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语法教案


Introduction Grammatical hierarchy
Grammar :the structure system of a language. 1. Morphemes free morpheme 自由词素 has a complete meaning and can stand by itself as a simple word 可不依附于其他词素而

独立存在.有较强的构词能力,可以充当词根并 与词缀相结合构成派生词 (derivative): hunt, hunter, hunting; poison, poisonous; village, villager; friend, friendly, unfriendliness 等.也可与其他自由词素结合构成复 合词(compound word): take , takeaway, takeoff, takeover, undertake 等 bound morpheme 粘附词素 are most affixes, also meaningful but not complete in itself unless attached to some other form 主要功能是在构词中充当词缀.可分为屈折 词缀(inflectional affix 包括见书)和派生词缀(derivational affix). 英语的前缀通常 不影响词根的词性,他们仅仅对词根的意义加以修饰或限制,例如 kind+ un- 变成 unkind, 词义变了,然而同属形容词,词性未变. 英语的后缀具有较强的语法作用 , 粘附在词根上通常有改变词性的作用, 例如 poison+ -ous 便由名词变成了形容词, 但基本词义没变. 粘附词素有时还可充当词根,能与词缀相集合构成派生词,这种 词根叫做粘附词根(bound root),如 predict 中的-dict, receive 中的-ceive 等,但这类 粘附词根只能固定在少数搭配中,没有构词能力 allomorphs 词素变体 the same morpheme in different contexts may take different phonological or orthographical forms. The variants of the same morpheme are called “allomorphs” 2. Word ①in terms of word-formation, words can be divided into simple words (morpheme words), derivatives 派生词(自由词根加派生词缀,表示否定,相反,贬低,向背,程度, 时序,方位等含义) and compounds . ②in terms of grammatical function, Closed-class words and open-class words 3. Phrase:the phrase is a group of words organized in a specific way with a key word as its head. The word class of the head determines the class of the phrase and the way in which the words are organized. ① the noun phrase: determiner + premodifier + noun + postmodifier eg: Milton is the author of “paradise lost”. / he found the new student siting in the corner of the classroom a very attentive boy. ② the verb phrase: a phrase with a main verb as its head. It can be simple or complex. A simple verb phrase is just a main verb or “modifier+ main verb”. A complex verb phrase preceded by as auxiliary(or auxiliaries)(+modifier). In terms of grammatical form, a verb phrase can be finite or non-finite.非限定动 词词组:没有”时”的区别,也没有人称和数的变化.包括 不定式 (infinitive),-ing 分词(-ing participle)和-ed 分词(-ed participle) ③ the adjective phrase: modifier+ adjective+ postmodifier/ complememtation ④ the adverb phrase: modifier+ adverb+ postmodifier ⑤ the prepositional phrase: modifier+ preposition+ complementation(通常为名 词词组或相当于名词词组的结构)介词的补足成分有时也可以是副词或形
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容词,通常出现在某些固定搭配中,如 from here,before long,at last,in brief 等. 某些介词词组本身也可以做介词的补足成分,就形成了 2 个介词重叠出现, 如 he picked up the gun from under the table./ we didn’t meet until after the show. / the weather has been fine except in the north. 4. Clause: “主语+谓语 ”的构造 eg: the ship is scheduled to make her maiden voyage (首航)next month.(adverbial) ① in terms of grammatical function, a clause can be independent or dependent. An independent clause is a clause that can stand by itself and act as a complete utterance, as distinguished from a dependent clause which forms only part of another clause or of a phrase. 比较: I’m not feeling well today.独立/As I’m not feeling well today.从属分句 I saw him yesterday.独立/ When I saw him yesterday.从属分句 ② simple/complex clause : when a clause consist of only one construction of “subject +predicate”, it’s a simple clause. An independent clause is a simple clause. When a clause comprises another clause or other clauses as its element or elements, it’s a complex clause. An independent complex clause is a complex sentence. 比较: You can do it.独立简单分句/简单句/ You can do it if you will.独立复杂分 句/复杂句/ I think you can do it if you will.附属复杂分句 ③ main/subordinate clause: in a complex clause, the clause that takes another clause as its element is the main clause, while the clause that forms part of the main clause is a subordinate clause. Eg: You(S) can do(V) it(O) if you will(A).(subordinate clause) I(S) think(V) you can do it if you will(O).(subordinate clause) ④ finite/non-finite clause: A clause can be finite or non-finite. A finite clause is one with a finite verb phrase as its predicate verb or predicator; a non-finite clause is a clause with a non-finite verb phrase as its predicator. 例 如 : I rejoice to have finished it so soon.( 不 定 式 分 句 ) (NP) (I)+ VP (to have finished)+NP (it)+ AdvP (so soon) Strolling about the park, I pondered on the problem.(-ing 分词分句) NP(I) + VP(strolling) + PrepP (about the park) Most of the people invited to the reception were his wife’s friends.(-ed 分词分 句) (NP) (people)+ VP (invited)+ PrepP(to the reception) 因为他们都带有自己的逻辑主语,以非限定动词词组作谓语动词, 分别形成一 种带有主谓关系的词组序列. verbless clause: When a clause is marked by the absence of any form of verb element,it is a verbless clause. A verbless clause is just a construction of a “subject+ predicate” without any form of verb element.例如:Full of apologies, the manager approached us.(相当于 the manager was full of apologies) / The oranges, when ripe, are picked and stored mechanically.(相当于 when they are ripe)都是省略了主语和谓语动词,因此在深层结构上还是一种主谓关系, 从而具有分句的性质; 又由于在这类分句中没有任何形式的谓语动词的出现, 所以叫无动词分句. 限定分句可以是独立分句或附属分句,而非限定分句和
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无动词分句则只能是附属分句. 5. Sentences: A grammar unit that can stand by itself and perform a communicative function.能够单独存在并能表达相对完整意思的语法单位.可根据这个来区分 句与非句. 如: The table is made of wood. / The table has only 3 legs. 又比如 when the advanced workers mounted the rostrum(当先进工作者登上主 席台时),虽然结构比上述句子复杂很多,但是仍然不是句子,因为它不能单独存 在 , 没有表达完整的意思 . 如果说 : When the advanced workers mounted the rostrum, the hall burst into stormy applause. ① full/minor sentence A full sentence is a sentence with an expressed subject and predicate. This kind of sentence is mostly used in formal speech and writing. A minor sentence is only a sentence fragment which in specific contexts and situations can stand by itself and perform a communicative function. Minor sentence are extensively used in informal discourses.不完全 句还常作为一种修辞手段,比如作家和记者都常在作品和报道中通过不完 全句使文笔更犀利.例如: That’s Dixy. Blunt. Independent. (那就是狄克西, 为人率直,有主见) ② simple/compound/complex/compound-complex sentence 简单句指只包括一 个独立分句的句子 ,其成分都是由词组表示的 . 充当句子成分的词组可以 是”多重构成”,例如 The evenings have turned very cold just recently. / Many people here are painting their houses white these days. 也可以是”单一构成”,例如 It was cold yesterday.

Lecture 1

sentence structure

1.主谓结构和句子分析 ⑴ 英语在其长期发展中 ,形成了一种相对固定的 ”主语 +谓语 ”的结构.主语在前, 谓语在后, 这是现代英语句法的重要特征 .主语通常相当与句子的话题 , 是信息的 出发点;谓语是对主语所做的说明,是说话人所要传递的信息. 补例: Marxism-Leninism is a universally applicable truth. 即使主语是个抽象概念 , 如 Marxism-Leninism, 它仍然具有事物性 ,表示一种明确的概念 . 不如此 , 主语便不能 成为句子的话题 ,不能成为信息传递的出发点 .谓语是对主语所做的说明 ,它指出 主语所表示的事物或概念是或不是什么 , 有或没有什么 ,要或不要什么, 做了或没 做什么等等.因此,谓语常常是诉说性的,它能说明情况,表达意愿,评论美丑,分辨是 非.所以, 谓语通常包括动词词组及其补足成分,而且谓语在结构上通常要比主语 长一些更复杂一些. 对于”主语+谓语”的句子结构,我们中国人并不陌生,因为汉语句法的重要特征之 一也是主语前谓语后,汉语和英语在主谓语的次序上是基本一致的.但也有值得注 意的地方.首先,主语:英语中虽然也有一些省略了主语的句子,如 (I) Hope to hear from you soon./ (You) Had a good time?/ (It) must be very hot in Africa. 但这只是一 种省略主语的现象,主语还是有的 .只是被省略了.在汉语中没有主语的句子是很 常见的.比如 ”两年来,这条街上新开了许多商店”.这个句子看上去好象是有主语 的,”这条街上” 不就是主语吗?其实不是,因为这个句子是主动的形式,被动的意思.
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译成英语时得用被动结构 “In the past 2 years,many new businesses have been set up in this street.) 同样的, “战后成立了新政府”,要用英语表达也要用被动结构 “A new government was organized after the war.” 这样才把主语表示了出来,英语句子 的结构和意义才完整. 再看看谓语:谓语是以动词为中心的,所以通常带有动词词组.在英语中虽然有”无 动词分句”,但这是一种省略现象.动词很容易就可以填补进去.汉语就不同了.汉语 中,谓语有动词性的,如 “我去上海”,”狗咬人”,但也有名词性的,如 “那张桌子 3 条 腿”, “今天中秋”. 在这里,并没有省略动词.但是如果要译成英语,都必须有个动词: That table has only 3 legs./ Today is the Mid-autumn Festival. 汉语中还有形容词性 的谓语 , 就是直接拿形容词词组做谓语 , 不带任何的动词 , 比如 “ 那姑娘真漂亮 ”, “那件事太危险”,都不用动词.但英语中一定要有动词: That girl is beautiful./ That matter is dangerous. 由此可见,汉语中,名词词组很形容词词组都可以独立充当谓 语,但英语中不可以. 比如用英语表达 “这捆柴 50 公斤”, “中国地大物博,人口众 多”时,就该说: This bundle of firewood weighs 50 kilos./ China has a vast territory, abundant resources and a large population. 并列主语,并列谓语/双重谓语 注意他们之间的区别 ⑵ 句子分析 2 ways of sentence analysis 操作词能起很多语法作用 , 它能协助主动词构成否定结构和疑问结构 . 如 : He teaches English./ He doesn’t teach English./ Does he teach English? 它在动词词组 中体现 “时” 的特征和情态意义,如: It is/was raining hard. / He may/might have read the book. 它还需要和主语在 “人称” 和 “数” 方面保持一致: I am getting old./ You are getting old./ He is getting old. 操作词通常是有助动词表示的,但是, 当 be 和 have 用做主动词时,他们同时也起操作词的作用,如: Brown is a doctor./ Is Brown a doctor?/ Tom has brothers./ Has tom any brothers? 2. 基本句型 S 主语是一个句子述说的主题.位置一般在句首. V 说明主语的动作或状态的句子成分,一般在主语之后 O 表示动作的对象,是动作的承受者.英语的及物动词须有宾语,宾语一般都在及 物动词之后. 直接宾语/ 间接宾语: 有些及物动词如 give,tell,pass,send,lend,bring 等,可以有 2 个宾语,这种动词所要求的 2 个宾语,往往一个指人,一个指物.指物的 叫直接宾语,指人的叫间接宾语,间接宾语一般放在直接宾语前面 A 修饰动词,形容词,副词以及整个句子的句子成分,说明时间,地点,原因,目的,结果, 条件,让步,方面,程度,方式,伴随状况等. C 補語是動詞、形容詞後面的連帶成分,它補充說明動作行為的結果、趨向、數 量、時間、處所或性狀的程度等情況 例句: 1. Perhaps(A) the boys(S) work(V) in the city(A). 2. I(S) eat(V) lunch(O) at noon (A)every day(A) 3. After 10 years(A) that young man(S) became(V) a well-known scholar(C). 4. Margaret(S) has been living(V) in Shanghai (A) all the time(A) since 1989.(A) 5. The businessman offered me(O) $4000(O) for that painting.(A)
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6. Most people consider me(O) well qualified for the job.? 7.You must put these paintings on the shelf(A) immediately.(A) 8.Boy students usually(A) enjoy football matches.(O) 上面的例子说明谓语动词在谓语中是一个起支配作用的成分,其他部分的出现(如 宾语,补语,状语)往往受它支配.但是不同的成分受其支配的程度又不同 : 一般来 说,宾语和补语受制约较严,而状语比较自由.其数目是灵活的,位置也比较灵活.因 此,我们可以说,主,动,宾.补在分句中属于中心成分 ,而状语是外围成分.除此之外, 句子还可以带有独立成分,包括句首肯定词和否定词,及呼语:Come on, comrades!/ John, where are you? 感叹语: Oh, nonsense.插入语: The train, I’m afraid, won’t arrive on time. ①扩展基本句型的方式之一----------增添修饰成分 这里的修饰成分包括动词,形容词,副词等的修饰语及状语. ②扩展基本句型的方式之二-------并列与从属

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Lecture 2

subject-verb concord(I)

①概说 一致指句子成分之间或词语之间在人称 , 数, 词性等方面保持的协调关系.在英语 中,最主要的一致关系是主语和谓语动词之间的数的一致 . 一般来说,主语的单复 数形式决定着谓语动词采取相应的形式,但实际应用中会遇到复杂的情况.与数的 一致相联系的是人称的一致.现代英语除动词 be 有不同的人称形式以及 have 有 特殊的第 3 人称现在时以外,其他的动词只有单数第 3 人称现在时加-s,-es, 其余 的人称在动词形式上没有特殊标记 . 因此 ,对于中国学生来说 ,主谓人称的一致最 主要的是要注意单数第 3 人称现在时动词加-s.-es 的问题. 在主语和主语补语之间,宾语和宾语补语之间也存在着数的一致关系: He is a bright pupil./ They are Englishmen./ We found the boy a bright pupil./ We found the boys bright pupils. 3 种指导原则 guiding principles: a.语法一致 b.意义一致 Liverpool haven’t scored yet(足球队) / $4000 is more than she can afford. c.就近原则: 谓语动词的单、复数取决于最靠近它的主语。由 either....or, neither....nor, not only....but also 连接或由 here, there 等引导的句子,谓语动词 遵循这一原则。 【例如】Neither my friends nor I was able to persuade him to accept our advice. Either he or she has broken the window, for there is no one else there. There is a teacher and fifty students in the classroom.
如果句子是由 here, there 引导, 而主语又不止一个时, 谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。 Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.

On the left of each person is a table-napkin and a plate with a roll on it. Not only his children but he himself is hoping to be there. ②problems of concord with nouns ending in –s 有一些以-s 结尾的名词,有一些作 单数用,有一些作复数用,主要有以下几种 1. subject names ending in –s 以-ics 结尾的名词,通常为学科,做学科解释时用单数. 如: Linguistics has developed rapidly in modern times./ Physics was the only course she failed in./ politics is the art or science of government. 当这类名词意味着人们的实践活动或做学科以外的其他解释时,通常做复数用,但 有 时 也 做 单 数 . Plastics( 塑 料 制 品 ) don’t rust like metal./ What are his politics?(political views) / Modern gymnastics(体操) are performed with or without apparatus. 2. 以-s 结尾的游戏名称,如 billiards 桌球, bowls 保龄球, darts 射飞镖, dominoes 多米诺, draughts 国际跳棋, fives(二人或四人对墙投击的)手球, ninepins 九柱 戏等. 通常做单数,个别做复数,如 Billiards is Mr. Fox’s favorite recreation. Fives has continued to be played with the hand./ Is draughts a game for 2? 3.以-s 结尾的疾病名称,如 shingles 带状疱疹,diabetes 糖尿病,arthritis 关节炎,通常 做单数用. Shingles is serious,how long has he got it? ③.problems of concord with collective nouns as subject

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