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2014高考英语一轮复习 语法梳理 状语从句(13页Word文档)


状语从句
(一)时间状语从句 时间状语从句 1.when, while, as 的区别 这三个词都可以用作连接词,表示时间关系,但有所区别。 (1)when 表示时间关系时,意思常常是“当(在)??的时候” 。主句和从句中的动作或事情可以 同时发生,也可以先后发生。例如: When we were at school, we went to the library ev

ery day. 我们在求学的时候,每天都到图书馆去。 (2)while 用作连接词表示时间关系时,意思也是“当(在)??的时候” ,主句中的动作或事情 在从句中的动作或事情的进展过程中发生。它有时可与 when 通用,但它只能指一段时间(a period of time),而不能指一点时间的(a point of time)。如上面第一个例句中的 when,可以用 while 代替;而第二个例句中的 when,就不能用 while 代替。例如: Please don’t talk so aloud while others are working. 别人在工作的时候,请勿大声讲话。 (3)as 用作连接词表示时间关系时,意思也是“当(在)??时候” ,往往可与 when 或 while 通 用,但它着重指主句和从句中的动作或事情相并发生。例如: I saw him as he was getting off the bus.当他下公共汽车的时候,我看见了他。 2.一些表示时间的名词短语也可用来引导时间状语从句 the minute, the moment, the instant, every time, the last time, every time。如: The first time I got to the island, I was amazed by its beauty. 我第一次到这座岛屿的时候,我就对它的美丽感到惊异。 The moment I entered the room, I smelled something usual. 我一走进房间里,就觉得不对头。 Every time I visit him, he is always reading. 每次当我拜访他的时候,他总是在读书。 3.directly 和 immediately 也可作为连词,引导时间状语从句,意为“一??就??” ,相当 于 the moment/the instant 和 as soon as。如: I knew something was wrong directly I arrived. 我一到就知道出事了。 The boys did all sorts of mischief immediately my back was turned.
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我一转身孩子们就捣乱。 4.before 和 after before 引导的从句的动作通常发生在主句动作之后,如果从句是过去时,主句一般要用过去 完成时或一般过去时。after 引导的从句动作通常发生在主句动作之前,如果主句要用过去时, 从句则要用过去完成时或一般过去时。例如: The plane had taken off before he arrived at the airport.他到机场前飞机早就起飞了。 After he had lived in the south for nearly 20 years, he decided to go to seek his fortune in the north. 他在南方生活了将近二十年后,决定去北方碰碰运气。 They arrived at the cinema after the film began. 电影开始之后他们到了影院。 5.no sooner...than 和 hardly (scarcely)... when 这两个连词词组都是表示主句与从句动作随即发生,意为“一??就??” 。主句动词用过去 完成时。如果 no sooner, hardly 或 scarcely 位于句首,主句要倒装。例如: No sooner had he entered the house than it began to rain. 他刚走进房间天就开始下起雨来了。 He had hardly gone to bed when the telephone rang. 他刚上床电话就响了。 6.till 和 until 这两个词的用法十分近似,都表示“直到??” ,但在句首只能用 until。在肯定句中,主句要 用延续性动词;在否定句中,主句要用非延续性动词,这时 until 和 before 同义。例如: Until they had finished the work, they did not go home.直到他们完成工作才回家。 7. It 与 before, since, when 引导的时间状语从句连用时的区别: (1)It is/has been+时间段+since ... 自从??以来已有多长时间了。 (2)It is/was+时间点+when ... when 引导的是一个时间状语从句,主句中的 it 指时间,表语 由具体的时间充当。常译为“当??的时候,是??” 。 (3)It be +时间段+ before ... it 指时间, 主句中的时态常是一般将来时或过去时两种时 态. 主句中的表语多是 long, not long , 3 days , 2 weeks 等表示时间段的词或短语。 常译为 “?? 之后??” 。例如: How long is it since we met last time? 自从上一次我们见面以来已有多长时间了? It was a lready midnight when I got home.
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当我到家时已是半夜了。 It was not long before she got married and moved to Japan. 不久她就结婚,搬往日本了。 (二)地点状语从句 地点状语从句用 where, wherever 引导 Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者,事竟成。 无论他们走到哪儿都受到热烈欢迎。

Wherever they went, they received a warm welcome. (三)原因状语从句

原因状语从句用 because(因为) ,since(既然), as(由于)引导 1、由 why 提问必须用 because 回答。 since, as 不回答 why 的提问,而且从句一般放在句首,because 一般放在主句之后。 2、because of +名词 Because of the rain, we didn’t go to the park. 3、because 和 so 不可连用,只能选其一。 (另有 although, but) Why didn’t he come to school? Because he was ill. Since I must die, I must. 既然我一定要死,我一定这样做。 4、for 并列连词,不能放在句首,主要放在两个并列句之间。for 所提供的理由为一个补充 说明,而且前面常有逗号隔开。 The days are short, for it is December now. (四)目的状语从句 目的状语从句用 so(常用于口语), that, so that, in order that 引导 目的状语从句的谓语常含有 may, might, can, could, should, would 等情态动词。 We’ll sit never to the front so we can hear better. He studied hard so that he might succeed. 他努力学习,以便成功。

They hurried to the station in order that they could catch the train. 他们急忙赶往火车站,以便能赶上火车。 (五)条件状语从句 1.if 和 unless if 表示正面的条件,意为“如果” ,unless 表示反向的条件,意为“除非,如果不” 。例如: If you’ve got exams tomorrow, why aren’t you studying?如果你明天有考试,你为什么不学习? The sports meet will begin tomorrow unless it rains.运动会明天将要开始,除非下雨。
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【专家提醒】 条件状语从句中常用一般时表示将要发生的动作。 2. providing, provided (that), supposing, suppose (that), as long as, so long as, on condition that 和 in case 这些连词(词组)意思相近,有“如果,只要,假如,假使,在??条件下”等意思。例如: All living things respire as long as they live. 所有的生物只要他们活着都要呼吸。 Supposing (that) you fail a second time, don’t get disappointed, but try again. 假如你又一次失败了,不要泄气,再试一次。 On condition that the liquid is cooled still further, it will turn to a solid. 如果液体进一步冷却的话,会变成固体。 3.only if 和 if only only if 引导的从句用陈述语气,意为“只要” if only 引导的从句要用虚拟语气,意为“但 ; 愿??”“要是??就好了” , 。例如: only if you have persistence, can you achieve great success. 惟有你坚持下去,你才能成功。 If only I had wings, I would be able to travel around the world easily. 如果我有翅膀,我就能够轻松地环游地球了。 (六)结果状语从句 结果状语从句由 such…that, so…that, so that, that 引导 1. such… that 的常用句型 such +a/an +形容词+可数名词单数+that such +形容词+可数名词单数+that such+形容词+可数名词复数(不可数名词)+that 注意 so many (much, few, little) +名词,such a lot of (或 lots of)+名词是惯用法,不 可乱用。 She is such a beautiful girl that we all like her. They were such beautiful flower that we bought home. It was such delicious food that they ate it up. 2. so+形容词或副词+that so+形容词+a/an+可数名词单数+that He is so rich that he can buy lot of things for himself.
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It was so hot a day that we all went swimming. It was such a good day that we all went swimming. 3. so that, that 都可以引导结果状语从句 He didn’t study hard, (so) that he failed the exam. 4. too…to, enough…to 可以引导结果状语从句与 so…that 替换, so…that 结构可以用 too…to 替换必须具备两个条件,一是主句和结果状语从句的主语必须一致,二是从句中的谓语部分 必须含有 can(could) not. She is so young that she can’t go to school. She is too young to go to school. She isn’t old enough to go to school. (七)让步状语从句 1.让步状语从句可由 although,though,as,while,even if(though),whatever,whether...or..., no matter who (when,what...)等引导。 Although/Though she works very hard,(yet) she makes very slow progress.尽管她学习很努力, 但还是进步不快。 Whenever I’m unhappy(=No matter when I’m unhappy),it is my friend who cheers me up. 不管什么时候我不高兴,总是我的朋友给我鼓励。 【专家提醒】 (1)however 引导让步状语从句时,与它所修饰的词一起放在句首。 (2)英语不允许在 though 或 although 从句后同时用 but。 如果要强调前后两个部分的对比意义, 可以在主句前加上 yet 或 still。 2.as 引导的让步状语从句的常见的几种倒装方式 (1)如果从句的谓语部分为“不及物动词+副词”时,常将从句中的副词提到从句的句首。 Hard as you may try,you will not succeed. 尽管你努力了,你可能不会成功。 (2)如果从句的谓语部分为“情态动词+不及物动词” ,常将这个不及物动词提到从句的句首。 Wait as you may,he will not see you. 尽管你等了,他可能不会见你。 (3)如果从句的谓语部分是“系动词+单数名词” ,则常将这个作表语的名词提前,但这个名词 前面的不定冠词要省略。 Child as he is,he can tell right from wrong.
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尽管他还是个孩子,他能明辨是非。 3.while 作“尽管”讲引导让步状语从句时往往放在句首 While I understand your viewpoint,I don’t agree with you. 尽管我明白你的观点,我不赞成你。 (八)方式状语从句 1.as 和 just as 二者都表示“如??;犹如??,正如??” 。just as 比 as 强调的语气更强。例如: In the early days, people could not count as we do now. 在早期日子中,人们不和我们现在一样能计数。 Most plants need sunlight just as they need water. 大部植物像它们需要水一样,也需要阳光。 2.as if 和 as though as if 或 as though 从句可以用陈述语气,表示可能符合事实的情况;也可以用虚拟语气,表示 不符合事实或与事实相反的情况,意为“好像,仿佛” 。例如: It looks as though it is going to rain. 天看起来要下雨。 He spoke as if he were a philosopher. 他说话就像是一位哲学家。(从句动词与主语谓语同时发生,从句谓语要用一般过去时) He speaks as if he had been to the moon. 他谈起话来就好像是去过月球。(从句动作发生在主句谓语之前,从句谓语要用过去完成时) He speaks as if he would fly to the moon. 他谈起话来就好像是要飞往月球。(从句动词发生在主句谓语之后,从句谓语要用 would/could/might+do) (九)比较状语从句 比较状语从句由 as…as, not as(so)…as, than, the+比较级,the+比较级引导 He swims as well as you. (do) He doesn’t swim as well as you (do). He got here earlier than you. (did) The busier he is, the happier he feels.

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典型高考英语陷阱题详解·状语从句
1. “May I go and play with Dick this afternoon, Mum?” “No, you can’t go out _________ your work is being done.” A. before B. until C. as D. the moment

【陷阱】容易误选 B,误认为这是考查 not…until…结构。 【分析】最佳答案选 C。句中的 your work is being done 表明“你正在做作业”,选 as 表原因。 2. “I’m going to the post office.” “_________ you’re there, can you get me some stamps?” A. As 子 B. While C. Because D. If

【陷阱】容易误选 A。 【分析】最佳答案选 B。尽管 as 和 while 均可用作从属连词引导时间状语从句,表示“当……的时 候”,但两者有一个重要区别,就是这样用的 as 从句的谓语不能是状态动词。当然,如果 as 不是表示 “当……的时候”,其谓语是完全可以用状态动词的。如: I went to bed early, as I was exhausted. 我很累了,所以很早就上床睡了。(此句中的 as 表示原因,意为 “因为”、“由于”) 请做以下两题,答案均选 while,不选 as: (1) _________ you are at home alone, please don’t leave the door open. A. While B. As C. Before D. How

(2) _________ you are alone with her, tell her that you like her. A. While B. As C. After D. How

3. After the war, a new school building was put up _________ there had once been a theatre. A. that B. when C. which D. where

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案选 D。where 在此引导地点状语从句,其意为“(在)……的地方”。请做以下类似试 题(答案均选 where): (1) The famous scientist grew up _________ he was born and in 1930 he came to Shanghai. A. when B. whenever C. where D. wherever

(2) She found her calculator _________ she lost it. A. where B. while C. in which D. that

(3) You should make it a rule to leave things _________ you can find them again. A. when
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B. where

C. then
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D. which

(4) When you read the book, you’d better make a mark _________ you have any questions. A. at which B. at where C. the place where D. where

(5) You should let your children play _________ you can see them. A. where B. when C. in which D. that

(6) Now he works in the factory _________ his father used to work. A. where B. when C. in which D. that

4. The visitor asked to have his picture taken _________ stood the famous tower. A. that B. at which C. when D. where

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案选 D。此题与上面一题有些相似,但又有所不同:相似的是,where 均表示“在…… 的地方”,均用以引导地点状语从句;不同的是,此题还涉及倒装,即此句的主语是 the famous tower,谓 语是 stood,正常词序为 where the famous tower stood,使用倒装是为了保持句子平衡,避免头重脚轻。 4. They kept trying _________ they must have known it was hopeless. A. if B. because C. when D. where

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案选 C。when 在此的意思不是“当……的时候”,而是“尽管”、“虽然”的意思。又如: He walks when he might take a taxi. 尽管他可以坐出租车,但他却走路。 He stopped trying when he might have succeeded next time. 尽管他本来下次就可以成功的了,但他却停 止努力了。 The boy was restless when he should have listened to the teacher carefully. 这男孩子本来应该专心听老师 讲的,但他却坐立不安。 有许多同学只知道 when 表示“当……的时候”, 而不知道它还有其他许多意思, 除上面提到的表示“尽 管”、“虽然”外,when 还可表示“既然”、“考虑到”。请做下面的试题(答案选 D): Why do you want a new job _________ you’ve got such a good one already? A. that B. where C. which D. when

5. He was about to tell me the secret _________ someone patted him on the shoulder. A. as B. until C. when D. while

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案选 C。when 意为“这时(突然)”,主要用于某一动作突然发生于另一动作正在进行或 刚要发生之时。此时的 when 可以连用副词 suddenly,也可以不连用它,但值得注意的是,同学们不能单 独用 suddenly 来代替 when,如下面各题的答案选 A,不选 B:
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(1) I was about to go out _________ the telephone rang. A. when B. suddenly C. as soon as D. directly

(2) We were swimming in the lake _________ the storm started. A. when B. suddenly C. until D. before

(3) She was walking down the road _________ she heard someone shouting for help. A. when B. suddenly C. until D. before

6. The fire went on for quite some time _________ it was brought under control. A. when B. since C. after D. before

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案选 D。before 意为“在……之前”,句意是“大火在得到控制之前燃烧了相当一段时 间”。类似地,以下两题也选 before: (1) He made a mistake, but then he corrected the situation _________ it got worse. A. until B. when C. before D. as

(2) Someone called me up in the middle of the night, but they hung up _________ I could answer the phone. A. as B. since C. until D. before

(3) She is getting better by degrees, but it will be some time _________ she is completely well. A. that B. since C. when D. before

(4) They sat down opposite each other, but it was some moments _________ they spoke. A. after B. before C. since D. when

7. Mother asked me to take more money _________ something unexpected should happen. A. in case B. so that C. in order that D. when

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案选 A。in case 起连词作用,用以引导状语从句,主要有两种意思:一是表示条件, 意为“如果”、“万一”;二是表示“目的”,意为“以防”、“免得”。如以下各题也都选 in case: (1) _________ I forget, please remind me about it. A. In case B. So that C. In order that D. When

(2) Take your umbrella just _________ it rains. A. in case B. so that C. in order that D. when

(3) Be quiet _________ you should wake the baby. A. in case B. so that C. in order that D. when

(4) Take a hat with you in case the sun is very hot.
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A. in case

B. so that

C. in order that

D. when

(5). I’ll keep his address _________ I need it. A. so that B. in order that C. in case D. when

8. “Shall Mary come and play computer games?” “No, _________ she has finished her homework.” A. when B. since C. unless D. as soon as

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案选 C。此句为省略句,答句句首的 No 表明其后省略的是一个否定句,全句补充完 整为:She can’t play computer games unless she has finished her homework. 请做类似试题(答案均选 B): (1) “Would you mind my sitting here with you?” “No, _________ you aren’t too noisy.” A. when B. if C. unless D. as soon as

(2) “Will he agree to come to join us in the work?” “No, _________ we promise him more money.” A. when B. unless C. unless D. as soon as

(3) “Can you finish the work in time?” “No, _________ we don’t sleep throughout the night.” 状语从句 (2013 全国卷 I)32. There’s no way of knowing why one man makes an important discovery _____ another man, also intelligent, fails. A. since B. if C. as D. while

(2013 北京卷)30. I took my driving license with me on holiday, ________I wanted to hire a car. A. in case B. even if C. ever since D. if only

(2013 上海卷)30. They promised to develop a software package by the end of this year, ________ they might have. A. however difficult B. how difficult C. whatever difficulty D. what difficulty

(2013 上海卷)36. I cannot hear the professor clearly as there is too much noise ________ I am sitting. A. before (2013 天津卷)5. A. As B. until C. unless D. where

small, the company has about 1,000 buyers in over 30 countries. B. If C. Although D. Once

(2013 江苏卷)28. In the global economy, a new drug for cancer, ______ it is discovered, will create many economic possibilities around the world. A. whatever
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B. whoever

C. wherever
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D. whichever

(2013 安徽卷)23. A. unless

It’s much easier to make friends B. when

you have similar interests. C. even though D. so that large as what it was. D. much twice

(2013 安徽卷)33. It’s said that the power plant is now A. twice as B. as twice C. twice much

(2013 湖南卷)23. You must learn to consult your feelings and your reason ________ you reach any decision. A. although B. before C. because D. unless I came back from abroad. D. when

(2013 陕西卷)18. I have heard a lot of good things about you A. since B. until C. before

(2013 山东卷) 26. Mark needs to learn Chinese _______ his company is opening a branch in Beijing. A. unless B. until C. although D. since

(2013 山东卷) 28. _________I have to give a speech, I get extremely nervous before I start. A. Whatever B. Whenever C. Whoever D. However

(2013 重庆卷)25. ________ we have enough evidence, we can’t win the case. A. Once B. As long as C. Unless D. Since

(2013 四川卷)7. He is so busy. He cannot afford enough time with his son _______ he wants to. A. even if B. as if C. because D. before

(2013 江西卷)26.There are a small number of people involved, possibly ______twenty. A. as few as B. as little as C. as many as D. as much as

(2013 江西卷)28.She says that she’ll have to close the shop ________ business improves. A. if B. unless C. after D. when

(2013 辽宁卷)24. One can always manage to do more things, no matter________full one’s schedule is in life. A. how B. what C. when D. where

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