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动词和动词短语


第四讲 动词和动词短语
概说:动词是表示动作或状态的词。英语动词有人称、数、情态、时态、语态
和语气等多个语法范畴。 动词根据其意义可以分为实义动词、 助动词和情态动词。 实义动词又可以分为及物动词和不及物动词,连系动词介乎二者之间,反身动词 则是一种特殊的及物动词。 动词也可以根据形式分为限定动词和非限定动词。限 定动词可以构成短语在句子中作谓语, 非限定动

词构成的短语在句子中不能作谓 语,但是可以起名词短语、形容词短语和副词短语的作用。动词还可以根据其语 义分为动态动词和静态动词两种。英语动词有五种基本形式,即动词原形、第三 人称单数现在式、现在分词、过去式和过去分词。后面四种形式都是根据前面一 种形式即动词原形变化而成的。 这种变化有一定的规则。按照规则变化的动词叫 做规则动词;不按照规则变化的动词叫做不规则动词。 短语动词是一种动词加副词或介词的组合,其作用相当于一个动词。与 动词组成短语动词的副词或介词统称为小品词。短语动词有五大类,即动词+副 词(I) ;动词+副词(II) ;动词+介词;动词+名词+介词;动词+副词+介词。

重点:动词的种类;短语动词的种类 难点:规则动词和不规则动词的形式 内容: (一) 动词
一.动词概述 1.1 定义:动词是表示动作或状态的词。 表动作:walk 表状态:live greet sleep give defeat think liberate hurt perform

hear see

1.2 语法特征: 1. 英语动词有人称、数、情态、时态、语态和语气等多个语法范畴。 It feels a bit tense.(第三人称单数) Together they wrote The Communist Manifesto.(一般过去式) We can invite them to our party.(情态意义) The water was not at all polluted.(被动语态) We took a taxi to the airport. Otherwise we would have been late.(虚拟语气) 2. 动词有限定形式和非限定形式,两种动词形式和功能不同但意义相同。 He smokes.(限定形式) To smoke like that must be dangerous.(非限定形式) 3. 动词可以为副词所修饰。 He was smiling hopefully. You are feeling happy today. 4. 及物动词必须有名词短语或相当于名词短语的词语作宾语。 She picked a few apples for me. 5. 动词有独特的前缀和后缀形式。 widen strengthen quicken sympathize memorize symbolize
及物动词 实义动词 连系动词 按意义分 助动词 不及物动词 情态动词

二.动词的种类

动词

限定动词 按形式分 非限定动词 动态动词 按语义分 静态动词

动词根据其意义可以分为两大类。第一大类是实义动词,实义动词是意义 词,有实义,可以担任动词短语的中心词。实义动词又可以分为及物动词和不及 物动词,连系动词介乎二者之间,反身动词则是一种特殊的及物动词。第二大类 是助动词和情态动词,它们都是功能词。助动词只有五个,没有任何意义,它们 只是在动词短语中帮助实义动词构成各种时态、 语态、 语气以及否定和疑问结构。 情态动词只有情态意义,不能单独使用。 动词也可以根据形式分为限定动词和非限定动词。 限定动词可以构成短语在 句子中作谓语, 非限定动词构成的短语在句子中不能作谓语,但是可以起名词短 语、形容词短语和副词短语的作用。 动词还可以根据其语义分为动态动词和静态动词两种。 2.1 及物动词和不及物动词

1. 及物动词的特征就是要求有宾语。所谓及物就是主体把动作传达到客体上, 物是泛指,既可是物也可是人。只有及物动词可以使用被动语态。及物动词分三 类:单宾语及物动词、双宾语及物动词和复合宾语及物动词。 Finally he discovered the truth.(单宾语) Don’t forget to buy me a box of biscuits.(双宾语) She had cut her hair very short.(复合宾语) 2. 不及物动词的特征就是不能使用宾语。 Many other struggles followed. In 1789 his big chance for a major expedition came. 3. 及物动词有时可以用作不及物动词,反之亦然。 They will open the port to foreign ships. His understanding opened with the years. 4. 反身动词是一种必须用反身代词作宾语的及物动词,数量不多。 Why did you absent yourself from schoool yestoday?

2.2 连系动词 1. 连系动词是一种表谓语关系的动词,它必须后接表语。Be 是最基本的连系动 词。 My name is David. After all, the ball is very important. They are of great help to learners of English. 2. 表示感觉和知觉的动词也是连系动词。 He looks a nice, reliable man. What are you cooking? It smells delicious. ★ 常用的连系动词有: appear become keep make come fall remain get go seem grow turn

prove

2.3 助动词和情态动词 2.4 限定动词和非限定动词

限定动词可以构成短语在句子中作谓语,非限定动词构成的短语在句子中不 能作谓语,但是可以起名词短语、形容词短语和副词短语的作用。 At present developed countries use too much energy.(限定动词) The woodcutter was standing next to a fallen tree, with many small pieces of wood in front of him.(限定动词) His friends tried to encourage him.(非限定动词) 2.5 动态动词和静态动词 1. 动态动词大致可以分为四类: 无限动词: 动作历时无限的动词。 drink, eat, read, write, play, talk, live, study 如: 等。

有限动词:动作历时有限的动词。如:bind, produce, build, make, create, mend 等。 瞬间动词:动作历时极为短暂的动词。如:hit, jump, tap, knock 等。 重复动词:动作历时不断重复的动词。如:giggle, struggle 等。 2. 静态动词也可以分为四类: 心理动词:表示心理活动的动词。如:want, know, think, believe, forget, understand 等。 情感动词:表示情绪反应的动词。如:care, detest, envy, fear, hate, like 等。 感知动词:表示感觉、感知的动词。如:feel, hurt, see, hear, smell, taste 等。 关系动词:表示各种关系的动词。如:belong, compare, exist, contain 等。 三.动词的形式 英语动词有五种基本形式,即动词原形、第三人称单数现在式、现在分词、 过去式和过去分词。后面四种形式都是根据前面一种形式即动词原形变化而成 的。这种变化有一定的规则。按照规则变化的动词叫做规则动词;不按照规则变 化的动词叫做不规则动词。 原形 work help play look 第三人称单数现在式 works helps plays looks 现在分词 working helping playing looking 过去式 worked helped played looked 过去分词 worked helped played looked

3.1 规则动词的形式: 1. 动词原形: 是前面不加 to 的动词不定式形式,也就是在辞典词目中所使用的 动词形式。 2. 第三人称单数现在式:就是当主语是第三人称单数而动词是一般现在时态时 应该使用的形式。 ★ 规则:第三人称单数现在式一般有=由动词原形加-s 构成。 lock----locks love----loves lead---leads save---saves shout---shouts

① 以发咝擦音的-s,-ch,-z,-sh,-x 等字母结尾的原形动词,加-es。 pass---passes catch---catches buzz---buzzes mix---mixes ② 以辅音字母加-y 结尾的原形动词,要变 y 为 i 再加-es。如-y 前面是元音字 母则不变。 study---syudies carry---carries try---tries stay---stays play---plays 3. 现在分词: ★ 规则:一般由动词原形加-ing 构成。 ask---asking suffer---suffering respect---respecting ① 以不发音的-e 结尾的动词,须去掉 e 再加-ing。 believe---believing blame---blaming devote---devoting ② 动词是闭音节的单音节词,或以重读闭音节结尾的多音节词,末尾只有一个 辅音字母时,这个辅音字母须双写,然后再加-ing。 stop---stopping nod---nodding plan---planning ③ 少数几个以-ie 结尾的单音节词,须变 ie 为 y,再加-ing。 die---dying lie---lying tie---tying 4. 过去式和过去分词: ★ 规则:规则动词的过去式和过去分词同形,由动词原形加-ed 构成。 work---worked help---helped finish---finished

① 在以-e 结尾的动词后加-d。 hope---hoped joke---joked like---liked ② 在以辅音字母加 y 结尾的动词后,先将 y 变为 i 再加-ed。 carry---carried study---studies try---tried ③ 以重读闭音节或 r 音节结尾而末尾只有一个辅音字母时,须双写这个辅音字 母再加-ed。 clap---clapped stop---stopped plan---planned 3.2 不规则动词的形式: 所谓不规则变化,指的是后面两种形式,即过去式和过去分词,前面两种形

式即第三人称单数现在式和现在分词永远是规则的。 现代英语中不规则动词的总 数不过 200 多个,但是它们的使用频率却相当高。不规则动词可以分为三类。 原形 cut sit hold break 第三人称单数现在式 cuts sits holds breaks 现在分词 cutting sitting holding breaking 过去式 cut sat held broke 过去分词 cut sat held broken

1. 第一类不规则动词:原形、过去式、过去分词同形。 burst---burst---burst shed---shed---shed set---set---set cast---cast---cast put---put---put let---let---let cost---cost---cost shut---shut---shut cut---cut---cut hit---hit---hit

2. 第二类不规则动词:过去式和过去分词同形。 bend---bent---bent flee---fled---fled build---built---built keep---kept---kept creep---crept---crept leave---left---left dig---dug---dug

get---got---got/gotten

hang---hung/hanged---hung/hanged

light---lit/lighted---lit/lighted

3. 第三类不规则动词:原形、过去式、过去分词都不相同。 do---did---done rise---rose---risen see---saw---seen speak---spoke---spoken go---went---gone begin---began---begun bear---bore---born/borne give---gave---given

forget---forgot---forgotten/forgot (二) 短语动词

一.短语动词概述: 1.1 短语动词的定义: 短语动词是一种动词加副词或介词的组合, 其作用相当于 一个动词。 1.2 小品词的含义: 与动词组成短语动词的副词或介词统称为小品词。 小品词在 形态上是不变的。 不是所有的副词和介词都可以与动词组成短语动词。小品词一 般可分三类: 只用作副词的 (away, back, out, together 等) 只用作介词的 ; (against, as, among, at, for, into, of, upon, with 等) 兼用作副词和介词的 ; (about, after, along,

before, by, down, off, over 等) 。 1.3 搭配形式:在英语中,动词与副词或介词搭配有三种形式。 1. 非习语性组合:这是一种自由组合。在这种组合中,动词与副词或介词可以 自由替换,而且各自保持着原来的词汇意义。 Tea was brought in, but no one touched it. The old man brought out 30 years old port wine for us. 2. 半习语性组合:这种组合相对比较固定,不能随便用一个动词替换另一个动 词,或者用一个副词或介词替换另一个副词或介词。在这种组合中,动词保留了 原来的意义,但是副词或介词的意义不太容易分辨出来。 Her parents found out that she had a boyfriend. He always cuts up his food before he eats it. 3. 全习语性组合:这种组合非常固定,动词与副词或介词都不能随便替换。在 这种组合中,动词与副词或介词一起产生出一种惯用意义。 Joe was born in Texas but brought up in Oklahoma. The police have turned up a lot of new information about the wanted man. 二.短语动词的种类: 2.1 动词+副词(I) :相当于不及物动词,不能有宾语。 How did these differences come about? Fierce wars between Native Americans and European settlers broke out. 2.2 动词+副词(II) :相当于及物动词,必须有宾语。 Please turn off the electricity and the water at the end of the week. After the war, he married and set up home in London. 2.3 动词+介词:相当于及物动词,因为介词必须有宾语。 After many hours’ talk, the committee arrived at a decision. Which pieces of advice do you disagree with? 2.4 动词+名词 (短语) +介词: 相当于及物动词, 名词或名词短语是动词的宾语, 介词也必须有宾语。这类短语动词又可分为两类,在第一类中,动词、名词和介

词是固定的;在第二类中,动词和介词是固定的,而名词短语是可以替换的。 Why doesn’t she make use of her singing talent? You should pay more attention to your health. They plied the young man with food. This clothing will protect you from the worst weather. 2.5 动词+副词+介词:必须有宾语,相当于及物动词。 I reached out to Annie’s hand. After tea, they went up to the bedroom and waited. He came up to them and asked in English.

讲练结合 (一)动词
1. I don’t know the restaurant, but it’s __________ to be quite a good one. A. said C. spoken 2. —What did you think of her speech? —She __________ for one hour but didn’t __________ much. A. spoke; speak C. said; speak D. said; say B. spoke; say B. told D. talked

3. You’re __________ your time trying to persuade him; he’ll never join us. A. spending C. losing B. wasting D. missing

4. All the leading newspapers __________ the trade talks between China and the Uni ted States. A. reported C. announced B. printed D. published

5. I love to go to the seaside in summer. It __________ good to lie in the sun or s wim in the cool sea. A. does C. gets B. feels D. makes

6. They __________ the train until it disappeared in the distance. A. saw C. noticed B. watched D. observed

7. —Do you think the Stars will beat the Bulls? —Yes. They have better players, so I __________ them to win. A. hope C. expect B. prefer D. want

8. __________ him and then try to copy what he does. A. Mind C. Stare at B. Glance at D. Watch

9. Let Harry play with your toys as well, Clare, you must learn to __________. A. support C. spare B. care D. share

10. As we joined the big crowd I got __________ from my friends. A. separated C. lost B. spared D. missed

11. The taxi driver often reminds passengers to __________ their belongings when th ey leave the car. A. keep C. hold B. catch D. take

12. If anybody calls, tell them I’m out, and ask them to __________ their names an d addresses. A. pass C. take B. write D. leave

13. The thing that __________ is not whether you fail or not, but whether you try o r not. A. matters C. considers B. cares D. minds

14. —The cars give off a great deal of waste gas into streets. —Yes. But I’m sure something will be done to __________ air pollution. A. reduce C. collect B. remove D. warn

15. —May I speak to Mr Thomas, please? —I’m afraid he isn’t in. Would you like to __________ a message? A. take C. leave B. write D. tell

16. The manager has __________ to improve the working conditions in the company. A. accepted C. permitted B. allowed D. agreed

17. Go and join in the party. __________ it to me to do the washing-up. A. Get C. Leave B. Remain D. Send

18. Mary finally __________ Bruce as her life-long companion(伴侣). A. received C. made B. accepted D. honored

19. Some passengers complain that it usually __________ so long to fill in travel ins urance documents. A. costs C. spends B. takes D. spares

20. Nick is looking for another job because he feels that nothing he does _________ _ his boss. A. serves C. promises B. satisfies D. supports

21. Have a good rest; you need to __________ your energy for the tennis match this afternoon. A. leave C. hold —I __________ to, but I forgot about it. A. liked C. meant 23. —When shall we start? —Let __________ it 8:30. Is that all right? A. set C. make B. meet D. take B. wished D. expected B. save D. take

22. —Why haven’t you bought any butter?

24. —Mummy, can I put the peaches in the cupboard? —No, dear. They don’t __________ well. Put them in the fridge instead. A. keep C. get B. fit D. last

25. It seems difficult to __________ “hurt” from “injure” in meaning. A. judge C. divide B. tell D. separate

26. A man is being questioned in relation to the __________ murder last night. A. advised C. attempted B. attended D. admitted

27. They’ve __________ us $150,000 for the house. Shall we take it? A. provided C. shown B. supplied D. offered

28. Happy birthday, Alice! So you have __________ twenty-one already! A. become C. grown B. turned D. passed

29. The evening news comes on at seven o’clock and __________ only thirty minute s. A. keeps C. finishes B. continues D. lasts

30. If you are feeling so tired, perhaps a little sleep would __________. A. act C. serve 【答案与解析】 1. A。 固定搭配。 题中 it 是代 the restaurant。 / sth be said to…据说某人或某物…。 sb 2. B。词义辨析。speak 除可接表示语言的名词作宾语外,一般作不及物动词,且着重 说话的动作过程; say 是及物动词,着重说话的内容。第一空后无宾语,用 speak,第二空 后有代词 much 作宾语,用 say。 3. B。语境选择。由“他决不会加入我们”可知“你试图劝服他”你是“浪费(waste)”时间。 4. A。语境选择。report(报道); print(印刷); announce(宣布); publish(出版)。 5. B。语境选择。由 good 可知应选连系动词,排除 A 和 D; 躺在阳光下或在凉爽的 海水里游泳“感觉(feel)”真好,而非“变得(get)”好。 6. B。词义辨析。由 until 可知,要用延续性动词,排除 A 和 C; 他们“注视(watch)” 火车,而不需仔细“观察(observe=watch carefuly)”。 7. C。语境与词义。根据“他们有更好的运动员”可以“预料(expect)”他们会赢,而不是 “更喜欢(prefer)”或 “想要 (want)”他们赢。hope 不可接 sb to do sth。 8. D。 词义辨析。 模仿前需要“观察(watch)”, 而不是“快速地看一下(glance)”或“盯着看(s tare)”,更不是“照看(mind)”。 9. D。语境选择。让 Harry 和你玩你的玩具,这是“分享(share)”,而不是“支持(suppor t)”“注意(care)”“抽出(时间)(spare)”。 10. A。搭配与常识。只有 separated 能与 from 连用:get / be separated from 与…分 散了。常识:走进人群,我与朋友们不会丢失或抽出,而是分散。 11. D。语境选择。乘客下车时,司机提醒乘客把自己的东西“带走(take)”。 B. help D. last

12. D。固定搭配。leave one’s name and address 留下姓名和地址。 13. A。语境选择。matter 要紧、重要。that matters=that is important 是定语从句。 14. A。语境选择。reduce(减少); remove(移开); collect(收集); warn(警告)。 15. C。leave a message 留个口信; take a message for sb 给某人捎个口信。 16. D。习惯搭配。accept 不接不定式; allow=permit 不能直接接不定式,要接 doing 或 sb to do; 只有 agree 后可以接 to do,表示“同意做?”。 17. C。搭配与词义。leave sth to sb 把某事物留给某人。题中 it 是形式宾语,真宾语 是 to do? 18. B。搭配与词义。accept 卆 s 吶衔?/ 相信…是… 19. B。词语辨析。能用形式主语句式的只有 cost 和 take; 又因 cost 一般只以钱作宾 语,而 take 既可用钱又可用时间作宾语。 20. B。语境选择。satisfy sb 使某人满意; serve sb 为某人服务; promise sb 答应某人; support sb 支持某人。 21. B。语境选择。save (=keep sth for future use)储蓄; save one’s energy / strength 积蓄力量 / 留着劲儿。leave 离开、留下; hold 保持(姿态)。 22. C。语境辨义。由 but I forgot about it. 可知“原本打算”去买的,mean to do sth 打算做某事。 23. C。固定搭配。“make it +时间”意为“就定在?时间吧”。 24. A。语境选择。由 cupboard 和 fridge 两个地点看,是为了把 peaches“保存(keep)” 好。fit 合身; last(+时间段)持续多久。 25. B。搭配与词义。tell A from B 分辨 A 和 B。separate A from B 把 A 和 B 分离开。 26. C。因为 the attempted murder 意为“企图谋杀犯”。几个选项的意思是:advise 建 议; attend 出席、注意、照顾; attempt 企图; admit 允许某人进来、接受某人入学、容纳、承 认。 27. D。因为 A 和 B 后不接双宾语,表示“给某人提供某物”的其搭配是:provide /su pply sb. with sth.; 或 provide sth. for sb. /supply sth. to sb.; 虽然 C 和 D 都可接双宾语, 但 show 是“给某人看某物”之意,与题意不符; show 是“提供、出价”之意。句意是:他 们出 15 万美元向我们买这座房子,我们该接受吗?顺便说说,此句与《朗文英汉双解词典》 offer 词条中的一个例句几乎一样:They’ve offered us $75,000 for the house. Should we t ake it? 28. B。因为 turn 可以表示“达到或超过(某个年龄或时间)”,而其它几个不能。句意 是:艾丽丝,祝你生日快乐!你已经满 21 周岁了。另外,turn 和 become 后都可接名词,但 turn 后的单数名词前通常不要冠词; become 表示业已完成,所以表示将来要用 be 代替; gro w 着重渐变的过程,且多指由小变大或由少变多,反之则用 become。

29. D。因为 keep 指保持某种状态,不用来指持续多久; finishes 是短暂性动词,不与时 间段连用; continue 虽可指持续多久,但时间段前通常要用 for; 而 last 表示持续多久,其后 的时间段前通常省略 for。 30. B。因为 serve(服务)和 last(持续)很容易排除。help 意为“有帮助、有用、减轻、补 救、治疗(=make better)”; 而 act 则意为“起作用、生效(=produce an effect; work)”。显 然,前者是起好作用,而后者则不一定,因此,B 最佳。

(二)动词短语
1. I can hardly hear the radio. Would you please __________? A. turn it on C. turn it up B. turn it down D. turn it off

2. It is wise to have some money __________ for old age. A. put away C. given away B. kept up D. laid up

3. She __________ his number in the phone book to make sure that she had got it r ight. A. looked up C. picked out B. looked for D. picked up

4. Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to _____ _____. A. be put up C. be turned on B. give in D. go out

5. We didn’t plan our art exhibition like that but it __________ very well. A. worked out C. went on B. tried out D. carried on

6. We thought of selling this old furniture, but we’ve decided to __________ it. It m ight be valuable. A. hold on to C. turn to B. keep up with D. look after

7. News reports say peace talks between the two countries __________ with no agree ment reached. A. have broken down C. have broken in B. have broken out D. have broken up

8. I’m planning to hold a party in the open air, but I can make no guarantees becau se it __________ the weather. A. links with C. connects to B. depends on D. decides on

9. Can you make a sentence to __________ the meaning of the phrase? A. show off C. bring out B. turn out D. take in

10. The engine of the ship was out of order and the bad weather __________ the he lplessness of the crew at sea. A. added to C. turned out —I think Tom and Grey will. A. set aside C. take in B. carry out D. get through B. resulted from D. made up

11. —It’s a good idea. But who’s going to __________ the plan?

12. Would you slow down a bit? I can’t __________ you. A. keep up with C. make up to 13. —Smoking is bad for your health. —Yes I know. But I simply can’t __________. A. give it up C. give it out B. give it in D. give it away B. put up with D. hold on to

14. His mother had thought it would be good for his character to __________ from home and earn some money on his own. A. run away C. keep away B. take away D. get away

15. If you __________ any problems when you arrive at the airport, give me a ring.

A. come up with C. run into

B. set about D. put aside

16. The idea puzzled me so much that I stopped for a few seconds to try to ______ ____. A. make it out C. make it up B. make it off D. make it over

17. Don’t mention that at the beginning of the story, or it may __________ the shoc king ending. A. give away C. give up B. give out D. give off

18. We're going to __________ with some friends for a picnic. Would you like to jo in us?

A. get in C. get along

B. get over D. get together

19. He was in hospital for six months. He felt as if he was __________ from the o utside world. A. cut out C. cut up B. cut off D. cut through

20. In some western countries, demand for graduates from MBA courses has _______ ___. A. turned down C. fallen down 【答案与详解】 1. C。turn up 调大(收音机、电视机等的)音量; turn on 开(收音机、电视机); turn do wn 调小音量; turn off 关掉。 2. A。put away 储蓄(钱以备用),教材上未出现过此意,因此当年只有 21%的同学选 对; keep up 维持、使…不下落; lay up 储存某物。 3. A。 look up(在书中)查寻; look for 寻找; pick out 挑选出; pick up 捡起、 用车接(人) 或搭客、便宜买到、得到、学会。 4. D。go out(灯、火等)熄灭; put up 举起、张贴; give in 屈服; turn on 打开(电视、 收音机、水龙头等)。 5. A。work out 在课本中只出现过“计算出; 解答出”之意,但在本题中意为“结果是; 以某种方式发展”。句意为“虽然?但结果很不错。”try out 试验; go on 继续; carry on 继 续下去。 6. A。教材中只学过“别挂电话”的 hold on。但句中 hold on to 意为“保留; 不放弃(所 拥有之物) (=try to keep)”。句意为“我们曾考虑过卖掉这件旧家具,但我们现在已经决定保 留它,它可能有价值。”keep up with 赶上; turn to 转向、求助于。 7. A。教材中 break down 作“分解”讲,但在本题中却意为“失败”。break out 爆发; b reak in 闯入、插嘴; break up 分解、驱散、结束。 8. B。 depend on 取决于、 依赖; link with 联系着; connect to 连接; decide on 决定(做 某事)。 9. C。bring out 使清楚、说明; show off 炫耀(贬); turn out 露面; take in 吸入。 10. A。add to 增加(=increase); result from 产生于(某原因); turn out 生产出、培养出; make up 编造、组成。 11. B。carry out 实现或完成(计划、任务等)、进行(实验); set aside 搁置; take in 吸 收; get through with sth 完成某事。 12. A。keep up with sb 跟上某人; put up with sb 忍受或容忍某人; make up to sb 讨好或巴结某人; hold on to sb 抓住某人。 B. turned over D. fallen over

13. A。give up 放弃、戒掉; give in 投降(不可接宾语); give out 分发; give away 赠 送、泄露。 14. D。get away 离开、逃脱、逃避; take away 带走(后面要接宾语); keep away from 不要靠近。run away from home 离家出走。 15. C。run into 遭遇(困难或问题)、偶遇某人; come up with 找到答案、提出办法; s et about 开始(某事); put aside 把某物放到一边、储存。 16. A。 make out 理解、 弄明白; make off 匆匆逃走; make up 虚构; make over 改变。 17. A。give away 泄露; give out 分发; give up 放弃; give off 散发。句意为:别在 故事开头时提这件事,否则会把出人意料的结尾透露出去。 18. D。比较:get together 意为“欢聚”; get in 意为“进入,收获,陷入”; get ove r 意为“爬过,克服,熬过”; get along with 意为“与……相处”。 19. B。比较:cut off 意为“切断,剥夺”,与语境符合。cut out 意为“切掉,裁剪 出”,cut up 意为“切碎,歼灭”,cut through 意为“刺穿,抄近路”,均不符合语境。 20. C。fall down 倒下、跪拜、下降; turn down 拒绝、关小; turn over 打翻、翻身、反 复考虑、营业额达到; fall over 跌倒。


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