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Unit4 Earthquake知识点以及定语从句精讲


Unit4 Earthquake 一:重点单词短语
1.Now imagine there has been a big earthquake. 现在,假设有一次大地震。 (1)sth. happen to. sb.某事发生在某人身上 Did you hear what happened to David last night? 你听说大卫昨天晚上发生什么事了吗? (2

)happen to do sth.碰巧做某事 I happened to see Peter on the way to the bookstore yesterday. 昨天我去书店的路上碰巧遇见了彼得。 (3)It (so) happened that…碰巧...... It so happened that I saw Peter on the way to the bookstore yesterday. 昨天我去书店的路上碰巧遇见了彼得。 2. Imagine your home begins to shake and you must leave it right away. shake(v.) (shook, shaken) 摇动,震动 eg: Shake the bottle before taking the medicine. 服药之前将药瓶摇一摇。 使受震撼;使(信念等)动摇 eg: They were badly shaken by the news of her death. 她死的消息令他们大为震惊。 (指人)打颤,颤抖 eg: She was shaking with cold/laughter/fear/anger. shake(n.) (C 常用单数) 摇动,震动 eg: a shake of the head 摇头 拓展:shake hands with sb. = shake sb. by the hand = shake sb's hand 与某人握手 shake one's head 摇头 3. For three days the water in the village rose and fell, rose and fell. rise(vi.) “升起,升高”,其后不能接宾语,不能用于被动语态。 eg: 1.The sun rose at seven o'clock. 太阳七点种升起。 rise(vi.) (河水,物价等)上涨;提高;起身 eg: 1.The river is rising after the rain. 雨后河水涨了。 2.Prices have risen steadily during the past decade. 过去十年间物价一直在平稳地上涨。 raise(vt.) 抬起,举起 eg: 1.He raised his arms above his head. 他把手臂举过头顶。 raise(vt.) 提高;提出;增加 eg: 1.He raised his voice. 他提高了嗓门。 raise(vt.) 抚养;饲养 eg: 1.She raised a lot of chickens. 她养了许多鸡。 4. In the farmyards, the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat. too...to 结构一般表示否定含义,意为"太...以致于不能"eg:He is too old to work. 但 too...to 在下列情况下却表示肯定含义: ⑴“never / not too …to”这一结构意思是“不太……所以能……”。双重否定表示肯定意义。 One is never too old to learn. 活到老,学到老。
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It is never too late to mend. 亡羊补牢,犹为未晚。 (2)当 too 前有 only, but, all,just,simple 等词时,“too…to…”结构不再表示否定意义,而是 表示肯定意义。too 相当于 very,意思是“非常;十分”。例如: I am only too glad to become a member of you. 我非常高兴成为你们中的一员。 We are but too eager to receive your invitation. 我们极渴望接到你们的邀请。 I'm only too glad to see you .见到你非常高兴. They are but too pleased to hear the news.他们听到这个消息,非常高兴. (3)与 cannot 连用时.不再表示否定意义, 而是表示肯定意义, 意思是“越……越好; 无论…… 也/都不过分”。例如: You cannot be too careful to cross the street. 你过街时越小心越好。 eg:You cannot be too careful(=You can never be careful enough) to do your homework. 你做作业越仔细越好(=无论怎样仔细也不过分). 5. In the city, the water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst.在市内,有些建筑物里的 水管爆裂开来。 burst(v.) (使)爆炸;胀破,爆破 eg: 1.Water-pipes often burst in cold weather. 水管在寒冷的天气里经常冻裂。 拓展: (1)burst into sth. 突然或猛烈地发出或产生出某事物 eg: burst into tears/laughter 突然哭起来/笑起来 burst into anger 勃然大怒 (2)burst out (+ doing) 突然开始做某事 eg: burst out crying/laughing/singing 突然哭起来/笑起来/唱起来

6. But the one million people of the city, who thought little of these events, were asleep as
usual that night. think little of 不放在心上;看扁,轻视 eg: 1.Most people thought little of the 8-year-old boy. In fact, they were wrong. 大多数人小看了这个8岁的男孩。事实上,他们错了。 拓展:think well / highly of 高度评价/赞扬 think poorly / badly of 认为......很差;对......评价很低 另外:think of ... as ... 把...... 认为是...... eg: I thought of him as my best friend. However, he treated me as an enemy. 我把他看作我最好的朋友,然而,他却把我当敌人。 7. It seemed as if the world was at an end. 世界似乎到了末日。 at an end 结束,终结 = finished,为固定短语,在句中常作表语。 eg: The war was at an end. 战争结束了。 辨析: at the end (of) 在......的尽头;在......的结束,可表时间或空间。 eg: 1.At the end of the street, you'll find a supermarket. 在大街的尽头,你会看见一家超市。 in the end 最后,终于 = at last,不能和of连用。 eg: He tried many times, and in the end he succeeded.他多次努力,最后终于成功了。 by the end of 到......末为止,到......结束时,通常和完成时连用。
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eg: 1.How many words had you learned by the end of last term? 到上学期末为止,你们已学习多少个单词了? 2.We'll have finished the work by the end of this month.到本月底我们将完成这项工作。 It seemed + that从句是一个句型,表示“看起来好象”。 eg: It seemed that he didn't notice this. 看起来他好象没注意这件事。 It seemed 后还常跟as if从句。如果与事实相反,则用虚拟语气;如果与事实一致,则保 持正常时态。 eg: 1.There is a lot of cloud. It seems as if it's going to rain. 有这么多乌云,看起来好象要下雨了。 (是事实,不用虚拟) 2.She is so kind to me. It seems as if she were my mother. 她对我非常好,看起来好象她是我的母亲。 (事实上不是,与现在事实相反) sb. 作主语时,seem后常跟adj. 作表语。 eg: He seemed a little angry. 他看起来有点生气。 8. In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins. ruin(n.) U 毁坏,毁灭;灭亡 eg: The war brought ruin to the country. 战争给这个国家带 来了毁灭。 C 废墟;遗迹 eg: The school is in ruins. 那所学校已成废墟。 注意:ruin表示“废墟;遗迹”常用复数,常构成短语in ruins,意为“严重受损;破败不堪”。 eg:His career lies in ruins. 他已事业尽毁。 ruin(v.) 毁坏,毁灭;使破产 有一般“弄坏了”之意,也有比喻的意思。 eg: The fire ruined the books in the library. 大火焚毁了图书馆的藏书。 I was ruined by that law case. 我被那场官司弄得倾家荡产。 9.Thousands of families were killed and many children were left without parents. (1)thousand of 意为 “成千上万的。 。 。 。 ”,指不确切的数量。如果要表示准确的数量, thousand 前面加数字,不变复数形式,后面不接 of,直接跟复数名词。具有相同用法的还 有:million, hundred, dozen, score 等。 (2)修饰语是 some, many, several 等表示不确定的数量词时,则 dozen, hundred 等常用复 数形式,且要加 of. some dozens of people several hundreds of persons 9. Sand now filled the wells instead of water. instead of “代替,而不是” (后接名词,代词,动名词,介词短语等,但不能接句子) eg. Give me the red one instead of the green one. instead 是副词,在句子单独作状语,置于句首时,意为“相反地” 。 10. People began to wonder how long the disaster would last. 人们开始纳闷,这场灾难还会 持续多久。 (1)wonder(vt. / vi) “感到惊奇,感到好奇”;“不知道,想知道” wonder可构成句型: I wonder if ...是一种用来委婉客气地提出请求或征求对方许可的表达 方式。 eg: I wonder if you could show us how to get to the station.不知您能否告诉我们到车站怎么 走。

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wonder(n.) U 惊奇,惊叹,惊异 eg: They were filled with wonder at the sight. 他们见此情景惊叹不已。 C 令人感到惊叹的事物;奇观,奇迹 eg: the seven wonders of the world 世界七大奇迹 拓展: It is a wonder that ... 令人惊奇的是......;莫名其妙的是...... eg: It is a wonder that he remained alive after dropping from the roof of a ten-storey building.他从一幢十层楼的大厦的屋顶上摔下来,但仍然活着,真是奇迹。 No wonder that ... 难怪......;......不足为奇 eg: She has been studying hard. No wonder that she always takes the first place. 她学习一直很刻苦,她总是得第一不足为奇。 11. All hope was not lost.不是所有的希望都破灭了。该句为部分否定。all, both, everyone, everybody, everything 以及 every+名词都表示全部肯定;但当 not 在它们之前或之后都表示 部分否定。no one, none nobody, nothing, not…any, 以及 no+名词都表示全部否定。如: ①Both of them haven’t read this story.并非他们二人都看过这个故事。 ②All of the boys are clever, but none of them can work out this problem. 这些男孩都很聪明,但没有一个人能解出这道题。 ③All bamboo doesn’t grow tall.=Not all bamboo grows tall. 并非所有的竹子都长的高

12. The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead.
(1) be trapped in 陷入困境 They were trappend in the burning building. (2) bury 埋葬,掩埋 be buried in / bury oneself in 埋头于,专心于 (3)the dead 死者,表示一类人。形容词前加the常用来表示一类人或一类东西。 eg: the rich 富人 the young 年轻人 the old 老年人 the deaf 聋人

13. Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed.
shelter(n.) 遮蔽;庇护,常与from搭配使用。 eg: 1.They took shelter from the rain under a big tree. 他们在一棵大树下避雨。 2.The high fence gives us some shelter from the wind.这道高栅栏给我们 挡住了风。 遮蔽物;避难所,收容所 eg: 1.a bus shelter 候车亭 2.Many of the children in the shelter are orphans.收容所里有好多孩子是孤儿。 shelter(vt.) shelter sb/sth from sb/sth 给某人/某物提供庇护处;保护 eg: The wall sheltered us from the wind. 墙壁遮挡着,使我们免遭风吹。 shelter(vi.) 躲避;避难 eg: 1.Where can we shelter from the rain? 我们到哪儿避雨呢? 2.They sheltered from the sun under a tree.他们在树底下乘凉。
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14. 表示“许多,大量的”的短语归纳: 只能修饰可数名词的短语 a large/great/good number of a great/good many + 复数名词 a good few/quite a few many a + 单数名词(作主语时,谓语动词用单数) 只能修饰不可数名词的短语 a great/good deal of a large/great amount of large/great amounts of quite a little 既可修饰可数名词也可修饰不可数名词的短语 a lot of/lots of a large/great quantity of large quantites of plenty of

15.This frightened boy whose mother was lost in the disaster is looking for her now.
frighten vt. 使惊吓;吓唬 vi. 惊吓;害怕 frightened adj. 受惊吓的;受恐吓的 frightening adj. 令人恐惧的 be frightened at 受......惊吓 16. congratulation(n.)“祝贺”,一般要用复数形式,常与on连用。 eg: 1.Let's offer our congratulations on her success. 对她的成功表示祝贺。 注意:表示向某人祝贺,接介词to。 eg: 1.Congratulations to you. 祝贺你。 17. judge(n.) 法官;裁判 eg: 1..Do you know who will be the judge of the speaking competition? 你知道谁是这次演讲比赛的裁判吗? judge(v.) 裁决,判断,评判 eg: 1.A man should be judged by what he did, not what he said. 要评判一个人,应该着眼其所做所为,而不是他所说的。 拓展:judge常用一个分词短语judging by/from来表达“根据......来判断”。 eg: Judging by his clothes, he must be a commom worker. 从他的衣着判断,他一定是个普通工人。 18. proud(adj.) “骄傲的,自豪的;自尊的,自重的;自负的” 短语:be proud of/take pride in pride(n.) “骄傲,自豪,得意;自尊心” eg: 1.She showed us her new house with great pride. 她非常自豪地让我们看她的新房子。 2.The old man looked with pride at his garden. 老人得意地看着自己的花园。 3.Don't say anything that may hurt his pride. 不要说任何可能伤害他自尊心的话。
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19. honour(v.) “使......感到荣幸;尊敬,对......表示尊敬” eg: 1.I'm honoured to be here with you. 和你们在一起我感到很荣幸。 2.They gave a state banquet to honour his visit to China. 他们举行国宴欢迎他的访华。 honour(n.) U 荣誉,光荣,信誉 eg: 1.To lose honour is to lose more than life. 失去信誉甚于失去生命。 2.We should win honour for our country. 我们应该为国争光。 C(多用单数)使感到光荣的事或人;荣幸 eg: 1.It is an honour to meet you. 很荣幸见到你。 2.I consider it an honour to be accepted by that firm. 拓展: do sb. honour / do honour to sb. “对某人表示敬意;给某人带来荣誉” eg: 1.They did honour to the dead. 他们向死者致敬。 have the honour of doing sth. / have the honour to do sth. “有幸做某事;荣幸地做某事” eg: 1.That year I had the honour of being admitted by the Party. 那一年我光荣地被接受入党。 in honour of “为了向......表示敬意;为纪念......,为祝贺......” eg: 1.We had a party in honour of his birthday. 为了祝贺他的生日我们举行了一个宴会。 2.This is a ceremony in honour of those killed in battle. 这是为纪念阵亡战士而举行的仪式。

二、语法讲解——定语从句
在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句称为定语从句,被定语从句修饰的名词或代词成为 先行词。定语从句一般位于先行词之后。引导定语从句的有关系代词或关系副词,关系代词 有:that, which, who(whom),whose 和 as;关系副词有:when,where, why。关系代词在定语从 句中作主语、宾语或定语;关系副词在定语从句中作状语。 一、关系代词的用法 1、关系代词 which 用来指物,在从句中可作主语或宾语。 This is a book which tells about space rocket technology.(作主语) The letter which I received yesterday was from my brother.(作宾语) The hotel which I stayed in last month is over there.(作介词的宾语) 2、关系代词 that 既可指物,也可指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。 They live in a house that was built 200 years ago.(作主语) She is the girl that you saw in school.作宾语) Here is the car that I told you about.(作介词的宾语) 注: that 在句中作宾语时可省略, 需要注意的是 that 作介词的宾语时, 介词不能放到 that 之前,若要将介词提前,必须将 that 改成 which 或 whom。 Here is the car about which I told you .
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Is he the man with whom you shook hands just now? 3、关系代词 who, whom 指代人,在句中作主语或宾语。 Here comes the girl who wants to see you. I wanted to find someone with whom I could discuss music. 4、whose 表示“某人的”或“某物的”,是所有格作定语,后面必须带名词,且不能省略。 I'd like a room whose window looks out onto the sea. 注:whose 表示所属关系,可以用 of which 替代。 I live in the house whose windows face south. =I live in the house the windows of which face south. 二、只能用 that 不能用 which 引导定语从句的情况: 1、序数词(包括 the last)或形容词最高级修饰先行词时。 Alice is the most diligent student that I have ever known. The first English novel that I read was A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens. This is the last bus that we can take. 2、先行词被 no,one of, every, the only, the very,the right, last, just 所修饰时。 That's the very point that we should pay attention to. She is the only person that the old woman can depend on. 3、先行词是不定代词(any, all, little, everything, nothing, something, anything, nobody, everybody 等) 。 There was little that he needed. Mr Brown has told us something that we should do in the summer vacation. 4、先行词中既有人又有物时。 Then we talked about the things and persons that we remembered at school. 5、疑问词是 who 或 which,关系代词宜用 that,以避免重复 Which is the book that you like best? Who is the man that is standing at the gate? 6、关系代词在定语从句中作 to be 的表语时。 Tom isn’t the boy that he used to be. 三、只能用 which 不能用 that 引导定语从句的情况: 1、引导非限制性定语从句。 Crusoe's dog, which was are now very old, became ill and died . 2、关系代词的前面有介词。
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A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition. 3、先行词本身是 that, 宜用 which 。 What's that which she is looking at? 四、只能用 who 不能用 that 引导定语从句的情况: 1、先行词是指人的不定代词时,如 anyone, anybody, those, all, one, ones, they, he, people 等。 Anyone who failed to come to the meeting yesterday must give his reason . Those who are not fit for their work should leave office at once. 2、在 There be 结构中,先行词指人时。 There is a gentleman who wants to see you . 五、as 引导定语从句 1、as 用作关系代词时,既可以指人,也可以指物。在定语从句中作主语、宾语或表语。 它常在 the same ?as?,such?as?,as?as?等句型中,as 不能省略。 I’ll buy the same dictionary as you do. 2、as 引导非限制性定语从句时,代表整个主句的内容。从句可放在主语前、主语后或主 语中间。 As we all know, China has become a world famous nation.

课堂训练 一、根据句意以及首字母提示完成单词 1、Older students were having difficulty in studying and o_________ themselves. 2、That place is dirty and s_________. 3、In the city, the water pipes in some buildings cracked and b________. 4、People began to wonder how long the d_________ would last. 5、F_________ water was taken to the city by train, truck and plane. 6、Everywhere they looked nearly everything was d__________. 7、The railway tracks were now u_______ pieces of steel. 8、Without _________ (电),modern life would be very difficult. 9、_________ (判断)from his appearance, the manger must be over fifty. 10、Dead and ________ (受伤的)people lay everywhere after the terrible accident. 二、用适当的关系代词填空 1、The building ________ wall is white is my uncle’s house. 2、I know the boy ________ you are looking for. 3、Will you please lend me the very book ________ you bought yesterday? 4、The student ________ the teacher praised at the class meeting is our monitor.
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5、The reason ________ comes after spring is summer. 6、This is the museum ________ we visited last Saturday. 7、The boy with ________ John is talking is my brother. 8 、 The girl _________ leg was broken in the earthquake was talken to the hospital immediately. 9、_________ is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior schools is increasing. 10、Don’t read such books _________ you can’t understand

三、单项选择 1、We don’t need to do extra work this evening. The day’s work was almost ______ now. A. at the end B. at an end C. at one end D. at our end 2、I’ve read all the books ________ you gave me. A. who B. whose C. whom D. that 3、In that big fire all their houses were__________, so they had to build new ones. A. hurt B. harmed C. injured D. destroyed 4、The boy ________ on the ground ________ to me that his hen _______ three eggs a day. A. lies; lied; laid B. lying; lied; laid C. lay; lied; lain D. lay; lying; has laid 5、Alice received an invitation from her boss, ________ came as a surprise. A. it B. this C. which D. that 6、 After the Tsunami passed away, all the villages and towns were ________. And no being was seen. A. in ruin B. in ruins C. at ruins D. for ruins 7、The bus driver was badly ________ on both legs in the traffic accident. A. wounded B. broken C. injured D. destroyed 8、I haven’t seen both of her films, but ________ from the one I have seen I think she’s a promising actress. A. judging B. judge C. judged D. judgment 9、— We need a quick reply. — I see. I’ll send the paper to you _______. A. now and then B. sooner or later C. just now D. right away 10、The whole world was ________ when they learned that the quake had brought so much damage. A. concerned B. interested C. shocked D. frustrated

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