非 谓 语
- ing 分词
一、非谓语动词和谓语动词的识别 to say 1.I have something _________(say) 2.China is a ____________(develope)country. developing 3.He was then a teacher respected __________(respect)by all hisstudents. picked 4.The boy ______(pick)up the book and gave ______(give)it to the crying gilr______(cry)on the fround. took To climb 5.______(climb)to the top of the mountain _____(take)us a lot of time. had driving 6.When______(drive) to work, he ______(have)an accident. 顾名思义，非谓语动词就是在英语中不能作句子谓语而 具有其他语法功能的动词。在语法填空、完形填空和学作 中一定要分清谓语动词和非谓语动词。 在同一个位置上通常不能有两个或两个以上的谓语动词。
1) Smoking is prohibited(禁止)here. 2) It is not very good for you to smoke so much. 3) Collecting information is very important to business men. 4) Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring. 二者的 区别是：
表示某一具体的动作时，多用不定式； 表示比较抽象的一般行为倾向的，多用动名词。 动名词作主语时通常位于句首； 不定式作主语时常置于句末，用it 作形式主语放在句首。
1). To make a plan first is a good idea. It is a good idea to make a plan first. 2). To walk there takes three hours. = It takes three hours to walk there.
To work with them is a pleasure. What a pleasure it is to work with them! To bathe in the sun on the sand is relaxing
How relaxing it is to bathe in the sun on the sand!
Tip1:在感叹句中常常把to do 用it替代放在句首
2. 动名词或不定式都可以在句中作主语，但 在下列句型中常用动名词作主语。 no use/good not any use/good It is/was +doing sth. of little use/good useless It is no use crying over spilt milk.
It is of little good staying up too late every day. 若主语和表语都是非谓语动词, 应保持形式 上的一致。 Seeing is believing. To see is to believe.
不定式和动名词都可作动词或介词的宾语。 1. 有些动词后只跟不定式作宾语
如want,wish,hope,manage, demand, promise, refuse, pretend, plan, offer, decide, agree,expect等。
to sound I don’t want ________(sound) like I’m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager’s plan is unfair.
to come They promise _______(come), but they didn’t appear. running They left the factory, with the machine_______(run) all night. speaking He told us we should practise_____(speak)English as often as possible.
如：admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, forgive, imagine, keep, mind, miss, practise, resist, risk, suggest,deny...
1) I can’t stand ______ (work)with Jane in the same office. She working to stop just refuses _____(stop) talking while she works. 2) He got well-prepared for the job interview, for he couldn’t risk ____ (lose)the good opportunity. losing
repairing \ to be repaired. 1)Your watch needs ___________________(repair)
painting\ to be painted 2) The windows need______________(paint)again.
式用被动式的形式；动名词用主动式的形式。 句子的意思没有差别。但句子得主语一般是 一表物的名词或代词。
1.Walking along the river, we heard someone shouting __________(shout) for help. 2.When she returned home, she found the stolen window open and something ________(steal). 3.My teacher told me not_____ (be)so careless. to be
-ed,-ing和to do 都可以做宾补,但表达的意思有所不同 -ing的逻辑主语是宾语本身,和宾语为主动关系(/主动进行) -ed的逻辑主语也是宾语,但和宾语为动宾关系(被动/完成) to do和宾语有时是主动关系,有时是动宾关系,(将来)
不定式和分词作宾语补足语表达的意义不同。 sing 1. I heard her ______( sing) an English song just now. singing 2. I heard her ________ (sing) an English song when I passed by her room yesterday. sung 3. I heard the English song ______( sing) many times. changed 4. I was surprised to find my hometown______(change) so much.
使役动词，感官动词+O+C(to do) to make 1. Children should be allowed ______(make) their own decisions.
2.My advisor encouraged me____ _(take) a summer course to to take improve my writing skills.
3.Paul doesn’t have to be made to learnHe always works hard. _____. work 4.The boss made the workers_______(work)13 hours a day. 使役动词，感官动词能接不带to 的不定式作宾语补足语 常见的使役动词有make, let, have等 感官动词有see, hear, watch, observe, notice, feel 以及look at, listen to等 注意:在以上动词用于被动语态时,要还原to
to give 1.Their decision_____(give) up the experiment surprised us. to leave 2.He was the last one ______(leave)school yesterday. 3.Please tell the children ______(play)outside not to make so much playing noise. 4.They lived in a room_____(face) the south. facing 5. _____(bark)dogs seldom bite. Barking 6.Some of the experiments ____(describe) in the book are described easy to perform. 7.There have been several new events _____ (add)to the added program for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. 现在分词作定语和被修饰的名词具有“主谓关系” 过去分词作定语和被修饰的名词是动宾关系 不定式表示在谓语动词表示的动作之后即将发生的动作
六、考查非谓语动词作状语 to find 1.He hurried home only_______(find) his money stolen. 2.All of us are surprised_____(see)his rapid progress. to see 3.______(give)a chance, I can surprise the world. Given 4.______(come) into the room, he found his father angry. Coming 5.He put a finger in his mouth, tasted it and smiled,_____(look looking )rather pleased. 能作状语的有不定式、现在分词和过去分词。作什么样的状语 往往取决于它们的位置和在句中的意义。
分词作状语时，其逻辑主语必须同句子的主语一致 -ing做状语时和逻辑主语是主动关系, -ed做状语时和逻辑主语是被动关系
现在分词作结果状语往往表示 “正常出现的、自然而然的或 意料之中”的结果。不定式作 结果状语时通常表示“偶然的、 出乎意料的”一种结果
七、考查非谓语动词作表语 interested 1.Tom sounds very much ____(interest) in the job, but I’m not sure whether he can manage it. 2.The purpose of new technologies is_____(make)life easier. to make serving 3.Our work is_____ (serve)the people． 4.We are______(amaze) at the news that the singer suicided. amazed 能作表语的有不定式、动名词和分词。
一般来说，不定式作表语都表示该动作发生在将来，故在表示“目的、愿望、梦 想、需求”等名词作主语时其表语应该用不定式。 动名词做表语，说明主语的性质或情况。
-ing和-ed做表语的区别 -ing表示令人…., -ed表示感到…,
helping 1) LiPing’s/ My ______(help) her moved her deeply. 2.I appreciate your/you/LiPing’s/ LiPing ____(come) to see me. coming winning 3) Is there any hope of our team_______ (win) the match? failing 4) What made me angry was that many students____ (fail) in the exam. (动名词结构作宾语, 其逻辑主语用宾格或所有格均可)
1. When _______(heat) water will be changed heated into vapour. While _______ (heat) water, we can change it heating into vapour. Seen 2.______(see) from the hill, the city looks beautiful. Seeing _______ (see) from the hill, you will find the city beautiful. taken 3.Generally speaking, when ________(take) according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. taking 4. If ________(take) the drug according to the directions, you will be better soon.
1.The question __________ (discuss) at the meeting yesterday is discussed of quite importance. 2.They should understand the traffic rule by now. you’ve explained had it ______ (explain)often enough. 3.There are hundreds of visitors _____(wait) in front of the Art waiting Gallery to have a look at Van Gogh’s paintings. recorded 4.The disc, digitally ______(record) in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party that night. 5.Reading is an experience quite different from watching TV; forming there are pictures _____(form) in your mind instead of before your eyes. 6.The flowers ____(smell) sweet in the botanic garden smelling attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. treated 7.As he was an orphan, the nurse____(treat) him kindly.
8.He sent me an E-mail, _____ (hope)to get further information. hoping
To make 9._____(make) this cake, you’ll need 2 eggs, 175g sugar and 175g flour. 10.No matter how frequently _____(perform), the works of performed Beethoven will still attract people all over the world.
comparing 11.When _____ (compair)different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many sim compared 12.When _____ (compair)to the people, those living in the country have more flesh air. completed 13.When ______(complete), the museum will be open to the public next year considered 14.All the thing _____(consider)，his proposal is of greater value than yours.
tied 15.The murder was brought in, with his hands ______(tie) behind his back.