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the libido for the ugly 全文讲义

Unit Seven

Libido for the

-- Henry Louis Mencken (1880-1956)

Henry Louis Mencken (1880–1956)
? an American journalist, essayist, magazine edit

or, satirist, acerbic critic of American life and culture, and a student of American English. Known as the "Sage of Baltimore", he is regarded as one of the most influential American writers and prose stylists of the first half of the 20th century

Mencken’s quotation:
A cynic is a man who, when he smells a flower, looks around for a coffin.

Mencken's Creed ? I believe that religion, generally speaking, has been a curse to mankind - that its modest and greatly overestimated services on the ethical side have been more than overcome by the damage it has done to clear and honest thinking. I believe that no discovery of fact, however trivial, can be wholly useless to the race, and that no trumpeting of falsehood, however virtuous in intent, can be anything but vicious.

? I believe that all government is evil, in that all government must necessarily make war upon liberty... I believe that the evidence for immortality is no better than the evidence of witches, and deserves no more respect.
? I believe in the complete freedom of thought and speech...

? I believe in the capacity of man to conquer his world, and to find out what it is made of, and how it is run. I believe in the reality of progress. I - But the whole thing, after all, may be put very simply. I believe that it is better to tell the truth than to lie. I believe that it is better to be free than to be a slave. And I believe that it is better to know than be ignorant.

Pennsylvania State Profile
State Unique Name Capital City Location Bird Border States
Economy Flower Largest City Land Area Population Statehood Tree

The Keystone State Harrisburg 40.27605 N, 076.88450 W Ruffed Grouse Delaware - Maryland - New Jersey - New York Ohio - West Virginia Agriculture The Mountain Laurel Philadelphia 44,892 sq.mi. 1,20,19,661 December 12, 1787 Hemlock

? description is painting a verbal picture of a person, a place, an object, a scene, etc. in order to enable his reader to perceive the reality of the original, the writer reproduces an image and invokes that reality essencially by specific and concrete words that appeal to the reader's sense of sight, smell, sound, taste and touch.

the title
? this is a piece of subjective, impressionistic or emotional description. ? libido: concept originated by Sigmund Freud to
signify the instinctual physiological or psychic energy associated with sexual urges and with all constructive human activity. In the text, it means psychic energy generally; specifically, a basic form of psychic energy, comprising the positive, loving instincts manifested variously at different stages of personality development. Drive, desire.

the title
? the writer uses this word to suggest that the love and passion for ugliness among Americans is a kind of pathological problem and that his observations have a scientific foundation.

? Nouns: desolation, filth, grime, horror, ugliness, monstrousness, grotesqueries ? Adjectives: hideous, bleak, forlorn, abominable, dirty, horrible, misshapen, shabby, uncomely, dingy, decomposing, shocking, loathsome, gloomy, God-forsaken, frightful, putrid, ghastly, unlovely, diabolical, dreadful, macabre, depressing ? phrases: appalling desolation, dreadfully hideous, intolerably bleak, unbroken and agonizing ugliness, revolting monstrousness, incomparable

Dominant impression of ugliness

? Images: leprous hill, uremic yellow, eczematous patches, malarious hamlets, one blinks before a man with his face shot away, bury themselves swinishly, like gravestones in some gigantic decaying cemetery, color of an egg long past all hope or caring, that of a fat woman with a black eye, that of a Presbyterian grinning ? Sentences with sarcasm, ridicule and irony: would have disgraced a race of alley cats, insult and lacerate the eye there was not a single decent house in sight…there was not one that was not shabby I award this championship incomparable in color, incomparable in design, the Parthenon would not doubt offend them

Structure of the text

Part I (para 1-5) Description of the ugliness : coverage, design, color; conclusion-championship In ugliness

Part II (para 6-9) Analysis of the source of the ugliness—the libido for the ugliness

Para 1--- The writer contrasts the great wealth of this region with the abominable human habitations seen everywhere. Para 2 ---coverage of the ugliness in the county. Para 3 ---the ugliness of the house design Para 4 ---the ugliness of the color of the bricks Para 5 ---evaluates the ugliness of this region as the top one in the world. Para 6 ---tries to trace the source of the ugliness from the foreigners Para 7 ---speculates on a solution for the puzzle: libido for the ugly Para 8 ---evidence to prove himself right Para 9 ---The writer finally gives an answer.

The Main idea of each paragraph

para 1
? a contrast of the great wealth of this region with the dominatable human habitations seen everywhere. ? ugliness is not due to poverty but to sth. innate in the American character---a love for ugliness for its own sake or, as the title says, the libido for the ugly.

sentence 1
? one day in winter some years ago, I started out from Pittsburgh and travelled through the coal and steel towns of Westmoreland County in a fast railway train.

? Pittsburgh: a city in Southwest Pennsylvania. It is one of the most important industrial cities of America, and a center of rail and river transportation. Termed the ―Steel City‖ or ―Smoky City‖, it is the center of rich bituminous[b??tum?n?s -coal(生煤) region, producing also natural gas, oil and limestone; a large part of U.S. steel and iron is produced here. ? Westmoreland county: a county in Southwest Pennsylvania. Its county seat is Greensburg. It is a mining and manufacturing region. ? roll: to travel in a wheeled vehicle

? 几年前的一个冬日,我乘坐宾夕法尼亚 铁路公司的一班快车离开匹兹堡,向东 行驶一小时,穿越了威斯特摩兰县的煤 城和钢都。

sentence 2
? this area is familiar to me. both when I was young and when I grew up, I had often travelled through this region. ? 这是我熟悉的地方,无论是童年时期还 是成年时期,我常常经过这一带。

sentence 3
? but somhow in the past I never really perceived how shocking and wretched this whole region was. ? 但以前我从来没有感到这地方荒凉得这 么可怕

sentence 4-1
? the region around Pittsburgh was one of the most important industrial centers of America. here was the center of the most profitable and characteristic American activity---indutrial activity. lucrative: producing wealth or profit; profitable; 有利可图的

? 这儿正是工业化美国的心脏,是其最赚 钱、最典型活动的中心,世界上最富裕 、最伟大的国家的自豪和骄傲

sentence 4-2
? the United states, the richest and grandest nation ever seen on earth, both boasts about and feels proud of this center of industrial acyivity.

sentence 4-3
? the very sight of the region was terribly ugly and the whole region was so miserable, gloomy and depairing that it was hard for anyone to bear. ? this terible scene in a region which produces through its industry the wealth to make America the richest and grandest nation, makes all human efforts to advance and improve their life seems a sad and horrible joke.

? 然而这儿的景象却又丑陋得这样可怕, 凄凉悲惨得这么令人无法忍受,以致人 的抱负和壮志在这儿成了令人毛骨悚然 的、令人沮丧的笑料

hideous: horrible to see, hear, etc; very ugly or revolting; dreadful 非常丑陋的, bleak: cheerless, gloomy, desolate, depressing 荒 凉的 forlorn: in pitiful condition; wretched; miserable 悲惨的, 不幸的 aspiration: strong desire or ambition, as for advancement, honor 热望,渴望 macabre: gruesome; grim and horrible; ghastly 令人毛骨悚然的

sentence 5
? people could not imagine or calculate the amount of wealth that was to be found in this region. And in the same region there were such terrible and disgusting houses that even homeless wild cats would feel ashamed to live in them.

? 这儿的财富多得无法计算,简直都无法 想象——也是在这儿,人们的居住条件 又是如此之糟,连那些流浪街头的野猫 也为之害羞

abominable: nasty and disgusting; vile; loathsome 讨厌的 alley: a narrow street or walk; especially, a lane behind a row of buildings or between two rows of buildings

Boy and man, I had been through it often before. As a boy and later when I was a grown-up man, I had often traveled through the region Here … heart of industrial America, the center of its most lucrative and characteristic activity, the boast and pride of the richest and greatest nation ever seen on earth— Metaphor, comparing this center to the heart of a human body; hyperbole: exaggerating the richness and grandeur of the region and of America as a whole. Here was the center of the most profitable and characteristic American activity – industrial activity.;

Paraphrasing (Para 1)

and here was a scene so dreadfully hideous, to a macabre and depressing joke. The scene that met the eye was terribly ugly and the whole region was so miserable and gloomy that it was unbearable. This dreadful scene makes all human endeavors to advance and improve their lot appear as a ghastly, saddening joke. Here was wealth beyond computation, almost beyond Imagination –and here were human habitations so abominable that they would have disgraced a race of alley cats. Hyperbole: exaggerating the wealth that was beyond computation and imagination; And habitations so abominable that even homeless cats would have felt ashamed to live in them;

Words and Expressions (Para 2)
filth: disgustingly offensive dirt, garbage, etc. lacerate: tear jaggedly; mangle (something soft, as flesh) wound or hurt (one’s feelings, etc.) deeply; distress monstrousness: strange shape agonize—vt./ vi. (cause) pain.痛苦, 难受

He agonized for months over the thought of his son’s death. Martin bent over him, agonized to see how burning was his skin.
agony. n. (u) (c) deep pain, extreme suffering or tiredness

This country must not again go through the agony of war. The agony of the injured man was dreadful to see. Thousands upon thousands die in slow agony. He suffered agonies from his broken arm

revolt—vi. Rebel against

The people revolted against their ruler.
revolt. ---v.t / vi. (cause ) (feel) hatred or sickness of …

The very thought of working in the basement revolted me. The violence in the movie revolted my parents. My soul revolted against this way of doing business. His whole nature revolts at/from/against such a crime. There is a revolting smell in the seafood market.

pretentious—seem important or significant, used to show disapproval (自命不凡,爱夸耀的,虚饰的,野心勃勃的) e.g. He was a talented but pretentious writer.

This pub was of a very different type, smaller, less pretentious.
pretension--noun (claim to be, claim to deserve) e.g. I make no pretension(s) to skill as an artist, but for

enjoying it. The young prince has pretensions to the crown. -- boasting, vanity (u) She talked of her rich friends with great pretension. Pretension is his worst fault.

shabby--- poor-looking, mean, unfair e.g. The beggar’s clothes were shabby.

The mental patients received shabby treatment. What a shabby trick, leaving me to walk home alone.
sheer –absolute, complete eg. She fainted from sheer weariness.

He won by sheer luck. a sheer waste of money, by sheer chance, Sheer alcohol will burn the lining of the throat.

Paraphrasing (Para 2)
What I allude to is the unbroken and agonizing ugliness, the sheer revolting monstrousness, of every house in sight.

hyperbole, an exaggeration that every house is ugly. unbroken ugliness: ugliness that was continuous and uninterrupted. It was ugly no matter where you looked. agonizing ugliness: ugliness that caused great pain (to people who saw it) sheer revolting monstrousness: the absolute digesting hideousness.
one blinked before them as one … a man with his face shot away.

a simile. The ugliness of these houses was as gruesome as a face that has been shot and mangled.

A few linger in memory, horrible even there.

Some of the houses remain in one’s memory and later when one pictures them in one’s mind they still appear to be horrible.
There was not a single decent house within …. There was not one that was not misshapen, and there was not one that was not shabby.

The repetition of the same structural pattern and the use of double negatives help to emphasize the two words ―misshapen‖ and ―shabby‖.

Words and Expressions (Para 3)
uncomely: having unpleasant appearance grime: dirt, esp. sooty dirt, rubbed into or covering a surface as of the skin gully: a channel or hollow worn by running water; small narrow ravine 狭沟 chalet: a type of Swiss house, built of wood with balconies and overhanging eaves (瑞士的木造)山上小舍 highpitched: steep in slope side of roofs dingy: dirty-colored; not bright or clean, grimy clapboard: a thin, narrow board with one edge thicker than the other, used as siding 护墙板, 隔墙 preposterous: so contrary to nature, reason, or common sense as to be laughable; absurd; ridiculous 反常的, 十分荒谬的 pier: a heavy column, usually square, used to support weight, as at the end of an arch 支柱 perpendicular: exactly upright; vertical, straight up and down 垂直的 precarious: uncertain; insecure; risky 不安全的 eczematous: of itching skin disease 湿疹的

streak ---n. a long, narrow line 一长条(c) e.g. You have a streak of paint on your forehead.

The plane left a white streak of vapor in the blue sky. He has the streaks of grey in his dark hair.
--- some quality in one’s personality e.g. She has a streak of selfishness in her.

He has a streak of humor, though he looks very serious There is a streak of cruelty in his character.
streak ---v.t to mark a line on…

The Indians used to streak their faces with paint. Her dark hair was streaked with grey. The child’s face was streaked with tears.
---vi. To pass rapidly like lightening

The winning horse streaked past the finish line. A cat streaked across the road with a dog behind it.

Paraphrasing (Para 3)
The country itself is not uncomely

not uncomely: litotes, meaning quite comely or pleasant to look at. The country itself is pleasant to look at.
…there are very few solid blocks.

solid block: a group of buildings with no breaks or empty space separating them. Even in the larger towns there are very few solid blocks of houses, so there are still many empty spaces on which new buildings can be put up.
if there were architects of any professional sense or dignity in the region, they would have perfected a chalet…

sarcasm. It sarcastically emphasizes the fact that there were no architects worthy of the honor or the high standards demanded of by its profession.

They have taken as their model a brick set on end.

The model they followed was a brick standing upright.
And one and all they are streaked in grime, with dead and eczematous patches of paint peeing through the streaks.

metaphor, comparing the patches of paint to dried-up scales formed by a skin disease. All the houses here are smeared with sooty dirt, and some paint which is not covered up by the soot looks like dried-up scales formed on the skin by eczema.

A Brief Introduction to Litotes

not uncomely—quite pleasant, beautiful Litotes 曲言法(正话反说), 是(understatement) 低调陈述中的一种 表现形式. 主要是用no, not, none, never以及否定词缀等否定 词或否定表达法来表述肯定的内容. e.g. The face wasn’t a bad one; it had what they called charm. The man is no fool. It was no small skill to putting a knife into the mouth without getting hurt. ? (understatement) 低调陈述的另一种表现手法是弱说代替强说 . 常用sort of, something of, rather, hardly, scarcely, almost 之类的 词 e.g. ―Money,‖ she says with quiet understatement, ―is kind of tight.. But I manage.‖

Her score is far from being satisfactory. Her score leaves much to be desired Mr. Li is something of a professor.

A chalet—a type of Swiss house, built of wood with balconies and overhanging eaves 瑞士式小木屋

Eczematous patches, eczema—an itching skin disease

Words and Expressions (Para 4)
? downright----adj. straightforward, frank e.g. Her downright answer startled us present.

He is a downright sort of person.
---adj. complete e.g. You are a downright cheat.

She told a downright lie.
downright ---adv. Absolutely, 彻头彻尾的 e.g. He was downright rude to us.

It makes me downright angry to see food thrown away.

loathe ---vt. feel hatred, dislike e.g. You know how I loath typing and shorthand.

She likes her job though she loathes getting up early to go to work.
loathing. ---n. (u)

They look at them with loathing. I have a great loathing for geometry.
loathsome----adj. to be disgusting, hated e.g. Some people think snakes are loathsome creatures

while others think otherwise. The villain of the play was completely loathsome.

Paraphrasing (Para 4)
When it has taken on the patina of the mills it is the color of an egg long past all hope or caring.

ridicule and irony, laughing scornfully at the color of these houses; also metaphor, comparing the color of the bricks to color of rotten eggs. When the brick is covered with black soot of the mills it takes on the color of a rotten egg.
No more than it was necessary to set all of the houses on end.

Neither was necessary. The writer poses the question in order to provoke the questioning of the cause.
Red brick, even in a steel town, ages with some dignity.

Red brick, even in a steel town, looks quite respectable with the passing of time. Even in a steel town, old red bricks still appear pleasing to the eye.

But in Westmoreland they prefer that uremic yellow,

uremia: a toxic condition caused by the presence in the blood of waste products normally eliminated in the urine and resulting from a failure of the kidneys to secrete urine. But it seems that people in Westmoreland county prefer that yellow color produced by the disease uremia. hyperbole, exaggerating the ugliness of the towns and villages. mortal eye: human eyes

and so they have the most loathsome towns and villages ever seen by mortal eye.

A Comparison of Sarcasm(讽刺), ridicule(嘲弄), irony(反讽),
? Sarcasm: a bitter or wounding remark, 主要用于伤人感情的那一类 幽默,常运用嘲笑或讽刺性反语 e.g. Obviously, if there were architects of any professional sense of dignity in the region, they would have perfected a chalet to hug the hillsides. …having chosen it, they let in mellow into its present shocking depravity. ? Sarcasm and irony e.g. I award this championship only after laborious research and incessant prayer. It is incredible that mere ignorance should have achieved such masterpieces of horror. ? Ridicule- make fun of, deride, laugh at. Make ridiculous e.g. …a steel stadium like a huge rat-trap somewhere further down the line. …they made it perfect in their own sight by putting a completely impossible penthouse.

Words and Expressions (Para 5)
laborious: involving much hard work; difficult; industrious; hard-working decompose: break up or separate into basic components or parts; rot malarious: of fever conveyed by mosquitoes forsake: give up; renounce ( a habit, idea, etc.) hamlet: a very small village aberrant: turning away from what is right, true, etc; deviating from what is normal or typical uncompromising: not yielding; firm; inflexible; determined inimical: like an enemy; hostile; unfriendly; adverse; unfavorable ingenuity: cleverness, originality, skill, etc. grotesquery: the quality or state of being grotesque diabolical: of the devil or devils; fiendish concoct: devise, invent, or plan

Paraphrasing (Para 5)
I award this championship only after laborious research and incessant prayer.

sarcasm and irony. I came to the conclusion that Westmorland had the most loathsome towns and villages only after visiting anc comparing many places not only in the United States but also in other countries and after constantly praying to God for guidance. championship: used ironically to describe not the best but the worst.

I have seen…. I am familiar with…, and have made scientific explorations …. Safe in a Pullman, I have whirled through … I have been to…

Parallel structures to show his visits to those places. in a pullman: traveling in a pullman car. (which was named after its inventor George M. Pullman (1831-97) back streets: small, mean streets; streets in slum area God-forsaken villages: gloomy. Desolate villages tidewater hamlet: very small village near the sea affected by the rise and fall of tides
They are incomparable in color, and they are incomparable in design.

sarcasm. People cannot find such terrible color and design in any other region.

It is as if some titanic and aberrant genius, uncompromisingly inimical to man, had devoted all the ingenuity of Hell to the making of them.

genius: used ironically to mean an evil genius, having great ability to do evil. Hell: the powers of evil or darkness hyperbole and irony. It is as some genius of great power, who didn’t like to do the right things and who was an inflexible enemy of man, employed all the cleverness and skill of hell to build these ugly houses.
They show grotesqueries of ugliness that, in retrospect, become almost diabolical.

They show such fantastic and bizarre ugliness that, in looking back, they become almost fiendish and wicked.
one can scarcely imagine human beings bearing life in them.

One can scarcely imagine people living in these houses and bearing and bringing up children in them

Words and Expressions & Paraphrasing (Para 6)

Are they so frightful because the valley is full of foreigners—dull, insensate brutes, with no love of beauty in them?

insensate: not feeling, or not capable of feeling Rhetoric question for effect. Are the houses so frightfully ugly because the valley is inhabited by a lot of foreigners who are stupid and unfeeling like animals and who have no love of beauty in them?
—saving perhaps in the more putrid parts of England.

putrid: decomposing; rotten and foul-smelling you won’t find any abominable houses in Europe, except in some rotten and decaying areas in England.

But in the American village and small town the pull is always toward ugliness, and in that Westmoreland valley it has been yielded to with an eagerness bordering upon passion.

pull: drawing force, appeal border upon: to be like, almost be sarcasm. But in the American village and small town, the appeal is always towards ugliness, and in that Westmoreland valley people have given in to this appeal eagerly or almost passionately.
It is incredible … achieved such masterpieces of horror.

sarcasm and irnoy. It is hard to believe that people built such horrible houses just because they did not know what beautiful houses were like.

Words and Expressions & Paraphrasing (Para 7)
There seems to be a positive libido for the ugly, as on other and less Christian levels there is a libido for the beautiful

antithesis. People in certain strata of American society seem definitely to hunger after ugly things; while in other less Christian strata, people seem to long for things beautiful
it is impossible to put down the wallpaper that defaces the average American home of the lower middle class to mere inadvertence, or to the obscene humor of the manufacturers.

put down (to) attribute (to) deface: spoil the appearance of ; disfigure; mar 损坏外表 inadvertence: the quality of being inadvertent; oversight, 粗心大意,疏忽 obscene: offensive to one’s feelings, or to prevailing notions of modesty of decency; lewd; disgusting 猥渎的, 可憎的

They meet, in some unfathomable way, its obscure and unintelligible demands.

unfathomable: which cannot be understood; which cannot be reached. These ugly designs, in some way that people cannot understand, satisfy the hidden and unintelligible demands of this type of mind.

Words and Expressions & Paraphrasing (Para 8)
But they chose that clapboarded horror with their eyes open, and having chosen it, they let it mellow into its present shocking depravity.

with eyes open: with full understanding of what is involved mellow: to make full, rich, soft, gentle. Mencken uses this word ironically to mean ―to let it deteriorate, to let it go from bad to worse‖ depravity: a depraved condition; corruption; wickedess They chose, fully understanding what they were doing, this horrible house made of clapboard and then let it deteriorate to this present shocking, sinful condition
They like it as it is: beside it, the Parthenon would no doubt offend them.

sarcasm. If one were to put a beautiful building like the Parthenon there, they would be offended.

After … they made it perfect in their own sight by putting a completely impossible penthouse, painted a staring yellow, on top of it.

impossible: not capable of being endured, used, agreed to; hard to tolerate ridicule. They put a penthouse on top of it, painted in a bright, conspicuous yellow color and thought it looked perfect but they only managed to make it absolutely intolerable.
The effect is that of a fat woman with a black eye. ….of a Presbyterian grinning.

metaphors, comparing the ugliness to a woman and a Prebyterian grin

Words and Expressions & Paraphrasing (Para 9)
etiology: the assignment of a cause, or the cause assignment 病 源学 in obedience to: according to pathological: of pathology; of or concerned with diseases 病理 学的 Out of the melting pot emerges a race which hates beauty as it hates truth. melting pot: a country, place, etc. in which immigrates of various nationalities and races are assimilated. From the intermingling of different nationalities and races in the United States emerges the American race which hates beauty as strongly as it hates truth.

It arises and flourishes in obedience to biological laws, and not as a mere act of God.

The birth and development of this madness is governed by the scientific laws of biology and not due to some supernatural act of God.
Let some honest Privat Dozent in pathological sociology apply himself to the problem.

Privat Dozent: in German universities, an unsalaried letterer paid only by his students’ fees. apply: to concentrate one’s faculties on; employ oneself diligently Let some lectuerer in pathological sociology work diligently on this problem

Answer the following questions
1) Why does Mencken use the uncommon word libido in his title? In the text, Mencken has used one particular image of disease such as: libido, leprous hill, malaria-infested, eczematous patches, uremic yellow, etiology of this madness, pathological, psychologist. What general impression does Mencken intend to create? What is implied in this text behind the discussion of libido for the ugly? What does it suggest about the American society? What is Mencken’s viewpoint of the American race? Does Mencken achieve or defeat his own purpose by using many striking metaphors and hyperboles? Compare with the style of Lesson Two –Marrakech, which one do you like better? Why?




Stylistic Features
1) A piece of subjective, impressionistic or emotional description ( Contrary to Unit Two) 2) Excessive use of strong language, words bordering upon the abusive e.g ugliness described on all levels:

adj.: hideous, abominable nouns: abominations, horrors, monstrousness adv + adj: dreadfully hideous; intolerably bleak -ing + n.: revolting monstrousness phrases: like a fat woman with black eye clauses: as one blinked before a face shot away

3) Profuse use of hyperboles, metaphors, similes 4) Images of diseases: leprosy, eczemas, uremia to create the impression of US. Being very sick. ? Drawbacks: The excessive use of strong language is selfdefeating. On the one hand, all the force of diction, structure and figures only to batter his readers into insensitivity; on the other hand, the average reader begins to doubt the objectivity and fairness or even the honesty of the writer.

A Comparison of Synaesthesia, Empathy and Transferred epithet
? Synaesthesia (通感)—sensation felt in one part of the body when another part is stimulated.

sweet voice 味觉与听觉相联 sour remark 味觉与听觉 icy look 触觉与视觉 sharp cry 触觉与听觉
? Empathy 移情---把表达人的感情的词转类用于物,实际上是寓情于景,借 此抒怀

Lazy clouds drifted across the sky. He was humiliated by his humble scores at the examination.

? Transferred epithet – also known as hypallage, a figure of speech in which the epithet is transferred from the appropriate noun to modify another to which it does not really belong.

e.g. sleepless night, forgetful snow The sailors swarmed into a laughing and cheering ring around the two men. The American society saw a gnawing poverty during the Great Depression. Darrow walked slowly round the baking court.
区别: 移就因涉及的面广,泛泛论之,凡修饰语移位都算是移就,一涉及 到 听-触-嗅-味- 视觉, 我们就叫这种感官相通的”移就”为 “通感” e.g. A loud perfume cried. In this admirable fable the ant spends a laborious summer.

Quiz—making sentences with the given hints
(allude to, there is not one that…, revolt, incomparable, in retrospect, border upon, put down…to…, if there is any , sheer, concoct) 1) 这种行为简直是愚蠢. 2) 不要将所有的不幸都归因于命运. 3) 回想起来, 他所作的一切都是为了让我们全家过上像样的日子. 4) 他没有指名道姓,但我们都明白他是在讲我. 5) 他那副自命不凡的德行真让人感到恶心. 6) 我们的校园大而美,这在湖南省高校中是首屈一指的. 7) 她对摇滚乐的喜爱近似于疯狂. 8) Jenny编造了一个没有交作业的借口, 老师居然相信了. 9) 考试结束了, 人人都松了一口气. 10) 你如果还有一点羞耻感的话, 你早就该认认真真地把这件事做完了.

(allude to, there is not one that…, revolt, incomparable, in retrospect, border upon, put down…to…, if there is any , sheer, concoct)
1) 这种行为简直是愚蠢. Such behavior was sheer foolishness. 不要将所有的不幸都归因于命运. Don’t put down all your misfortunes to fate. 回想起来, 他所作的一切都是为了让我们全家过上像样的日子. In retrospect, he did everything so that our family could live a decent life. 他没有指名道姓,但我们都明白他是在讲我. He did not mention a name, yet we all knew that he alluded to me. 他那副自命不凡的德行真让人感到恶心. His pretentious manner revolted me.


4) 5)

6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

我们的校园大而美,这在湖南省高校中是首屈一指的. Our campus is incomparable in size as well as in beauty among all the universities in Hunan Province. 她对摇滚乐的喜爱近似于疯狂. Her love for rock’n’roll borders upon craziness. (She has a strong love for rock’n’roll bordering upon craziness) Jenny编造了一个没有交作业的借口, 老师居然相信了. Jenny concocted an excuse for failing to hand in her exercises, and the teacher believed her. 考试结束了, 人人都松了一口气. There was not one who was not relieved at the end of the examination. 你如果还有一点羞耻感的话, 你早就该认认真真地把这件事做完了. If there were any sense of shame in you, you should have finished it seriously long ago.

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