2014 届高考英语一轮复习自选训练 阅读理解 20
For years, there has been a bias（偏见）against science among clinical psychologists. In a two-year analysis to be published in November in Perspectives on Psychol
ogical Science, psychologists led by Timothy B. Baker of the University of Wisconsin charge that many clinical psychologists fail to “provide the treatments for which there is the strongest evidence of effectiveness” and “give more weight to their personal experiences than to science.” As a result, patients have no guarantee that their “treatment will be informed by …science.” Walter Mischel of Columbia University is even crueler in his judgment. “The disconnect between what clinical psychologists do and what science has discovered is an extreme embarrassment,” he told me, and “there is a widening gap between clinical practice and science.” The “widening” reflects the great progress that psychological research has made in identifying the most effective treatments. Thanks to strict clinical trials, we now know that teaching patients to think about their thoughts in new, healthier ways and to act on those new ways of thinking are effective against depression, panic disorder and other problems, with multiple trials showing that these treatments—the tools of psychology—bring more lasting benefits than drugs. You wouldn’t know this if you sought help from a typical clinical psychologist. Although many treatments are effective, relatively few psychologists learn or practice them. Why in the world not? For one thing, says Baker, clinical psychologists are “very doubtful about the role of science” and “lack solid science training”. Also, one third of patients get better no matter what treatment (if any) they have, “and psychologists remember these successes, believing, wrongly, that they are the result of the treatment.” When faced with evidence that treatments they offer are not supported by science, clinical psychologists argue that they know better than some study that works. A 2008 study of 591 psychologists in private practice found that they rely more on their own and colleagues’ experience than on science when deciding how to treat a patient. If they keep on this path as insurance companies demand evidence-based medicine, warns Mischel, psychology will “discredit itself.” 16. Many clinical psychologists fail to provide the most effective treatments because _____ A. they are unfamiliar with their patients B. they believe in science and evidence
第 1 页 共 6 页
C. they depend on their colleagues’ help
D. they rely on their personal experiences
17. The widening gap between clinical practice and science is due to _____. A. the cruel judgment by Walter Mischel B. the fact that most patients get better after being treated C. the great progress that has been made in psychological research D. the fact that patients prefer to take drugs rather than have other treatments 18. How do clinical psychologists respond when charged that their treatments are not supported by science? A. They feel embarrassed. C. They are disappointed. B. They try to defend themselves. D. They doubt their treatments.
19. In Mischel’s opinion, psychology will ______. A. destroy its own reputation if no improvement is made B. develop faster with the support of insurance companies C. work together with insurance companies to provide better treatment D. become more reliable if insurance companies won’t demand evidence-based medicine 20. What is the purpose of this passage? A. To show the writer’s disapproval of clinical psychologists. B. To inform the readers of the risks of psychological treatments. C. To explain the effectiveness of treatments by clinical psychologists. D. To introduce the latest progress of medical treatment in clinical psychology.
A How often do you travel by plane? How much electricity do you use? These days everyone is worried about the size of their carbon footprint. In order to reduce global warming we need to make our carbon footprints smaller.
第 2 页 共 6 页
But how much CO2 are we responsible for? A new book by Mike Berners Lee (a leading expert in carbon footprint) might be able to help. How Bad are Bananas? The Carbon Footprint of Everything looks at the different things we do and buy, and calculates the amount of CO2 all of the following created: the ingredients, the electricity used in the brewery, the equipment, the travel and commuting of the beer, and the packaging. It’s amazing how many different things need to be included in each calculation. And it’s frightening how much carbon dioxide everything produces. But all of this can help us decide which beer to drink. From Berners-Lee’s calculations, it’s clear that a pint (568ml) of locally-brewed beer has a smaller carbon footprint than a bottle of imported beer. This is because the imported beer has been transported from far away, and it uses more packaging. The local beer only produces 300g of CO2, but the imported beer produces 900g! So, one pint of local beer is better for the environment than three cans of cheap foreign lager from the supermarket. Berners-Lee has even calculated the carbon footprint of cycling to work. Nothing is more environmentally-friendly than riding a bike, surely? Well, it depends on what you’ve had to eat before. To ride a bike we need energy and for energy we need food. So if we eat a banana and then ride a kilometer and a half, our footprint is 65g of CO2. However, if we eat bacon before the bike ride, it’s 200g. In fact, bananas are good in general because they don’t need packaging, they can be transported by boat and they grow in natural sunlight. So, does this mean that cycling is bad for the environment? Absolutely not, for a start, if you cycle, you don’t use your car, and the fewer cars on the road, the fewer traffic jams. And cars in traffic jams produce three times more CO2 than cars traveling at speed. Cycling also makes you healthy and less likely to go to a hospital. And hospitals have very big carbon footprints! So maybe it’s time for us all to start making some changes. Pass me a banana and a pint of local beer, please. 1. According to Berners-Lee, which of the following produces the most carbon dioxide？ A. A pint of imported beer we drink. C. The bacon we eat before a bike ride. 2. Why are bananas good in general? A. They don’t need packaging.
第 3 页 共 6 页
B. A pint of local beer we drink. D. A banana we eat before a bike ride.
B. They provide energy for cycling.
C. They produces less CO2.
D. They grow naturally.
3. The underlined word “brewery” in Paragraph 3 most probably means “___________” A. one of the things from which beer is made C. a container where beer is stored B. a machine which makes beer D. a factory where beer is made
4. To make our carbon footprints smaller, we should often ___________. A. calculate the amount of CO2 B. cycle to work
C. drink more local beer
D. buy cheap things from the supermarkets
5. What’s the most suitable title for the passage? A. The Carbon Footprint of Everything C. Bikes, Beer and Bananas B. Starting to Make Changes D. How Big Is Your Carbon Footprint?
参考答案 1-5: ACDBD *****************************************************结束
C Today, there’s hardly an aspect of our life that isn’t being upended by the tons of information available on the hundreds of millions of sites crowding the Internet, not to mention its ability to keep us in constant touch with each other via electronic mail. “If the automobile and aerospace technology had exploded at the same pace as computer and information technology,” says Microsoft, “a new car would cost about $ 2 and go 600 miles on a small quantity of gas. And you could buy a Boeing 747 for the cost of a pizza.” Probably the biggest payoff, however, is the billions of dollars the Internet is saving companies in producing goods and serving for the needs of their customers. Nothing like it has been seen since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, when power-driven machines began producing more in a day than men could turn out in nearly a year. “We view the growth of the Internet and e-commerce as a global trend,” says Merrill Lynch, “along the lines of printing press, the telephone, the computer, and electricity.” You would be hard pressed to name something that isn’t available on the Internet. Consider: books, health care, movie tickets, construction materials, baby clothes, stocks, cattle feed, music,
第 4 页 共 6 页
electronics, antiques, tools, real estate, toys, autographs of famous people, wine and airline tickets. And even after you’ve moved on to your final resting place, there’s no reason those you love can’t keep in touch. A company called FinalThoughts.com offers a place for you to store “afterlife e-mails” you can send to Heaven with the help of a “guardian angel”. Kids today are so computer literate that it in fact ensures the United States will remain the unchallenged leader in cyberspace for the foreseeable(能预测的) future. Nearly all children in families with incomes of more than $75,000 a year have home computers, according to a study by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Youngsters from ages 2 to 17 at all income levels have computers, with 52% of those connected to the Internet. Most kids use computers to play games (some for 30 hours or more a week), and many teenage girls think nothing of rushing home from school to have e-mail chats with friends they have just left. What’s clear is that, whether we like it or not, the Internet is an ever growing part of our lives and there is no turning back. “The Internet is just 20% invented,” says cyber pioneer Jake Winebaum. “The last 80% is happening now.” 10. What can we learn from the Microsoft’s remark? A. Today’s cars and airplanes are extremely overpriced. B. Information technology has reached the point where improvement is difficult. C. Information technology is developing at an amazing speed. D. There’s more competition in information technology industry than in car industry. 11. According to the author, the biggest benefit of the Internet is that___. A. it saves companies huge amounts of money B. it speeds up profit making C. it provides easy access to information D. it brings people incredible convenience 12. The author gives the example of FinalThoughts.com to make the point that____. A. there are some genius ideas on the Internet B. some websites provide novel services to increase hits] C. people can find good bargains on the Internet D. almost anything is available on the Internet
第 5 页 共 6 页
13. What can we learn from the fourth paragraph? A. Many American children don’t put computers to good use. B. The U.S. will stay ahead in the information technology in years. C. Studies show that boys are more computer literate than girls. D. There is a link between income and computer ownership. 14. What is the message the author intends to convey? A. We should have a positive attitude towards the changes the Internet brings. B. The Internet is going to get firm hold of our lives some day. C. The Internet is going to influence our lives even more greatly. D. Children should be well prepared for the challenges in the information age. 15 Which sentence has the phrase that possesses the same meaning as the one underlined in the fifth paragraph? A. Think nothing of it. It was my pleasure. B. He thinks nothing of the pain in his back for the moment. C. Some can tell you that he has changed their lives, while others think nothing of him D. He thinks nothing of staying up all night in the Cafébar.
第 6 页 共 6 页