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比较级



形容词的比较级和最高级(1) 1. 在英语中,在表示“比较?”和“最?”时,形容词要用特别的形式,称为“比较 级”和“最高级”,原来的形容词称为“原级”: 原级 strong 强 比较级 stronger 较强 最高级 strongest 最强

2. 形容词的比较级和最高级的构成方法如下: a. 单音节词和少数双音节词以加-er 和-est 的方式构成: 原级 young 年轻 old 老 clean 干净 比较级 younger 较年轻 older 较老 cleaner 较干净 最高级 youngest 最年轻 oldest 最老 cleanest 最干净

在加词尾时要注意下面的各种情况:

情况

加词尾法

例词

一般情况

直接加词尾

small, smaller, smallest

以 e 结尾的词

加-r,-st

large, larger, largest

以辅音+y 结尾的词

变 y 为 i,再加词尾

busy, busier, busiest

以“辅音字母”结尾的词

将这字母双写再加词尾

big, bigger, biggest

b. 其他词都在前面加 more, most 构成比较级及最高级: 原级 important difficult 比较级 more important more difficult 最高级 most important most difficult

interesting more interesting most interesting

useful

more useful

most useful

3. 用比较级时常用 than 引起一个从句,表示和什么比较: His room is bigger than mine. 他的房间比我的房间大。 She is younger than my sister. 她比我妹妹年轻。 Exercises: I. 学会下列形容词的比较级和最高级: 原级 1. tall strong old 2. large fine late 3. big hot thin 4. easy busy happy 5. valuable dangerous 比较级 taller stronger older larger finer later bigger hotter thinner easier busier happier more valuable more dangerous 最高级 tallest strongest oldest largest finest latest biggest hottest thinnest easiest busiest happiest most valuable most dangerous

comfortable more comfortable most comfortable II. 给出下面形容词的比较级和最高级: 1. bright

2. fat 3. lazy 4. safe 5. heavy 6. wide 7. high 8. close 9. long 10. dirty 11. sad 12. brave 13. silly 14. beautiful 15. early 16. prosperous 17. interesting 18. delicious 19. difficult 形容词的比较级和最高级(2) 1. 有几个形容词有特殊的比较级和最高级形式: 原级 good bad many little 比较级 well better ill worse much more less 最高级 best worst most least

far farther old older

further farthest elder oldest

furthest eldest

小贴士 1:elder 和 eldest 可用来表示兄弟和子女的长幼顺序: my elder sister 我的姐姐 my eldest brother 我的大哥 their eldest son 他们的长子 小贴士 1: further 表示“较远”外, 还可表示 “进一步的”; 而 farther 仅表示距离: The farther plants are too cold. 更远的行星太冷。 Do you need any further help? 你还需要更进一步的帮助吗? 2. 双音节词除了以“辅音+y”结尾的词外,还有以 ow, er, le 结尾的词,和个别其 他双音节词,可以用加词尾的办法构成比较级和最高级: 原级 narrow clever simple common 比较级 narrower cleverer simpler commoner 最高级 narrowest cleverest simplest commonest

3. 也有少数单音节词可以加 more 和 most 的办法构成比较级和最高级: 原级 pleased tired glad 比较级 more pleased more tired more glad Exercises: I. 给出下面形容词的比较级和最高级: 1. bad 2. good 最高级 most pleased most tired most glad

3. simple 4. common 5. far 6. narrow 7. old 8. little 9. happy 10. many 11. pleased 12. glad 13. much 14. tired 15. careful 16. comfortable II. 在空格中填入所给形容词的适当形式: 1. She is two year ___ than me. She’s the ___ girl in our class. (young) 2. Bill is ___ than Tom. He’s the ___ of the three children. (old) 3. John is the ___ boy in the class. (clever) 4. Cairo is the ___ city in Egypt. (big) 5. Her bicycle is ___ than mine. (good) 6. My cold is ___ today than it was yesterday. (bad) 7. Tokyo is ___ from Beijing than from Shanghai. (far) 8. This question is ___ than the other one. (simple) 9. This street is ___ than Beijing Road. It’s actually the ___ street in the whole city. (narrow)

10. It is ___ in Hong Kong than in Kunming. (hot) 11. My cold is getting ___. (bad) 12. The ___ man has the ___ leisure. (busy, much) 13.I didn’t have the ___ desire to go to bed. (little) 14. Manchester is ___ from London than Oxford. (far) 15. They made ___ arrangements. (far) 16. I’ll try to make ___ mistakes in future. (few) 包含形容词比较级的句子 1. 包含形容词比较级的句子多带有一个由 than 引起的状语从句, 表示和什么相比, 从 句中有些词会省略掉: She is taller than her elder sister. 她比她姐姐高。 This book is in simpler English than the other one. 这本书的英文比另一本容易。 Life was much harder than it is today. 那时的生活比现在苦得多。 Europe has less land than Canada. 欧洲的面积比加拿大小。 They are all younger than me. 他们都比我年轻。 She knows more English than I do. 她的英语比我懂的多。 2. 有时状语从句可以省略: The weather is warmer today. 今天天气要暖和得多。 Are you feeling better now? 现在你感觉好一点了吗? I’ll be more careful in future. 以后我要细心点。 Have you got a larger size? 你们有大一点的吗? I had never seen a better film. 我没看过(比这)更好的电影。 3. 比较级前有时有一个状语修饰: My sister is two years younger than me. 我妹妹比我小两岁。 Our room is slightly bigger than theirs. 我们的房间比他们的稍微大一点。

This car is a bit more expensive. 这辆车稍稍贵点。 You are an inch taller than Tom. 你比汤姆高一寸。 Your pronunciation is much better than mine. 你发音比我好多了。 4. 比较级的形容词还可以用在某些句型中: Most cities in China are getting bigger and bigger. 中国大多数城市越来越大。 He read more than ten books last term. 上学期他看了十几本书。 The busier he is, the happier he feels. 他越忙越高兴。 Exercises: I. 在空格中填入所给形容词的比较级: 1. The new buildings are much ___ than the old houses. (high) 2. You make ___ mistakes than I do. (few) 3. He looked ___ than I had expected. (strong) 4. It is ___ than I thought. (expensive) 5. It’s only 50 per cent ___ than our moon. (large) 6. Elizabeth was four minutes ___ than Jessica. (old) 7. I’m ___ at English than at geography. (bad) 8. ___ late than never. (good) 9. Jim was ill but he is ___ now. (well) 10. The day was growing ___. (hot) 11. Be ___ next time. (careful) 12. It’s ___ under the trees. (cool) II. 把下面句子译为汉语: 1. The town has more than 7,000 people. 2. They spend more and more money on food.

3. She looked no more than sixteen. 4. I saw a tiny man, less than six inches high. 5. I found myself less and less interested in chemistry. 6. No less than a thousand people came to watch the game. 7. The weather is getting colder and colder. 8. The smaller the house is, the less it will cost to heat. 9. Tell them to come to see me ― the sooner the better. 10. I’m feeling a lot better today. 带 as(so)? as 的结构 1. 在表示“和?一样?”时,可用“as... as”结构(前面的 as 后要用原形): He is as busy as before. 他还是和以前一样忙。 I’ll give you as much help as I can. 我将尽量帮助你。 The airport was as crowded as ever. 机场还是像平常那样拥挤。 You’re as good a singer as Johny Buck. 你的歌唱得像约尼?伯克一样好。 Modern computers can be as small as a book. 现在的电脑可以像一本书那样大。 2. 在表示“不像?那样?”时可用“not as(so)... as”这种结构: It isn’t so cold as yesterday. 今天不像昨天那样冷。 He is not so handsome as his brother. 他不像他哥哥那样英俊。 I’m not so experienced as you think. 我没有你想的那样有经验。 The situation is not so bad as had been painted. 形势没有描绘的那样糟糕。 Jack is not as(so) old as he looks. 杰克不像他看起来那样老。 3. 这种结构中也可包含一个状语或有 almost, just, nearly, quite 这类副词形容: The whale was twice as long as her boat. 那头鲸有她的那艘船的两倍长。 Their house is about three times as big as ours. 他们的房子约为我们房子三倍 大。

My command of English is not half so good as yours. 我的英语掌握得还不及你的 一半好。 He was almost as diligent as his sister. 他几乎和她姐姐一样勤奋。 She is nearly as tall as her mother. 她几乎和她妈妈一样高。 4. as... as 还可用在许多固定说法中: as brave as a lion as busy as a bee as vain as a peacock soft as velvet as bright as day as fat as a pig as gentle as a lamb easy as ABC Exercises: I. 把下列句子译为汉语: 1. She is not as clever as she appears to be. 2. I am not as young as you thought. 3. He was not as well off as his brother. 4. She was as much interested in music as ever. 5. John isn’t as tall as his brother. 6. I don’t smoke as much as I used to. 7. I can’t run as fast as you. 8. Our aim is to collect as much information as possible. 9. There were twice as many visitors as usual last weekend. 10. The damage wasn’t quite as bad as expected.

11. Her skin was white as snow. 12. She doesn’t play as well as her sister. 13. He doesn’t earn as much as I do. 14. They considered her opinion as valuable as any of ours. 15. We produced twice as much sugar as in the previous season. 16. She is as clever as (she is) beautiful. II. 把下面短语译为汉语: 1. as loud as thunder 2. as light as feather 3. as patient as an ox 4. as quick as lightning 5. as round as an apple 6. as sour as vinegar 7. as strong as a horse 8. as stupid as a donkey 9. as sweet as honey 10. as white as snow 形容词最高级的用法 1. 形容词最高级有时单独使用,但前面需加定冠词: What’s the best time to go there? 什么时候到那儿去最好? Express mail is the fastest way to send a letter. 快递是寄信的最快办法。 It’s the latest fashion from Paris. 这是巴黎来的最新式样。 The oldest is only nine. 最大的才九岁。 The highest mountain in Japan is Fuji. 日本最高的山是富士山。 In Western Europe Germany has the most people. 在西欧德国人口最多。

2. 有时跟一个短语或从句说明在哪个范围内如此: It is the largest island in Europe. 它是欧洲最大的岛。 Yesterday was the hottest day of the year. 昨天是今年最热的一天。 The Yangtze is the biggest river in our country. 长江是我国最大的河流。 It was the cheapest hotel we could find. 这是我们能找到的最便宜的旅馆。 This was the best beer (that) I have ever drunk. 这是我喝过的最好的啤酒。 It was the worst film we had ever seen. 这是我们看过的最糟的电影。 3. 形容词前有时有定语或状语修饰: Its second largest city is Osaka. 它的第二大城市是大阪。 The third largest city is Los Angeles. 第三大城市是洛杉矶。 She was by far the most active member in our group. 她是我们小组最积极的成员。 4. 形容词最高级有时表示“非常”的意思,这时前面可加不定冠词或不加定冠词: It’s a most touching story. 这是一个非常动人的故事。 It was most stupid to act like that. 这样做是非常愚蠢的。 5. 形容词最高级还可用在某些短语中(这时常转化为名词): She is ten years old at most. 她至多十岁。 We’ll do our best. 我们将尽力而为。 Exercises: I. 把下面句子译为汉语: 1. London is the largest city in Britain. 2. He was the kindest man we had met. 3. This is the oldest theatre in Beijing. 4. She is the most diligent student in our class. 5. He was the most dangerous person in that area..

6. Paul is the strongest boy in the kindergarten. 7. That was the best film I had ever seen. 8. Berlin is the most important city in Germany. 9. George is the eldest of their four children. 10. She was not the least bit tired, though she had worked all day. 11. He is a most remarkable man. II. 在下面句子中的习惯用语下划线: 1. He must weigh 200 pounds, at least. 2. She didn’t trust him in the least. 3. He looked 20 at (the) most. 4. I did my best to win the competition. 5. The garden is at its best this month. 6. I’ll do it to the best of my ability. 7. Mother tried her best not to smile. 8. Saturn has a family of at least 10 moons. 9. I’m not in the least interested in what he is saying. 10. To the best of my knowledge he isn’t in Hong Kong. 名词化的形容词 1. 有些形容词可以和定冠词连用,表示一类人,这可称为名词化的形容词: These seats are for the disabled. 这些座位是给残疾人坐的。 In these countries, the poor get poorer, the rich get richer. 在这些国家,穷 人越来越穷,富人越来越富。 They are going to build a school for the blind. 他们准备盖一所盲人学校。 She was always good with the unfortunate. 她对不幸的人总是很好的。 2. 定冠词还可以与-ch, -sh, -ese 等结尾表示国家的形容词连用,表示这些国家的人:

The French like to eat well. 法国人饮食很讲究。 The Chinese were a highly civilized people long before the Europeans were. 早 在欧洲人之前,中国人已是一个有高度文化的民族。 the Dutch 荷兰人 the Spanish

西班牙人 the Welsh 威尔士人 the Burmese 缅甸人 the Japanese 日本人 the Swiss 瑞士人 3. 有些形容词还可以和 the 连用,表示抽象的事物: Don’t expect them to do the impossible. 不要指望他们做不可能的事。 She admired the mystical. 她喜欢那些神奇古怪的东西。 This was nothing out of the ordinary. 这没有什么特别之处。 Their aim was to discover the good, the beautiful and the true. 他们的目的是 寻求真、善、美。 4. 在某些习惯用语中也包含名词化的形容词: Are you leaving the place for good? 你离开这里不再回来了吗? I will give you an answer on Friday at the latest. 我最迟星期五给你一个回答。 She took leave of us in the liveliest spirits. 她兴致很好地和我们告别了。 Exercises: I. 在下面句子中名词化的形容词下划线:

1. He always sides with the oppressed and the exploited. 2. George had great sympathy for the poor and the down-trodden. 3. Take care of the wounded and the dying. 4. Soon he was among the unemployed. 5. The privileged as a whole numbered less than 600,000. 6. The well-to-do had their cares also. 7. Fortune favours the brave. 8. The old and the young should be able to live together. 9. The English have a wonderful sense of humour. 10. Scotland is the land of the Scotch. 11. The Chinese were the first people to make porcelain. 12. The British drink a great deal of tea. II. 在下面句子中名词化的形容词下划线: 1. He was fond of writing about the unusual. 2. I was weak, afraid to venture into the unknown. 3. The performance was nothing out of the ordinary. 4. Do you believe in the supernatural? 5. Several of the accused were found guilty. 6. The living are important than the dead. 7. The sick and the wounded were sent home. 8. We can’t expect them to do the impossible. 9. I can’t say for sure. 10. I know for certain that he has a car.


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