pleasant; pleased B pleased; pleased C pleasant; pleasant D pleased; pleasant 3、 作宾语补足语

分词和不定式一样,在一些感官动词或使役动词后作宾语补足语。如: I smell something _________在燃烧 I heard him _________ the song 在唱歌 I heard my name _________叫 I can’t make myself _________ in English.理解、明白 I found my car_________丢了、见了 I’ll have my watch repaired.我想把我的手表修一下。 The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ______ the next year. A carry out 作插入语 其结构是固定的,意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。 generally speaking 一般说来 strictly speaking 严格地说 all things considered 从整体来看 talking of (speaking of) 说到 judging from 从· · ·判断 taking all things into consideration 全面看来。如: B carrying out C carried out D to carry out

__________________, he must be ill.从他的脸色看,他一定是病了。 __________________, dogs can run faster than pigs.总的来说,狗比猪跑得快。 一、 分词的时态

1、 与主语动词同时。如: Arriving there, they found the boy dead.刚一到那儿,他们就发现那男孩死了。 The secretary worked late into the night, ______ a long speech for the president. A to prepare 2、 先于主语动词 分词作时间状语,如果先于主动词的动作,且强调先后,要用 having done。如: __________________ his homework, he went out for a walk.在完成之后 After __________________ his homework, he went out for a walk. 做完作业,他出去散步。 ______ a reply, he decided to write again. A Not receiving C Not having received 二、 分词的语态 B Receiving not D Having not received B preparing C prepared D was preparing

1、 通常情况下,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动。如: He is the man_________/who gave you the book 他就是给你书的那个人 She is the girl_________who was stopped by the car.她就是那个被车拦住的女孩。 2、 不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生。像:gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned 等 词。如: a retired person 一个退休的人 a burnt-out match 烧完了的火柴 a fallen ball 一个落下来的球


相关文章:
非谓语动词学案(附答案)
非谓语动词学案(附答案)_高三英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。包含:理论知识、解题技巧和练习巩固 非谓语动词动词除了在句子中充当谓语外,还具有名词、形容词及副词的...
非谓语动词学案(很全面)
非谓语动词学案(很全面)_英语_高中教育_教育专区。学案、练习(带讲解) 非谓语动词精讲 非谓语动词基本概念及用法一、 动词不定式 to do 现在分词 v-ing 过去...
高中非谓语动词讲解(学案)
高中非谓语动词讲解(学案)_英语_高中教育_教育专区。非谓语动词在句中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。 非谓语动词分为三种形式: 不定式、 动...
高中基础知识学案-非谓语动词
高中基础知识学案-非谓语动词_英语_高中教育_教育专区 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档 高中基础知识学案-非谓语动词_英语_高中教育_教育专区。高考重点语法学案...
非谓语动词导学案
非谓语动词教学案 9页 免费 高中非谓语动词讲解 8页 5财富值 2012届高考英语语法精讲精... 47页 免费如要投诉违规内容,请到百度文库投诉中心;如要提出功能问题...
非谓语动词复习学案
百度文库 教育专区 高中教育 英语专题推荐 北师大二附理科学霸高中... 东北师大...非谓语动词复习学案预习: 一. 列出谓语的六种形式 二. 什么是非谓语动词, 有...
高中英语非谓语动词学案
阿高考英语语法:非谓语动词学案 非谓语动词即不能作谓语的动词 非谓语动词包括 to do(表目的和将来) doing(表主动) done(表被动) 规律 1.下列动词只能用 to ...
【语法专题】第六讲高中语法非谓语动词学案
【语法专题】第六讲高中语法非谓语动词学案_英语_高中教育_教育专区。第六讲-...C.To suffer D.Suffered 【答案】 :A 【解析】 :本题考查分词短语作状语的...
2015非谓语动词学案
2015非谓语动词学案_英语_高中教育_教育专区。Revision of past-participle & present-participle(分词学案) Task 1: Rewrite the following sentences by us ...
非谓语动词学案
非谓语动词学案_高考_高中教育_教育专区。高一英语非谓语动词学案(2012.6.25) 非谓语动词的形式:不定式 一般式 进行式 完成式 完成进行式 ---ing 形式 一般式...
更多相关标签:
高中非谓语动词讲解 | 非谓语动词学案 | 非谓语动词讲解 | 非谓语动词语法讲解 | 非谓语动词讲解ppt | 非谓语动词讲解视频 | 初中非谓语动词讲解 | 高考非谓语动词讲解 |