HOW TO WRITE A SUMMARY
A summary is a short account/paragraph giving the main points of something longer or detailed.
3 Styles of Passages
Narration (记叙文) Argumentation (议论文) Exposition (说明文)
describe a person or an event, with afterthoughts
show the writer’s point of view introduce something, eg. a phenomenon
Task 1: How to find the key sentences or key words?
体裁 记叙文 关键句 抓住who, what happened, 及the writer’s purpose
Recognize the styles of 3 given passages and find out the key sentences or key words of each passage.
The Steps of Writing a Summary
(1)定时态：如果阅读材料是过去时，那 么基本时态用过去时；如果是现在的， 那么基本时态用现在时； (2)定人称：一般情况下采用第三人称来 写作，特殊如书信的，可能会使用第 一、二人称； (3)定技巧：结合相关技巧，重新组句。
1.完全糊涂地照抄原文，连人称都不改 的，得0分； 2. 机械死板地照抄原文，只改人称的，得 1分； 3. 稍微灵活地抄原文，改主语、宾语、原 文词序的，得2分； 4. 创造性地抄，改主语、宾语、原文词序 还有句子结构的，最多得3分； 5. 结构、用词、词性变化比较好的得4至5 分。
Rewrite the sentences according to the skills.
(1)Use words of similar meanings 同义替换法
I didn’t catch any fish owing to the fact that I was not patient. I didn’t catch any fish_________ I was because not patient.
(2)Adopt the opposite way when saying a sentence正话反说法
You will fail. You will ____________. not succeed
(3)Change the part of speech 词性转换法
Patience is very important. Patience is _____________________. of great importance
(4)Change the structure of a sentence句式变化法
语态变换： Parents should give children more praise. Children should__________more praise. be given
Children should be encouraged more. This will help them learn faster. Children should be encouraged more, _______ will help them learn faster. which Children are given more praise. They will achieve more success. When given more praise children will _________________, achieve more success.
(5)Use the shortest possible transitions连词衔接法
注意使用一些短而精的连词，如but, and, so, while, however, then, thus, yet, for, therefore, including, instead of 等。
We should encourage children. We should not scold them. We should encourage children__________ instead of scolding them.
(6) Change the order of the words. 词序改变法 The secret of success was patience.
________ was ___________________. Patience the secret of success
(7) Omit the details细节省略法 Don’t always scold and give lots of praise instead.
Don’t scold and give praise instead. ———————————————
(8) Make use of the meaning of a sentence句意理解法
Shopping on the Internet is becoming increasingly popular.
___________________________ More and more people prefer ___________________________ Internet shopping.
Ex 1. Rewrite the sentences
1.I won't go to the party if I am not invited. I won't go to the party ______ invited. unless 2.He contributed a lot to the construction of the city. He made ____ ____ contribution to a lot of ____ ________ the construction of the city.
3.No matter how well translated, something of spirit of original work is lost. _________ well ____ ___ translated, However it is something of the spirit of the original work is lost.
4.Since she is very interested in English, she wants to be an English teacher. Being ______ _____ English _______ interested in _______, she wants to be an English teacher.
5.The man is talking with a lady. He gave us a talk last week. The man _________ gave us a talk last week _________ _______ with a lady.
【答案】who / that; is talking 定语从句who / that gave us a talk last week修饰先行词the man。
6.He didn’t want to miss the first bus, so he got up early. He got up early _________ _________ he could catch the first bus.
【答案】so that 目的状语从句so that he could catch the first bus说明动词got up early的目 的。
7.“Did you sleep well last night?” David asked her. David asked her _________ _________ _________ well last night.
【答案】if / whether she slept 直接引语转换成间接引语时，如果直 接引语是一般疑问句时，连接词要用if 或whether，句子保持陈述句的语序。
8.Come on, or we’ll miss the early bus. _________ we _________ hurry, we’ll miss the early bus. 【答案】 If; don’ t if 引导条件状语从句，祈使句与条件 状语从句的相互转换。
9.John will go to bed after he finished his homework. John _________ go to bed _________ he finished his homework.
【答案】won’t; until not…until表示“直到……才”的意思。
Ex 2. 合并句子
We want to ask for help from our teacher. We can ask for help from our teacher.
We can ask for help from our teacher whenever want to.
The exam was over. I explained to my friend, Li Hong. I couldn’t let her copy my answer.
When the exam was over, I explained to my friend, Li Hong , why I couldn’t let her copy my answer.
I felt that thing would be dishonest. I let her copy my answer at that moment. I said no to her.
I felt it dishonest if I let her copy my answer at that moment so I said no to her.
In the camp, we will have some English speaking competition. We will watch some wonderful performances. The performances will be given by the students from the local school. In the camp, we will have some English speaking competition and watch some wonderful performances given by the students from the local school as well.
Some Summary Models for You
(1)Narration Summary Models (记叙文概要模板) (2)Argumentation Summary Models (议论文概要模板) (3)Exposition Summary Models (说明文概要模板)
The writer/passage mainly tells us…（事
件）by showing us an example of… （人）, who/which…（事情时间、地点、 原因、经过）.
? The article/author gives the view that sb. should/shouldn’t…（主题）. …..（补充论据）. ? The passage highlights(强调) the importance of sth….. ? The author argues/discusses that…/about…
? The article compares the disadvantages/ benefits of A and B. A…while B… ? The passage discusses the impact(影响)of sth. On the one hand,…, on the other hand,….
? 研究显示类： The study reveals(揭露) that… The purpose of the report is to show that…
Task 4: Write a summary Passage 1
关键词 、句 (1)the writer, an old man, fishing, experience, teach sb. a lesson, (2)The secret of success was patience.
(1) 连词成句 __________had____________________ The writer a fishing experience with an old man __________who taught him a lesson _________________.
(2) 词序变化法 Patience was the secret of success.
The writer had a fishing experience with an old man who taught him a lesson. Patience was the secret of success. 句式变化法 The writer had a fishing experience with an old man who taught him a lesson that patience was the secret of success. The writer tells us…（事件）by showing us an example of…（人）, who/which… （事情时间、地点、原因、经过）.
Key for Passage 1:
The writer tells us patience was very important and that it was the secret of success by showing us an example of his unforgettable fishing experience with an old man, who taught him a lesson. ( 35 words)
Passage 2: 关键句
(1) Don’t always scold and give lots of praise instead.
Don’t scold and give praise instead.
Give praise instead of scolding.
Praise children instead of scolding them.
(2) If you teach your children not to fear a mistake of failure, they will learn faster and achieve success at last. 同义替换法 句意理解法 词性转换法 细节省略法
Encourage your children and they will make more progress and succeed.
(1) Praise children instead of scolding them. (2) Encourage your children and they will make more progress and succeed. The article gives the view that
when educating children, parents should praise and encourage them instead of scolding, which will help children to make progress and succeed.
Passage 3: 关键词、句 (1) Internet shopping is a new way of shopping. (2) Shopping on the Internet is becoming increasingly popular. (3)People can shop for a variety of things on the Internet. (4) common products, information products, services
Key for Passage 3:
This article points out the common phenomenon----Internet shopping, which offers great convenience. People can buy many things on the Internet including common products, information products and even services. ( 30 words )
定体裁；定主题；定时态； 定人称；定技巧。 忌照抄原文；忌私加观点； 忌不符字数。
Ex 3. 翻译并合成句子
那位女同学在考试中舞弊。她努力 跟老师理论。她认为她不应该受到 惩罚。
The girl student who cheated in the exam tried to reason with her teacher that she should not get punished.
The farmers, (who were) concerned about the price of the milk will get lower, killed many cows on purpose.
Walking the dog in the park, he met one of his old friends yesterday.
Knowing many languages, he played an active part in introducing the products to foreigners on the show.
With a flat landscape and good weather, this place produces the best grapes in China.