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U4 定语从句


Revising Attributive Clause(I) 定语从句复习(一)
定语从句:在复合句中用来用来修饰名词或代词的从句。 先行词:被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词
关系代词:起着代词和连词的作用,在从句中充当主语,宾语或定语 _____________________________________________________________-

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关系词的种类

关系副词:起着副词或介词短语和连词的作用,在从句中充当状语 ____________________________________________________________ 定语从句的构成: 两个简单句: A man is standing there. The man is my brother. =__________________________________________________

翻译句子: 1.桌子上的那只笔是我的。_ ____________________________________________________________________ 2.我正在用的那只笔是我妈妈买的。 ____________________________________________________________________ 3.在哭的那个男孩是我的弟弟。 ____________________________________________________________________ 4.我刚才说话的那个男孩是我的弟弟。 ___________________________________________________________________ 5.蓝色的那个门需要油漆了。 ___________________________________________________________________ 6.我将永远不会忘记我们在一起的那些日子。 ___________________________________________________________________ 7.北京是我遇到我男朋友的地方。 ____________________________________________________________________ 8.这就是你欺骗我的理由吗? ____________________________________________________________________ 1.who/ whom 引导定语从句 指人,在从句中做主语时用 who, 做宾语时 who/whom 皆可,而且可省略;也 用于非限定定语从句,但不能省略 He is the boy________________I like very much. The boss of the company, ________I met at a party last week, is a billionaire 2.Which 引导定语从句 1.指物,在从句中做主语或宾语 These are the photos (which) I took in the USA. 河边的那栋楼是我们学校. 注意:whom,whose,which 作介词宾语时,介词一般可放在它们之前,也可放 在从句原来的位置上 ,在含有介词的动词固定词组中 ,介词只能放在原来的位置 上。 有机器的房间是车间。
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The room______________ there is a machine is a workshop. 2. 用于非限定性定语从句,指物或一件事 The moon, ________is nearer to the earth, has no light of its own. 她嫁给 Joe 这件事,使所有人都很吃惊。 __________________________________________________ 3.that 引导定语从句 只用于限定性定语从句,既可指人也可指物,在从句中作主语或宾语,作宾语 时可省略 。 The woman____________ spoke to me in the shop used to live next door. 4.只用 that 不用 which/who 的情况 ⑴ 先行词为不定代词如 everything, nothing, anything, all, little, few 等 ⑵ 先行词由最高级修饰 ⑶ 先行词由序数词修饰 ⑷ 先行词中既有人又有物 ⑸ 先行词被 the only, the very, just 所修饰 (6)先行词被 all, every, any, much, little, few, no 等修饰时 (7) 主句是以 which 或 who 开头的特殊疑问句(为避免重复) (8) 当引导词在从句中作表语时 5.whose 引导定语从句 在从句中作定语,先行词既可是人,也可是物。 This is the room__________windows were broken in the storm. 6.when 引导定语从句 在从句中作时间状语,先行词是表示时间的名词。 ☆ The summer of 1969, when men first set foot on the moon, will never be forgotten. ☆我永远也忘不了遇到李先生的那天。 先行词是时间时,并非都用 when 引导从句来修饰,试比较: ☆ Do you still remember the days____________ there was no electricity? ☆ Do you still remember the days______________ we spent together? 7.where 引导定语从句 在从句中作地点状语,先行词通常是表示地点的名词。 ☆ A one-way street is a street____________ vechicles can only go one way. 先行词是地点时,并非都用 where 引导从句来修饰,试比较: ☆ The place _________Lu Xun once worked has become a museum. ☆The place _____________I visited last week is in Hong Kong. 8.Why 引导定语从句 在从句中作原因状语,先行词通常是 reason The reason why he left is still not clear to us. 先行词是 the reason 时并非都用 why That’s the reason_____________ he was late. That’s the reason______________he gave me. 9.介词+which/whom 引导定语从句介词的确定方法 (1) 根据先行词来确定
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★This is the pot ___________ I boiled the milk. =_____________________________________________ ★Yesterday we had a meeting, _________________ we discussed many problems. 2. 根据从句中的谓语动词或形容词来确定 ★The person ____________I complained is the manager. =____________________________________________________ ★ The dog, ___________he used to be afraid, is her favorite animal now. = ____________________________________________________________ 3. 根据从句所表达的意思来确定 ★ Water, without ____________man can’t live, is really important. 注:当介词和从句中的动词构成固定词组时,介词不能前置 ★ The babies_________________ the nurses are looking after are very healthy. 10.名词/代词/数词 +of+which/whom 引导非限定性定语从句 ★These people, the majority of whom are farmers, disagreed with the plan. ★ I bought some books from the bookstore, five of which were English novels. ★ The money, all of which has been given to the Hope project, was collected in the performance. 关系代词 which 与 as 引导非限制定语从句的区别: ☆关系代词 which 和 as 都可以引导定语从句用于指代前面整句的内容。 ☆ as 引导定语从句既可以放在句首,也可以放在句尾。意思是“正如……”后面 的动词多是 see, know, expect, say, mention, report, announce 等。 ☆ which 引导定语从句,只能放在句尾,意思是“这一点 ……”。 as 引导的限制性定语从句 as 可作为关系代词和关系副词来引导定语从句。 1. such … as… __________________________________ the same…as… __________________________________ 在这两个句型中, as 是关系代词,其中 such,same 做定语,修饰主句的名词、 代词,这个名词是这个定语从句的先行词,as 在从句中担任主、宾、表。 2. …such as… such 为代词,意思为 “这样的人/物”,as 修饰先行词 such。 This book is not such as I hope. 3. the same…as…/the same… that… “同一个” as that 都引导定语从句。意思几乎相同。但从句中省去谓语是必须用 as. 她跟你一样大。 _____________________________________________________ 4. …, as… “有些” as 引导非限定性定语从句, 相当于 which 引导的非限定性定语从句, 有时可互换 EXERCISE A. 用 that, which, who, whom, whose, when, where, why 填空 1.The house _______________ I would like to buy is not for 2. The thief _____________ had robbed the man was caught by the policeman. 3. He is the old man __________________ Mr. Li helped yesterday. 4. I saw some trees ________ leaves were black with disease. 5. I know Mary very well _____ mother is a teacher. 6. The office ________ he works is on the third floor. 7. I was in Beijing on the day ________ he arrived.
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sale.

8.Is that the reason __________ you were late for school this morning? 9. This is the baby________________ I shall look after tomorrow. 10.The student to __________ you talked just now is a good football player. 11.My family climbed up the hills on the top of ________ we had a picnic before. 12.He still lives in the room ________ window faces to the east. 13.He still lives in the room ___________ is in the north of the city. 14. He still lives in the room __________ there is a beautiful table. 15. I’ll never forget the days________________ we studied together. 16. I’ll never forget the days ___________ we spent together. 17. Do you know the reason _____________ he did not come? B. 语法填空。 Though I can’t remember everything 1.__________happened during the time when I was in university, I still remember some people and things 2._________were related to my best friend, 3.___________used to be monitor in our class. If you want to know who is the lady 4.__________I referred to in my diary, I can tell you, it’s her, miss Brown. Here is a story 5.__________makes me remember Miss Brown until now. One afternoon, she and I arrived in New York, 6.___________we would spend our summer holiday together. We went to the biggest bookshop in 7.__________there were different kinds of books to be sold. There, she persuaded me to buy a grammar book 8.__________could offer me knowledge of grammar and a dictionary 9.__________I could look up the new words in. Miss Brown also bought the same books 10.________ I did. Just when we left the bookshop and were ready to go back to our university, a big man stopped us and robbed me of my necklace. Miss Brown tried her best to help me and lost one of her fingers. Book 7 Unit 5 定语从句(Ⅱ) 定语从句:修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修 饰的先行词之后。 先行词:被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词,分为:关系代词(that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等)和 关系副词(when, where, why 等) 。其作用:A、引导定 语从句;B、代替先行词;C、在定语从句中担当一个成分。 定语从句分为:限定性定语从句、非限定性定语从句。 一、限定性定语从句 限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语,如果去掉,主句的意思就不 完整或失去意义。这种定语从句和主句的关系十分密切,书写时不用逗号分开。 例如: A man who doesn't learn from others can't achieve much. 一个不向别人学习的人是不能有多少成就的。 (a man 被限定后, 指一类特定的人.这类定语从句是不能去掉的,否则剩下的部 分就失去意义不能成立,或者含义不清,甚至让人感到莫名其妙。 ) 二、非限定性定语从句 非限制性定语从句同主句的关系不十分密切,只是对先行词作附加或补充的说 明,不起限制的作用,如果省去,主句的意思仍然清楚完整。在形式上,非限定 性定语从句与主句之间通常用逗号隔开。 Finally we visited to the Giant Yangtze Gorges Dam, which is the greatest key water
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control project in the world at present. 最后我们参观了长江三峡大坝,它是目前世界上最大的水利枢纽工程。 (本句若去掉从句,主句部分的含义仍然完整。历年的高考中,非限定性定语从句 都是出现频率最高的考点之一。因此值得我们注意。 ) 三、非限定性定语从句几点说明 1.引导非限定性定语从句时,只能用 which(不用 that)。例如: Heat is another form of energy, which is as important as other kinds of energy. 热是另一种形式的能量,与其他形式的能量一样重要。 2.引导非限定性定语从句的 which 可以指代前面的先行词,也可以指前面整个句 子的含义。例如: That Peter will marry Alice, which has not been announced yet, has spread around. 彼特要娶爱丽斯这件事还没宣布,却已传得沸沸扬扬。 3.指人时主格用 who,宾格用 whom, 所属关系用 whose(也可指物)。 1) Miss Howe, _____you met in the library, is our new teacher. 2) The Arabs, ______are famous for their horses and camels, use these animals for work and in sports. 3) Li Ming, _______mother has been ill for two days, is absent from school today. 4. 关系副词 when(指时间), where (指地点)也可以引导非限制性定语从句,但关 系副词 why 不能引导非限制性定语从句。 4) He lives in the city, _________there is a high tower. 5) The People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949, ________he was born. 5.介词加关系代词也可以引导非限定性定语从句。 6) Wu Dong, ______ _______ I went to see the film, enjoyed it very much. 7) Her bag, ____ ______ she put all her books, has not been found. 8) The story about the Long March, ____ _______ this is an example, are well written. 6.在限定性定语从句中作宾语时,引导词可以省略,但引导非限定性定语从句的关 联词不能省。试比较: He was eager to go to the hospital to see his stepmother, ______ he loved and respected as his own mother. 他急于想去医院看望他的继母,他把他的继母当作亲生母亲一样热爱和尊敬。 The American journalist ___________ the announcer mentioned in the news broadcast is said to have been killed by the gangsters. 播音员在新闻广播中提到的那位美国记者据说已经被匪徒杀害了。 7.表示"正如"的含义时,通常用 as 引导非限定性定语从句,也可用 which 引导;但 置于句首时,只能用 as 引导。 China has basically succeeded in defeating SARS, ______ we have expected. 正如我们所预料的那样,中国已基本上战胜了“非典”。 _______is well known to everybody, Taiwan is an inseparable part of China. 众所周知,台湾是中国不可分割的一部分。

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限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别 限制性定语从句 形式上 不用逗号“ ,”与主句隔开 非限制性定语从句 用逗号“ ,”与主句隔开

意义上

只是对先行词的补充说明, 如 是先行词不可缺少的定语,如删除, 删除, 主句仍能表达完整的意 主句则失去意义或意思表达不完整 思。 译成先行词的定语:“…的 ” 1. 作宾语时可省略 可用 that 可用 who 代替 whom 1. 2. 3. 通常译成主句的并列句 不可省略 不用 that 不可用 who 代替 whom

译法上

关系词的使 2. 用上 3.

练习: 一、选择: 1. As ______ announced in today's papers, the Shanghai Export Commodities Fair is also open on Sundays. A. being B. is C. to be D. been 2. She is always speaking highly of her role in the play, ______ ,of course, make the others unhappy. A. what B. for that C. that D. which 3. It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park. A. that B. which C. as D. it 4. She is a teacher of much knowledge, _____ much can be learned. A. who B. that C. from which D. from whom 5. China has many rivers, ____the Changjiang River is the longest. A. which B. in which C. among which D. one of which 6. Pisa is a city, ________ has a leaning tower. Pisa is a city, ____there is a leaning tower. A. which B. that C. where D. there 7. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play,____ ,of course, made the others unhappy. A. who B. which C. this D. what 8. Do you know the reason ____ he was late? A. that B. which C. for what D. for which 9. I have bought two ball pens, ___ writes well. A. none of which B. neither of which C. none of them D. neither of them 10. The English play ___ my students acted at the New Year’s party was a great
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success. A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which 二:用非限制性定语从句完成句子: 1. 汤姆的本族语是德语,他能说几种外语。 Tom, _______________________________, can speak ____________________. Tom, whose native language is German, can speak several foreign languages. 2. 她爸爸上周开车去广州,在那里住了两天。 Her father ________________________, ________ he stayed for two weeks. Her father drove to Guangzhou last week, where 3. 他的哥哥 29 岁了,是一个教授。 His brother, _______________________________________________________. 4. 高中毕业后,我决定待在深圳,在那里我度过了我的四年大学生活。 _________________________________________________________________ After graduating from high school, I decided to stay in Shenzhen, where I spent my four years of college life. 5. 这些书对我没用,但我的朋友却觉得非常有趣。 __________________________________________________________________ These books, which my friends found very interesting, were useless for me. 1.She is a beautiful woman ___________ abandoned all her family, flew to the sky and lived alone in an isolated palace. 2.It is a lovely animal with two long ears, ______feeds on carrots. 3.It’s a Chinese traditional festival _____people get together to watch the moon and enjoy mooncakes delightedly. 4.Jane paused in front of a counter _______ some attractive ties were on display. 5. The story is about Tom, _______was given extra exchanges mistakenly and returned it honestly. And it tells us that honesty is the best policy. 6. In the article, Tom was given extra money mistakenly when shopping, but he returned it honestly, _______tells us honesty is the best policy. 7. This decision, _______aims to make all indoor public places smoke-free, will come into effect from the first day of 2011. 8. Currently China has about 350 million smokers, among ______75% are men and 25% are women. Around 540 million people are affected by second-hand smoke, _____causes 100,000 deaths per year. 9. Shooting, ______was a means of survival originally, developed into a sport only in the late 19th century. 10.______is known to all, China with an area of 9.6 million square kilometers, is the third largest country in the world. The Chinese nation consists of 56 nationalities, among ______the Han Ethnic Group is the largest, making up 94% of the whole. Besides, there are many big rivers in China, the most important of ______are the Yangtze River and the Yellow River. There was a time _____Chinese economy was far behind many other countries in the world. However, with the development of the economy, the days are gone forever ______the Chinese people were looked down upon, ______all Chinese are proud of.

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