1、连接代词：who, whose, whom, what, which。有词义，在从句中担任成分，如主语、表语、 宾语、或定语等。 2、连接副词：when,
where, why, how。有词义，在从句中担任成分，作状语。 3、 连接词： that, whether, if, as if。 that 无词义， 在从句中不担任成分， 有时可省略； if (whether), as if 虽有词义，但在从句中不担任成分。 注意：连接代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句，因而从句中谓语不用疑问式。连接代词 与连接副词在从句充当句子成分，连接词 whether 和 if（是否） ，as if（好象）在从句中不充当句 子成分，只起连接作用。根据句义，如果连接代词与连接副词，whether、if 和 as if 都用不上时， 才用 that 作连接词（that 本身无任何含义） 。
1、主语从句在复合句作主语。 e.g. Who will go is not important. 2、用 it 作形式主语，主语从句放在句末。 e.g. It doesn’t matter so much whether you will come or not. 3、that 引导主语从句时，不能省略。 e.g. That he suddenly fell ill last week made us surprised.
1、表语从句在复合句中作表语，位于系动词之后。 e.g. The question was who could go there. 2、引导表语从句的连接词 that 有时可省去。 e.g. My idea is (that) we can get more comrades to help in the work.
1、宾语从句在复合句中作宾语。引导宾语从句的连词 that 一般可省略。 e.g. I hope (that) everything is all right. 2、介词之后的宾语从句，不可用 which 或 if 连接，要分别用 what 或 whether。 e.g. I’m interested in whether you’ve finished the work.. I’m interested in what you’ve said. 3、whether 与 if 都可以引导宾语从句，常可互换。但下面情况不能互换。 ①宾语从句是否定句时，只用 if，不用 whether。 e.g. I wonder if it doesn’t rain. ②用 if 会引起误解，就要用 whether。 e.g. Please let me know whether you want to go. （此句如果把 whether 改成 if， 容易当成条件句 理解） ③宾语从句中的 whether 与 or not 直接连用，就不能换成 if；不直接连用，可换。 e.g. I don’t know whether or not the report is true. I don’t know whether/ if the report is true or not. 15
④介词后的宾语从句要用 whether 引导。whether 可与不定式连用。whether 也可引导主语从 句、表语从句、同位语从句，还可引导让步状语从句，以上均不能换成 if。但引导条件从句时， 只能用 if，而不能用 whether。 e.g. It depends on whether we have enough time. They don’t know whether to go there. Please come to see me if you have time.
同位语从句在句中作某一名词的同位语，一般位于该名词（如：news, fact, idea, suggestion, promise 等）之后，说明该名词的具体内容。 e.g. I have no idea when he will be back. The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody.
1. China is no longer what it used to be. 2. The truth that the earth turn around the sun is known to all. 3. It was snowing when he arrived at the station. 4. How he persuaded the manager to change the plan is interesting to us all. 5. The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole school. 6. The news that you told me yesterday was really disappointing. 7. That is where Lu Xun used to live. 8. He spoke as if he understood what he was talking about. 9. Do you remember the teacher who taught us English at middle school? 10. I wonder why she refused my invitation.
1. I can’t decide ____________ dictionary I should buy. 2. That’s ____________ he refused my invitation. 3. I am very interested in ____________ he has improved his pronunciation in such a short time. 4. ____________ we need is more time. 5. The fact ____________ she had not said anything at the meeting surprised everybody. 6. ____________ and ____________ they will meet has not been decided yet. 7. Please tell me ____________ you are waiting for. 8. Is that ____________ you are looking for? 9. Would you please tell me ____________ the nearest post office is? 10. I don’t know ____________ he will agree to the plan or not.
1. Do you see _____ I mean? A. that B./ 2. Tell me_____ is on your mind. A. that B. what C. how C. which 16 D. what D. why
3. We must stick to _____ we have agreed on. A. what B. that C. / D. how 4. Let me see _____. A. that can I repair the radio B. whether -I can repair the radio C. I can repair the radio D. whether can I repair the radio 5. Keep in mind _____. A. that the teacher said B. what did the teacher say C. that did the teacher say D. what the teacher said 6. Could you advise me _____? A. which book should I read first B. what book should I read first C. that book 1 should read first D. which book I should read first 7. He was criticized for _____. A. he had done it B. what he had done C. what had he done 8. Would you kindly tell me _____? A. how can I get to the Beijing Railway Station B. how I can get to the Beijing Railway Station C. where can I get to the Beijing Railway Station D. whether can I get to the Beijing Railway Station 9. Mrs. Smith was very much impressed by _____. A. what had she seen in China B. that she had seen in China C. what she had seen in China D. which had she seen in China 10. We took it for granted ___ A. that they were not coming B. that were they not coming C. they were coming not D. were they not coining 11. I really don't know _____ A. I should do next B. what should I do next C. what I should do next D. how I should do next 12. I'm afraid _____. A. the little girl will have to be operated on B. that will the little girl have to operate on C. the little girl will have to operate on D. that will the little girl have to be operated on 13. She walked up to _____ . A. where did I stand B. where I stood C. I stood there D. where I stood there 14. Can you tell me _____? A. who is that gentleman B. that gentleman is who C. who that gentleman is D. whom .is that gentleman 15. We'll give you _____. A. that do you need B. what do you need 17
D. that he had done it
C. whatever you need D. whether do you need 16. They want us to know _____ to help us. A. what can they B. what they can C. how they can D. how can they 17. We must put _____ into practice. A. what we have learned B. that we have learned C. that have we learned D. what have we learned 18. Did she say anything about _____? A. that the work was to be done B. how was the work to be done C. that was the work to be done D. how the work was to be done 19. He was never satisfied with _____. A. what she had achieved B. had what she achieved C. she had achieved D. that she achieved 20. These photographs will show you _____. A. what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like 21. Peter insisted _____ he pay the bill. A. on that B. what C. that D. on which 22. They urged _____ the library open during the vacation. A. when B. where C. why D. that 23. We wish we could have learned _____ when we were at high school. A. what you did B. that you had done C. that what you did D. what did you do 24.1 will describe to you _____ I saw when there. A. what B. that C. which D./ 25. From _____ I should say he is a good worker. A. what 1 know of him B. that I do know of him C. what do I know of him D. that do I know of him 26. I will give this dictionary to __ wants to have it. A. whomever B. anyone C. whoever D. someone 27._____ they will come here hasn' t been decided yet. A. What B. That C. When D. Where 28. _____ was said here must be kept secret. A. Who B. The thing C. Whatever D. Where 29. It is still a question _____ we shall have our sports meet. A. if B. that C. what D. when 30. I'm going anyway. _____ she will go is up to her to decide. A. If or not B. Whether or not C. If D. That 31. It is strange _____ she have left without saying a word. A. that B. what C. why D. how 32. It is very clear _____ our policy is a correct one. 18
A. what B. that C. why D. where 33. _____ Mr Zhang said is quite right. A. That B. When C. What D. Whether 34. It has been decided _____ he will be sent there. A. if B. whether C. why D. that 35. It doesn' t matter _____he' s come back or not. A. if B. whether C. that D. when 36. It's a great pity _____ we won’t be able to finish the task on time. A. when B. that C. why D. where 37. It happened _____ I wasn't there that day. A. when B. why C. where D. that 38._____ you have done might do harm to other people. A. What B. That C. Which D. The things 39. _____ leaves the room last ought to turn oft the lights. A. Anyone B. The person C. Whoever D.Who 40._____ the 2000 Olympic Games won't be held in Beijing is known to all. A. Whether B. If C. Whenever D. That 41. _____ fails to see this will make a big mistake. A. That B. Whoever C. Whether D. Whether or not 42. __ we need more equipment is quite obvious. A. What B. Whether C. That D. Whatever 43. Has it been announced _____? A. when are the planes to take off B. that are the planes to take off C. where are the planes to take off D. when the planes are to take off 44. That is _____ we all support his idea. A. what B. why C. where D. when 45. That’s _____ we should do. A. that B. what C. how D. why 46. _____ is troubling me is _____ I don’t understand _____ he said A. What; that; what B. What; what; what C. That; that; what D. Why; that; which 47. Things were not _____ they seemed to be. A. when B. why C. that D. what 48. That’s _____ I want to say. A. all what B. what C. all which D. what that 49. That’s _____ . A. where our differences lie B. our differences lie there C. where do our differences lie D. that where our differences lie 50. That is _____ . A. where lived he there B. where did he live 19
C. where he lived D. that where he lived 51. The questions is _____. A. whether is it worth doing B. that if it is worth doing C. whether it is worth doing D. if it is worth doing 52. Water will continue to be _____ it is today next in importance to oxygen. A. how B. which C. what D. as 53. That's_____. A. how did I become a teacher B. how I became a teacher C. how a teacher I became D. that I became a teacher 54. They are just _____. A. that what shall I have B. what shall I have C. that I shall have what D. what I shall have 55. It looked ____. A. as if it was going to rain B. that as if it was going to rain C. as if was it going to rain D. as if that it was going to rain 56. That's_____. A. how she did it B. that how did she do it. C. how did she do it D. what she did it 57. That is _____ we decided to put the discussion off. A. where B. which C. that D. why 58. That’s _____ I lived when I was ten years old. A. where B. at which C. there where D. when 59. My suggestion is _____ we should send a few comrades to help them. A. if B. that C. when that D. that where 60. The idea _____ all people are selfish is wrong. A. what B. that C. why D. if 61. We heard the news _____ our team had won. A. that B. what C. whether D. why 62. The fact _____ he hadn’t said anything surprised us all. A. why B. if C. that D. whether 63.I have no idea _____ she will be back. A. that B. where C. that when D. when 64. We must keep in mind the fact _____ China is still a developing country. A. whether B. that C. why D. when 65. They have no idea at all _____. A. where he has gone B. where did he go C. where has he gone D. which place he has gone
参考答案 语法复习三：名词性从句 一、1、表语从句；2、同位语从句；3、不是；4、主语从句；5、同位语从句；6、不是；7、表 语从句；8、宾语从句；9、不是；10、宾语从句 二、1. which; 2. why; 3. how; 4. What; 5. that; 6. when, where; 7. who(m); 8. what; 9. where; 10. whether 三、1~5 DBABD 6~10 DBBCA 11~15 CABCC 16~20 BADAB 21~25 CDAAA 26~30 CCCDB 31~35 ABCDB 36~40 BDACD 41~45 BCDBB 46~50 ADBAC 51~55 CCBDA 56~60 ADABB 61~65 ACDBA