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2013-2014《随堂优化训练》高中英语必修二 配套课件 unit 3:section ⅱ learning about language


Section Ⅱ

Learning about Language
现在完成时的被动语态

一、结构

have/has+been+及物动词的过去分词
二、用法 1.表示被动的动作发生在说话之前,并强调对现在造成的 影响或结果。如: The door has been locked. 门被锁上了。(结果是现在没有人能进去)

2.表示一个被动的动作或状态开始于过去,持续到现在,

并可能继续持续下去,常与 for 或 since 引导的时间状语连用,
或用于“How long...?”问句中。如: They have been told about it for many times.

他们被告知这件事很多次了。
How long has the machine been used?

这机器用了有多久了? 注意:(1)由 finish, buy, start, begin, post, return, borrow, join,
marry, open 等词构成的现在完成时的被动语态不能直接与表示 一段时间的短语如 for four days, how long 等连用,需要改换动 词或时态。如:

How long has this book been bought?(×) How long has this book been had?(√)

When was this book bought?(√) 这本书买了多久了?
但这类动词的否定式可以表示动作的持续过程,因而可与

since 或 for 引导的时间状语连用。如: No books have been bought since last week. 自上周以来,没有人来买过书。 (2)动词短语是一个不可分割的整体,在被动结构中要保持 完整性,不可省略动词短语中的介词或副词。如:
The orphan has been well looked after. 这个孤儿一直受到很好的照顾。

一、用所给单词或短语的适当形式填空 hasn't been decided 1.Who will be sent there ____________________ (not decide)

yet.
2 . So far, almost two-thirds of this book ________________ has been learnt (learn) in all.

has been closed 3.It is said that the bridge ____________________ (close) for
repairs for months. has been enlarged 4.Our school area ___________________ (enlarge) for many

times in the last few years.

5 .This is one of the farthest places that have been explored ________________ (explore) so far in that country. has been made 6 . In recent years, much progress ____________________ (make) as a result of his efforts. 7 . The government has proved that most of the buildings have been destroyed ____________________ (destroy), leaving many people dead or injured. have been typed 8 .By now, all the letters ____________________ (type) for your convenience.

二、完成句子 1 . Since last year, many art companies' old mechanism __________________________ ( 被转变) into a new one suitable has been changed/transformed for the market.

2.Since Earth Hour first began in Sydney in 2007, so far, the
has been carried out project ____________________ (被开展) in more than 4,000 cities around the world. 3.In recent years, with the improvement in people's life, most have been replaced of fans ____________________ (被取代) by air-conditioners. have been killed 4.By now, thousands of people ____________________ (遇 难) in the terrible earthquake, leaving tens of thousands homeless.


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