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sentence elements and practices


语法复习----

句子成分

一、句子成分
? (一)句子成分的定义:
? 构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句子

成分有主要成分和次要成分;主要成分有 主语和谓语;次要成分有表语、宾语、定 语、状语、补足语和同位语。

句子成分详解表
句子成分 主语 意义 表示句

子说的是什么人或什么 事 说明主语做什么,是什么或怎 么样 表示动作行为的对象 与联系动词连用,一起构成谓 语,说明主语的性质或特征 充当词类 名,代,数,不定 式,动名词,短语或 句子 动词或动词词组 同主语 同主语 例句 We study in HuangQiao Middle School. She is dancing under the tree. Both of us like English. Her father is a chemist. His words sound reasonable.

谓语 宾语 表语

定语 状语

用来修饰名词或代词 修饰动词,形容词,副词,表 示动作发生的时间,地点,原 因,目的,方式,结果等
逻辑上与宾语是主谓关系

形,代,数,名, 副,介词短语或句子 副词,介词短语或句 子
形容词,名词,介词 短语等

We have eight lessons every day. He works very hard. They held a party in Hollywood.
She always keeps the house clean.

宾语 补足语

主语谓语是基础,宾表定状补辅助。宾主来自名代数,动词作谓不可无!

二)主语:
? 主语

(Subject) ? 是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。 但在there be结构、疑问句(当主语不疑问 词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语、助动词 或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、代词、数 词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主 语从句等表示。例如:

1.During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular. (名词) 2.We often speak English in class. (代词) 3.One-third of the students in this class are girls. (数词) 4.To swim in the river is a great pleasure.
(不定式)

5.Smoking does harm to the health. (动名词) 6.The rich should help the poor.
(名词化的形容词)

7.When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. (主语从句) 8.It is necessary to master a foreign language.
(it作形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式)

(三)谓语
谓语 (Predicate) 说明主语所做的动作或具有的特 征和状态。动词在句中作谓语,一般放在主语之后。 谓语的构成如下: ? 1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如: He practices running every morning. The plane took off at ten o’clock. ? 2、复合谓语: (1)由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。如: You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. (2)由系动词加表语构成。如: We are students. 注意:谓语与主语在人称与数方面要保持一致。
?

(四)表语
? 表语(Predicative)用以说明主语的性质、特

征、状态与身份,它一般位于系动词(如be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem等) 之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、数 词、 副词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短 语及表语从句表示。例如:

1.Our teacher of English is an American. (名词) 2.Is it yours?(代词) 3.The weather has turned cold.(形容词) 4.The speech is exciting.(分词) 5.Three times seven is twenty one?(数词)

6.His job is to teach English.(不定式) 7.His hobby is playing football.(动名词) 8.The meeting is of great importance. (介词短语) 9.Time is up. The class is over.(副词) 10.The truth is that he has never been abroad.(表语从句)

注意:系动词(Linking verb)用于连接主语和 表语,说明主语的状态,性质特征和身份等。 1)状态系动词用来表示主语状态,只有be一词, 例如: He is a teacher. 2)持续系动词用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况 或态度,主要有keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand, 例如: He always kept silent at meeting. 3)表像系动词用来表示“看起来像”这一概念, 主要有seem, appear, look, 例如: He seems (to be) very sad.

注意:系动词(Linking verb)用于连接主语和表 语,说明主语的状态,性质特征和身份等。 4)感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste, 例如: This kind of cloth feels very soft. 5)变化系动词表示主语变成什么样,主要有 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run.例如: He became mad after that. 6)终止系动词表示主语已终止动作,主要有 prove, turn out, 表达"证实","变成"之意, 例如: The rumor proved false. His plan turned out a success.

(五)宾语
? 宾语(Object)表示动作的对象或承爱者,一

般位于及物动词和介词后面。例如: 1.They went to see an exhibition yesterday.
(名词)

2.The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time. (代词、动名词) 3.How many dictionaries do you have? I have five. (名词、数词)

4.They helped the old with their housework yesterday. (名词化形容词,名词) 5.He pretended not to see me.
(不定式短语)

6.I enjoy listening to popular music.
(动名词短语)

7.I think(that)he is fit for his office.
(宾语从句)

? 宾语种类:
? (1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语),例如:

Lend me your dictionary, please. To: write, tell, pass, give, send, promise, show, hand, read, tell, bring, throw等,例如: He sent the novel to William yesterday. For: leave, buy, build, choose, cook, draw, find, get, order, post, save等,例如: She bought a gift for her mother. ? (2)复合宾语(宾语+宾补),例如: ? They elected him their monitor.

? 下列动词只能接不定式做宾语

ask, agree, care, choose, demand, dare, decide, expect, fail, help, hope, learn, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish, desire等,如: He refused to lend me his bike. ? 下列动词只能接动名词做宾语 admit, avoid, advise, consider, enjoy, excuse, escape, finish, imagine, mind, practise, suggest等,如: John has admitted breaking the window . ? 下列动词既可接不定式,也可接动名词做宾语, 但意义不同,如stop, mean, try, remember, forget, regret等。

(六)宾语补足语
? 英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直接宾语以

外,还要有一个宾语补足语(Object Complement),才能使句子的意义完整。 带有宾语补足语的一般句型为:某些及物动 词(如make等)+宾语+宾补)。宾补可由名 词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短 语和从句充当。例如:

1.His father named him Dongming. (名词) 2.They painted their boat white. (形容词) 3.Let the fresh air in. (副词) 4.You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you. (不定式短语) 5.We saw her entering the room. (现在分词) 6.We found everything in the lab in good order. (介词短语) 7.We will soon make our city what your city is now. (从句)

(七)定语
? 修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定

语(Attribute)。定语可由以下等成分表示: 1.Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) 2.China is a developing country; America is a developed country.(分词) 3.There are thirty women teachers in our school. (名词) 4.His rapid progress in English made us surprised.(代词)

5.Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom. (不定式短语) 6.The teaching plan for next term has been worked out. (动名词) 7.He is reading an article about how to learn English. (介词短语) 8.Farmers who saw us stared at us as if we are walking skeletons. (定语从句)

(八)状语
? 修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明

动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状语 (Adverbial)。可由以下形式表示 : 1.Light travels most quickly. (副词及副词性词组) 2.He has lived in the city for ten years. (介词短语) 3.He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.
(不定式短语)

4.He is in the room making a model plane.
(分词短语)

5.Wait a minute.

(名词)

6.Once you begin, you must continue.
(状语从句)

9种状语种类如下:
1. How about meeting again at six? (时间状语) 2.Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.(原因状语) 3.I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.(条件状语) 4.Mr Smith lives on the third floor. (地点状语) 5.She put the eggs into the basket with great care. (方式状语)

She came in with a dictionary in her hand. (伴随状语) 6.In order to catch up with the others, I (目的状语) must work harder. 7.He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. (结果状语) 8.She works very hard though she is old.
?

(让步状语)

9.I am taller than he is. (比较状语)

(九)同位语(Appositive)对前面的名
词或代词做进一步的解释,通常由名词、 数词、代词或从句担任,如: This is Mr. Zhou, our headmaster.

(十)插入语(Parenthesis)对一句话
做一些附加的解释,通常有to be honest , I think (suppose, believe---)等,如: To be frank, I don’t quite agree with you.

练习
(一).指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分: S. ? 1. The students got on the school bus. Attribute ? 2. He handed me the newspaper. O. ? 3. I shall answer your question after class. Adverbial Predicate ? 4. What a beautiful Chinese painting! Attribute ? 5. They went hunting together early in the morning. Adverbial Adverbial

Predicative His job is to train swimmers. ? 7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. O. ? 8. There is going to be an American film S. tonight.Predicate ? 9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. Predicate ? 10. His wish is to become a scientist. S. Predicative ? 11. He managed to finish the work in time. Predicate O. advice. ? 12. Tom came to ask me for Adverbial ? 13. He found it important to master English.
? 6.

Attribute

AO.

RO.

O. ? 14. Do you have anything else to say?
? 15.

Attribute

To be honest,your pronunciation is Parenthesis not so good. ? 16. Would you please tell me your O. address? Adverbial Adverbial ? 17. He sat there, reading a newspaper. AS.is our duty to keep our classroom ? 18. It Predicative clean and tidy. O.C. ? 19. He noticed a man enter the room. O.C. ? 20. The apples tasted sweet.

Predicative

指出下列诸句中画线部分是什么成分: 1. On the left of my house is an old church. S. 2. Why could the boiling point of water be lower at the top of a mountain? S. 3. I am not going to work today. V. 4. This thing is for peeling potatoes. Prep.O. 5.What time will you arrive? Adv. 6.The Genie promised that if anyone should come and set him free, he would make him O.C. very rich. 7. What nationality are you? Predicative

8. I couldn’t understand why he had O. decided to retire at 50. 9. I am terribly confused by all this information. Adverbial 10. We had already reached 9000 feet by then.V. 11. She reminded me to switch off all the lights. O.C. 12. I’ll be able to pass my driving test after I have had a few lessons. O. 13. I love swimming. It keeps me fit. O.C. 14. It is obvious that money doesn’t grow on trees. S.

(二)。划分句子成分 1.we are working . 2.I can swim very well . 3.The waiter brought a bottle of beer to me . 4.Why does the wind blow . 5.The rain has been pulling down for a whole day . 6.Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music . 7.Jim asked you to give his best wishes to everyone . 8.You must get the car ready by tomorrow .

9.I have a lot of clothes to wash . I have a lot of clothes to be washed . 10.He gave his son some advice on reading . 11.Read me the first paragraph . 12.I’ve ordered some soup for you . 13.He began leaning English ten years ago . 14.My being late worried my teacher . 15.That president himself would visit our school excited all of us . 16.April’ Day is the special day of the year when you play a joke on someone .

17.He usually takes a nap after lunch ,as is his habit . 18.I found the book in the corner of the room. 19.he finished lunch and went into the garden . 20.The telephone rang . 21.We study hard . 22.His father might have died . 23.Will you leave the door open when going out . 24.Can you make the dog stand still ?

25.The landlord had them working day and night . 26.I think a sound knowledge of grammar is important to good writing . 27.We all breathe ,eat, drink . 28.I woke up at 6:00 in the morning . 29.The book weighs five kilos . 30.They will be flying to London . 31.The shop assistant found some certain materials for me . 32.He promised me a new English-Chinese dictionary.

33.Please pass a newly- published to me . 34.He lived in Guang Zhou . 35.The father is showing the boy how to plant trees . 36.His uncle left him some money . 37.She is teaching the piano to several of the village children and she has taught us English for 3 years . 38.I like popular music . 39.She knows what to do next . 40.It excited all of us that the president would visit our school .


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