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Localized sensor management for multi-target tracking in wireless sensor networks


Service Level Agreements (SLAs) parameter negotiation between heterogeneous 4G wireless network operators Original
Research Article

Pervasive and Mobile Computing, In Press, A

ccepted Manuscript, Purchase $ 41.95 Available online 17 March 2011 Mohsin Iftikhar, Bjorn Landfeldt, Sherali Zeadally, Albert Zomaya
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141

Mitigating multi-path fading in a mobile mesh network Original Research Article Ad Hoc Networks, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available Purchase online 8 February 2011 Marcos A.M. Vieira, Matthew E. Taylor, Prateek Tandon, $ 27.95 Manish Jain, Ramesh Govindan, Gaurav S. Sukhatme, Milind Tambe
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142

Securing the data path of next-generation router systems Original Research Article Computer Communications, Volume 34, Issue 4, 1 April 2011, Pages 598-606 Tilman Wolf, Russell Tessier, Gayatri Prabhu
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Abstract

As the technology used to implement computer network infrastructure advances, networking resources are becoming more vulnerable to attack. Recent router designs are based on general-purpose programmable processors, which increase their potential vulnerability. To address this issue, a Secure Packet Processing platform has been developed that can flexibly protect emerging router systems. Both instruction-level operation of embedded processors and I/O operations of router ports are monitored to detect anomalous behavior. If such behavior is detected, a recovery system is invoked to restore the system into an operational state. Experimental results show that processor-based attacks can generally be determined by a processing monitor within a single instruction. I/O anomalies, including

unexpected packet broadcast or delay, can be detected by an I/O monitor with limited overhead. Overall, the system overhead for secure monitoring is limited to a fraction of the overall system space, memory, and power budget.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Related work 3. System architecture 3.1. Security model 3.1.1. Attack examples 3.1.2. Security requirements 3.1.3. Attacker capabilities 3.2. Secure packet processing platform 3.3. Monitoring subsystem 3.3.1. Processing monitor 3.3.2. I/O monitor 3.4. Recovery subsystem 4. Results 4.1. Monitoring stream information 4.2. Single-core monitor 4.3. Multi-core monitor 4.4. I/O monitor 5. Summary and conclusions References

143

Learning-TCP: A stochastic approach for efficient update in TCP congestion window in ad hoc wireless networks Original Research Article Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, In Press, Purchase $ 41.95 Corrected Proof, Available online 20 January 2011 Venkataramana Badarla, C. Siva Ram Murthy

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Abstract

In this work, we attempt to improve the performance of TCP over ad hoc wireless networks (AWNs) by using a learning technique from the theory of learning automata. It is well-known that the use of TCP in its present form, for reliable transport over AWNs leads to unnecessary packet losses, thus limiting the achievable throughput. This is mainly due to the aggressive, reactive, and deterministic nature in updating its congestion window. As the AWNs are highly bandwidth constrained, the behavior of TCP leads to high contentions among the packets of the flow, thus causing a high amount of packet loss. This further leads to high power consumption at mobile nodes as the lost packets are recovered via several retransmissions at both TCP and MAC layers. Hence, our proposal, here after called as Learning-TCP, focuses on updating the congestion window in an efficient manner (conservative, proactive, and finer and flexible update in the congestion window) in order to reduce the contentions and congestion, thus improving the performance of TCP in AWNs. The key advantage of Learning-TCP is that, without relying on any network feedback such as explicit congestion and link-failure notifications, it adapts to the changing network conditions and appropriately updates the congestion window by observing the inter-arrival times of TCP acknowledgments. We implemented Learning-TCP in ns-2.28 and Linux kernel 2.6 as well, and evaluated its performance for a wide range of network conditions. In all the studies, we observed that Learning-TCP outperforms TCP-Newreno by showing significant improvement in the goodput and reduction in the packet loss while maintaining higher fairness to the competing flows.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 1.1. Motivation 1.2. Our contribution 2. Related work 3. Overview of learning-TCP 3.1. A brief introduction to learning automata 3.2. An overview of learning-TCP 4. Design of learning-TCP 4.1. Capturing the network conditions 4.2. The CALA learning algorithm 4.3. Discussion about the learning mechanism 4.4. Convergence proof and selection of parameters 4.5. Detailed algorithm of learning-TCP 5. Performance evaluation of learning-TCP 5.1. Validating the behavior of learning-TCP 5.2. Performance of learning-TCP for varying packet error rates 5.3. Performance of Learning-TCP for varying hop lengths 5.4. Performance of Learning-TCP for varying load 5.5. Performance of Learning-TCP for varying mobility 5.6. Large number of short-lived flows–varying mean pause time of the flow arrivals 5.7. Large number of short-lived flows — varying shape factor of the flow sizes 5.8. Discussion on the results 5.9. Experimental results 6. Conclusions Acknowledgements References Vitae

Research highlights

? Novel TCP congestion window updating algorithm using Learning Automata for ad hoc wireless networks. ? Conservative, proactive, and finer and flexible update in congestion window. ? No explicit feedback from the network nodes. ? Improvement in the goodput and reduction in the packet loss while maintaining higher fairness to the competing flows. ? Extensive simulation results and testbed results, as well.

144

Cubic metric improvement of aggregated carriers for downlink transmission in LTE-advanced Original
Research Article
Purchase The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, Volume 18, Issue 1, February 2011, $ 31.50 Pages 60-63, 90 Shao-xin ZHANG, Jun ZHOU, Hong-bo ZHU, Qi ZHU
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Abstract

To meet long term evolution-advanced (LTE-A) requirements of wider bandwidth and maintain backwards compatibility with LTE release 8 (Rel-8) simultaneously, carrier aggregation has been agreed by the third generation partnership project (3GPP). High cubic metric (CM) values and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of aggregated component carriers (CCs) exists as an unpleasant issue for both uplink and downlink (DL) transmission. For DL transmission, to use distinct cell ID per DL CC to generate DL reference signal (RS) sequence can mitigate this problem but will cause some other issues on the Corresponding uplink carrier. This article proposes two approaches to solve the problem of high CM/PAPR by introducing new variables to change the cell-specific DL RS sequence. In both methods, same cell identifier (cell ID) is allocated to all DL CCs. Simulation results show the performance improvements and prove the effectivity of our proposed approaches.

145

USB Security Camera Software for Linux Original Research Article Procedia Engineering, Volume 8, 2011, Pages 171-176 J. Weerachai, P. Siam, K. Narawith
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Abstract

USB Security Camera has been developed in the society security field, however, current video surveillance is too expensive to limit use widely. The paper proposes a new method that Linux system is software development, with USB camera as video gather. Using TCP/IP Protocol agreement realize network communication. The system inside embeds web server so users can visit resources by browser or Stand alone system. The whole system realizes environmental monitoring and has a high performance and low cost.

Article Outline

Uncited references References

146

A measurement model for experts knowledge-based systems algorithm using fuzzy analytic network process Original Research Article Expert Systems with Applications, In Press, Uncorrected Purchase $ 41.95 Proof, Available online 18 January 2011 Che-Wei Chang, Der-Juinn Horng, Hung-Lung Lin
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Abstract

This study proposes an experts knowledge-based systems measurement model, the model using fuzzy analytic network process (FANP) to resolve the uncertainty and imprecision of evaluations during pre-negotiation stages,

where the comparison judgments of a decision maker are represented as fuzzy triangular numbers. A novel fuzzy prioritization method, which derives crisp priorities (criteria weights and scores of alternatives) from consistent and inconsistent fuzzy comparison matrices, is also proposed. The applicability of the proposed model is demonstrated in a government purchase digital video recorder (DVR) system project study. The stability tests indicate the advantages of the proposal model in determining the value of model. Importantly, the proposed model can provide decision makers a reference material, making it highly applicable for academic and commercial purposes.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Fuzzy analytic network process 2.1. Step 1: Establish model and problem 2.2. Step 2: Establish the triangular fuzzy numbers 2.3. Step 3: Establish the fuzzy pair-wise comparison matrix (independent and interdependent) and defuzzification 2.4. Step 4: Determine eigenvectors and supermatrix formation 2.5. Step 5: Evaluate the decision 3. A case study 3.1. Step 1: Establish a framework and define the evaluative criteria and sub-criteria 3.2. Step 2: Establish triangular fuzzy numbers 3.3. Step 3: Establish the fuzzy pair-wise comparison matrix (independent and interdependent) and defuzzification 3.4. Step 4: Determine eigenvectors and supermatrix formation 3.5. Step 5: Determine the weight of FANP 3.6. Step 6: Final decision-making

4. Conclusions 5. Uncited references References

147

Ontology-based interoperation model of collaborative product development Original Research Article Journal of Network and Computer Applications, In Press, Purchase Corrected Proof, Available online 9 March 2011 Hongbo Sun, Wenhui Fan, Weiming Shen, Tianyuan Xiao $ 39.95
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Abstract

The reuse of existing systems is an important objective of High Level Architecture (HLA) based collaborative product development systems. However, in order to reuse an existing system, its interoperation interface has to be modified so as to comply with the objective and interaction representations defined in a corresponding Federation Object Model (FOM). Such modifications imply added time and effort, which diminishes the efficiency of system reuse in collaborative product development. This paper presents a heavy-weighted ontology-based construction method for interoperation models to support the reuse of subsystems in various collaborative contexts. In this method ontologies are used to specify the semantics of object classes and interaction classes in subsystems in a formal and computer readable fashion. In doing so, a Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) like construction method is introduced to establish the original interoperation ontology from scratch. An automatic transforming method from Simulation Object Model (SOM) into interoperation ontology is also described to make existing HLA based systems easy to adopt this approach. Then a consistency verification method is introduced to guarantee the consistency of the interoperation ontologies. A case study is used to demonstrate the feasibility of

the proposed method. As a human-friendly modeling method, compared with existing interoperation modeling methods the proposed method is more flexible, efficient and reliable.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Related work 3. Theoretical foundations 3.1. Definitions 3.2. Mathematical properties 4. Ontology modeling 4.1. Ontology construction mechanism 4.2. Meta-ontology 4.3. Domain ontology 4.4. SOM transformation 4.5. Consistency checking 5. Case demonstration 6. Discussion 7. Conclusion Acknowledgements References

148

G-STAR: Geometric STAteless Routing for 3-D wireless sensor networks Original Research Article Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 9, Issue 3, May 2011, Pages 341-354 Min-Te Sun, Kazuya Sakai, Benjamin R. Hamilton, Wei-Shinn Ku, Xiaoli Ma
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Abstract

3-D aerial and underwater sensor networks have found various applications in natural habitat monitoring, weather/earthquake forecast, terrorist intrusion detection, and homeland security. The resource-constrained and dynamic nature of such networks has made the stateless routing protocol with only local information a preferable choice. However, most of the existing routing protocols require sensor nodes to either proactively maintain the state information or flood the network from time to time. The existing stateless geometric routing protocols either fail to work in 3-D environments or have tendency to produce lengthy paths. In this paper, we propose a novel routing protocol, namely Geometric STAteless Routing (G-STAR) for 3-D networks. The main idea of G-STAR is to distributively build a location-based tree and find a path dynamically. G-STAR not only generalizes the notion of geographic routing from two modes to one mode, but also guarantees packet delivery even when the location information of some nodes is either inaccurate or simply unavailable regardless of the uses of virtual coordinates. In addition, we develop a light-weight path pruning algorithm, namely Branch Pruning (BP), that can be combined with G-STAR to enhance the routing performance with very little overhead. The extensive simulation results by ns-2 have shown that the proposed routing protocols perform significantly better than the existing 3-D geometric routing protocols in terms of delivery rate with competitive hop stretch. We conclude that the proposed protocols serve as a strong candidate for future high-dimensional sensor networks.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Related work

2.1. 2-D geometric routing 2.2. 3-D geometric routing 2.3. Routing without location information 3. Geometric stateless routing 3.1. Design goals and network setup 3.2. Protocol description 3.3. Example of G-STAR 3.4. Properties of G-STAR 3.5. Extension to multi-dimensional networks 3.6. Branch pruning 3.7. Implementation considerations 3.7.1. Inaccurate location information 3.7.2. Partial location information 3.7.3. No location information 3.7.4. Mobility 3.8. Wireless fading environments 4. Performance evaluation 4.1. Simulation configurations and metrics 4.2. Simulation results of different protocols 4.3. Simulation results with inaccurate location information 4.4. Simulation results with partial location information 4.4.1. Simulation results in wireless fading model 5. Conclusion References Vitae

149

A survey of cross-layer design for VANETs Original
Research Article

Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 9, Issue 5, July 2011, Pages 966-983 Boangoat Jarupan, Eylem Ekici

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Abstract

Recently, vehicular communication systems have attracted much attention, fueled largely by the growing interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). These systems are aimed at addressing critical issues like passenger safety and traffic congestion, by integrating information and communication technologies into transportation infrastructure and vehicles. They are built on top of self organizing networks, known as a Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET), composed of mobile vehicles connected by wireless links. While the solutions based on the traditional layered communication system architectures such as OSI model are readily applicable, they often fail to address the fundamental problems in ad hoc networks, such as dynamic changes in the network topology. Furthermore, many ITS applications impose stringent QoS requirements, which are not met by existing ad hoc networking solutions. The paradigm of cross-layer design has been introduced as an alternative to pure layered design to develop communication protocols. Cross-layer design allows information to be exchanged and shared across layer boundaries in order to enable efficient and robust protocols. There has been several research efforts that validated the importance of cross-layer design in vehicular networks. In this article, a survey of recent work on cross-layer communication solutions for VANETs is presented. Major approaches to cross-layer protocol design is introduced, followed by an overview of corresponding cross-layer protocols. Finally, open research problems in developing efficient cross-layer protocols for next generation transportation systems are discussed.

Article Outline

1. Introduction

2. Overview of cross-layer design approaches 3. Cross-layer design challenges 3.1. Requirement analysis 3.2. Implementation strategy 3.3. VANET specific constraints 4. Cross-layer design for PHY-MAC layers 4.1. Transmission rate adaptation 4.2. Channel selection 4.3. Transmission range adaptation 5. Cross-layer design of PHY-MAC-network layers 6. Cross-layer design of network-MAC layers 6.1. Route selection 6.1.1. Route selection through link prediction 6.1.2. Route selection based on neighbor information and route quality 6.2. Packet collision avoidance using segment-based or cluster-based routing 6.3. QoS support – prioritization-based solutions 6.4. Multi-hop broadcasting 7. Cross-layer design for transport-MAC layers 8. Cross-layer design for transport-network layers 9. Cross-layer design for transport-network-MAC layers 10. Transport layer for wired-wireless networks 11. Open research problems References Vitae

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Cost-aware monitoring of network-wide aggregates in wireless sensor networks Original Research Article Purchase Computer Networks, Volume 55, $ 31.50 Issue 6, 25 April 2011, Pages

1276-1290 Mohammad Sadegh Talebi, Ahmad Khonsari, Amin Mohtasham, Ali Abbasi
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Abstract

Motivated by applications of wireless sensor networks, there have been growing interests in monitoring large scale distributed systems. In these applications, we usually wish to monitor global system conditions defined as a function of network measurements. In this paper, we study optimal strategies for reactive monitoring to be employed for monitoring network-wide aggregates of sensor nodes’ measurements. Our primary concern in adopting such a monitoring mechanism is to reduce the communication cost which is the dominant factor of energy drain in wireless sensor networks. To adapt the structure of monitoring mechanism to the statistics of nodes’ measurements, we devise a simple yet efficient algorithm that is appropriate for a class of distribution functions. Towards this, we consider a sigmoid approximation of the CDF of the underlying event and cast the underlying design problem as a convex optimization problem. This allows us to

propose an algorithm to set monitoring parameters in accordance to the statistics of the events measured by spatially scattered sensor nodes. Through simulation experiments, we illustrate that the proposed algorithm, referred to as SATA, can significantly reduce the communication overhead of the monitoring mechanism in sensor networks. Our results show that compared to heuristic methods, the cost of monitoring mechanism can be reduced significantly.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 1.1. Illustrative examples 1.2. Problem statement and motivation 1.3. Our contribution 1.4. Organization of the paper 2. Related work 3. System model 3.1. Monitoring model 3.2. Threshold assignment problem 4. Approximation to threshold assignment problem 4.1. Sigmoid approximation 4.2. Deriving sigmoid parameters 4.3. SATA problem

5. Optimal solution 5.1. Convexity 5.2. Optimality condition 5.3. Solving the dual 6. Sigmoid-approximated threshold assignment algorithm 6.1. Convergence analysis 7. Experimental evaluation 7.1. Simulation setup 7.2. Simulation scenario 1 7.3. Simulation scenario 2 7.4. Simulation scenario 3 7.5. Simulation scenario 4 7.6. Discussion 8. Conclusion Appendix A. Proof of Theorem 1 Appendix B. Proof of Theorem 2 References Vitae

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