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It构成的句型小结


It 构成的常用句型精讲
一、It 作形式主语的句型
为使句子平衡,往往把 it 置于句首作形式主语,而把真正的主语(通常是不定式短语、动名词短语 或主语从句)移至句末。It 作形式主语的句型有:

㈠ it 代指不定式短语的句型
1. It takes + (sb.) + sometime / some money + to d

o sth. 做某事花去某人多长时间
Just a minute, it won't take me long to change. 等一下,我很快就可以换好衣服。 It takes five minutes to walk there. 走到那里需要 5 分钟。 It took me three days to prepare for the examination. 我花了三天准备那次考试。 It takes a lot of money to buy a house like that. 买那样一幢房子需要很多钱。

2. It takes + 名词 + (for sb.) to do sth. 某人做某事需要… …
It took great imagination as well as patience for Annie to teach me to speak. 对安妮来说,教我说话需要极大的信心和想象力。 It takes time for them to prepare for the great changes that take place in space. 他们需要很多时间准备应付太空中所发生的巨大变化。

3. It is + 形容词 + (for / of sb.) to do sth. 某人做某事是… …的
for sb. 的句型 常用于表示事物的特征特点, 表示客观形式的形容词, 如 easy, difficult, hard, important, possible, impossible, comfortable, necessary, better 等。 of sb 的句型一般用表示人物的性格,品德,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如 kind, nice, stupid, rude, clever, foolish, thoughtful, thoughtless, brave, considerate(考虑周到的), silly, selfish(自私的) 等。 It was kind of you to help us. 谢谢你对我们的帮助。 What time would it be most convenient for me to call again? 什么时候我再给你打电话最合适? It’s very good of you to have listened to me. 感谢你能听我讲。

4. It is + 名词 + to do sth. 做某事是… …的
常用于该句型的名词有:manners, duty, fun, good, a great honour 等。 As a student, it is bad manners to come late to class. 作为学生,上课迟到是没有礼貌的。 It is our duty to pay taxes to our government. 向政府交税是我们的义务。

5. It is + one’s turn + to do sth. 轮到某人做某事
It was my turn to clean the blackboard. 轮到我擦黑板了。 It is his turn to take the children to school. 今天该轮到他送孩子们上学了。

6. It is + up to sb. + to do sth. 做某事是某人的责任或义务
It’s up to us to give them all the help we can. 我们理应竭尽所能地给予他们帮助。 It’s up to you to decide whether to go or not. 应该由你决定是否去。 Up to you! 由你来定!

㈡ it 代指动名词短语的句型
7. It is + 名词 + doing sth. 做某事是… …用于该句型的名词有:no good, no use 等。
It’s no use talking to him about it. 和他谈论此事是没用的。 It’s no use/good (in) crying over spilt/spilled milk. 事已至此,后悔也无用。(牛奶已泼,哭也没用。)

8. It + be + 名词 + that 从句

用于该句型中的名词有:a pity, a shame, a fact, an honour, a wonder, a good thing, good news, no wonder 等。 惯用句型有: It is common knowledge that… It is a surprise that… It is a fact that… It is no wonder that … 例如: It is a pity that she has made such a mistake 真遗憾,她犯了这样一个错误。 It's a pity that you should have to leave.你非走不可真是件憾事。 It is a thousand pity/ thousand pities that he missed the chance. 他错过了这次机会真是太可惜了。 It is no wonder that he has passed the examination. 难怪他考试及格了。 It is a shame that you have to leave so soon. 你必须这么早离开,真遗憾。 It was a stupid thing that he didn’t listen to his teacher. 他不听老师的话,真蠢。 It is a great honour that he receive that prize. 他得到了那个奖真是无上的荣耀。 ……是常识 事实是…… 难怪 … … (No wonder! 难怪呢) 令人惊奇的是……

10. It + be + 形容词 + that 从句 … … 是 … …
用于该句型中的形容词有:clear, obvious, true, certain, important, strange, natural, surprising, fortunate, good, wonderful, funny, possible, impossible, likely, unlikely, quite clear, unusual 等。 惯用句型有: It is necessary that… It is important that… It is obvious that… 有必要…… 重要的是…… 很明显……

It is important that we (should) learn English well. 我们学好英语是非常重要的。 It is necessary that the students (should) remember all the new words. 学生记住所有的新单词是必要的。

11. It + be + -ed 分词 + that 从句 据… …是… …的
常见的过去分词有:said, reported, learned, announced, known, decided, expected, believed, considered, declared, felt, hoped, seen, supposed, thought, understood 等。 惯用句型有: It is said that… It is reported that… It is believed that… It is hoped that… It is well known that… It is thought that… It is suggested that… 据说 据报道 大家相信 大家希望 众所周知 大家认为 据建议

It has been decided that… 大家决定 It must be remembered that…务必记住的是 It is reported that another man-made satellite has been put into orbit. 据报道,又有一颗人造卫星被送入轨道。 It is said that he has gone to the USA for further study. 据说他已去美国深造了。 It is known to all that the sun rises in the east. 众所周知,太阳从东方升起。 It has been decided that we should design the machine ourselves. 已经决定我们自己来设计这部机器。 若 sth/sb.做了主语则用下列句型: sth./sb. be said/ reported/ believed 等+to do sth

例如: Three thousand people were reported to die in the earthquake. 据报道,三千人死于地震。 Another hospital is said to be built next month. 据说下个月又一家医院要建。

12. It + 及物动词 + 名词 + 从句
It makes no difference to me whether it’s foggy or clear. 对我来说,天气有雾或晴朗没什么关系。 It doesn’t make any difference to me whether he goes or not. 不管他是否去对我都没有什么影响。

13. It + 不及物动词 + that 分句
常见的不及物动词有:seem, happen, look,turn out(结果,证明,原来), occur 等。惯用句型有: It seems that… It (so) happens (that)… It occurred to me that… 似乎…… (那么)碰巧…… 我突然想起……

It seems that he is sick. (= He seems to be sick.) 看来他似乎有病。 It happened that he wasn’t there. (= He happened not to be there.) 碰巧他不在哪儿。 It occurred to me that I didn’t close my window when I left last night. 我突然想起我昨晚离开时没关窗户

14. It doesn’t matter (to sb.) + 从句 (对)… …都无所谓
It doesn’t matter to me what he says. 对我来说,他说什么都无所谓。 It doesn’t matter if we are late. 我们就是晚到一点也不要紧。

注意:It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用 should 加动词原形,
should 可省略。其句型为: (1)suggested It is (2)important (3) a pity (1) suggested, ordered, proposed, required, demanded, requested, insisted + (should) do (2) important, necessary, natural, strange + (should) do (3) a pity, a shame, no wonder + (should) do It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week. It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow. that…+ (should) do

二、

It 作形式宾语的句型

㈠ it 代指不定式短语的句型 15. 主语 + find(make, feel /consider) it + 形容词 (+ for sb.) + to do sth.
I find it easy enough to get on with Tom. 我觉得与汤姆相处很容易。 I felt it necessary to speak about my shortcomings. 我感到有必要讲一下我的不足之处。

16. 主语 + find(make, feel) it + 名词 + to do sth.
He felt it his duty to mention the fact to Mr. Smith. 他觉得把事实告诉史密斯先生是他的职责。 People in the west make it a rule to buy Christmas presents for their relatives and friends. 西方人把为亲友买圣诞礼物作为一种惯例。

17. sth. cost + sb. + some money 某物花了某人多少钱 sb. spend + some money + on + sth. sb. pay + some money + for sth. sb. buy + sth. + for + some money
The necklace cost them 36,000 ¥. They paid 36,000 ¥ for the necklace. They bought the necklace for 36,000 ¥. 这条项链花了他们 36000 元。 =They spent 36,000 ¥ on the necklace.

注意:用 spend, pay, buy 时主语是人而不是物。Cost 主语是物而不是人。

18. 主语 + think + it + 形容词/名词 + doing sth.
We thought it no use doing that.我们认为做那件事没用。 I don’t think it worthwhile taking such trouble. 我想不值得这么费事了。

㈢ it 代指名词性从句的句型 19. 主语 + find(make, think) it + 名词 + that 从句
I used to feel it a terrible thing that my mother should have to do the housework endlessly. 我曾老觉得母亲不得不无休止地做家务是一件可怕的事情。 I consider it a great shame that I didn’t pass the examination. 我认为我考试不及格是件非常羞耻的事。

20. 主语 + find(make, think) it + 形容词 + that 从句
I think it best that you should stay here. 我认为你最好呆在这里。 You may think it strange that anyone would live there. 你也许感到奇怪,居然有人愿意住在那儿。

21. 主语 + take it for granted + that 从句
I take it for granted that you will be coming to the meeting. 我当然认为你会来参加会议。 I took it for granted that you would stay with us. 我以为你当然会留在我们这里。

22. I hate(like, enjoy, love/appreciate) + it + when/if 从句 我不喜欢/喜欢 … …
该句型中 it 用于 hate, like, enjoy, love 等动词后,充当形式宾语。 I hate it when people talk with their mouths full. 我很不喜欢人们吃着东西说话。 I like it in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. 我喜欢秋天清爽明朗的日子。 该句型中 it 用于 hate, like, enjoy, love 等动词后,充当形式宾语。 I will appreciate it if you can help me. 如果你能帮我,我会非常感激的。

三、

It 用于强调结构句型
此结构强调的成分仅限于主语,宾语和状语。

23. It is/was + 被强调部分 + that…… 是… … 的
It was my father who did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening. 是我父亲昨天晚上在实验室做的试验。 It was the experiment that my father did in the lab yesterday evening. 那个实验是我父亲昨天晚上在实验室做的。 It was yesterday evening that my father did the experiment in the lab. 是昨天晚上我父亲在实验室做的那个实验。 It was in the lab that my father did the experiment yesterday evening. 是在实验室里我父亲昨天晚上做的那个实验。 It’s the servant who killed Mr. Smith. 是仆人杀害的史密斯先生。 It must be the servant who killed Mr. Smith. 一定是仆人杀害的史密斯先生。 强调句型的一般疑问句将 be 的形式提前于句首。 Was it he that (who) knocked at the door just now? Was it in the park that you met your friend? 特殊疑问句句型,将被强调的疑问词置于句首。其结构为“特殊疑问词+一般疑问句” What was it that made you so happy? 使你这么高兴的到底是什么? Whom was it that Mr. Smith saw in the college yesterday? 史密斯先生昨天在大学里见到的那个人到底是谁? Where was it that he went yesterday?他昨天到底去哪里了?

24. It is/was not until + 被强调部分 + that ……直到… …才 … …
It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star. 直到她摘下墨镜来我才意识到她是一位著名影星。 It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true state of affairs. 直到我读了你的信,我才了解到事情的真实情况。 It is not until I have seen it with my own eyes that I will believe it. 只有我亲眼看到这件事,我才相信它。

25. It is/was … not … (被强调部分)+ that…是… …而不是… … It is/was not …but …(被强调部分)+that…不是……而是……
It was last week not yesterday that she met your brother in New York. 她是在上周而不是在昨天,在纽约看见你弟弟的。 It was not last week but yesterday that she met your brother in New York. 她不是在上周而是在昨天,在纽约看见你弟弟的。 It was Mary’s bag not Jone’s that was lost at school yesterday evening. 昨晚是玛丽的提包,不是琼斯的提包,在学校丢了。 It was not Mary’s bag but Jone’s that was lost at school yesterday evening. 昨晚不是玛丽的提包,而是琼斯的提包,在学校丢了。

26. It is/was because … … + that … … 是因为… … 才… …
It was because he was ill that he had to see a doctor. 是因为病了,他才不得不去看医生的。 It was because the weather was too bad that we failed to get in touch with them. 正是因为天气太坏,我们才没有和他们联系上。

四、

It 用于特殊结构句型

㈠常用固定句型 29. It is + time + for sb. to do sth 到……时间了; 该到……了 It is + time(about time, high time) + (that) sb. did sth. 时间已迟了; 早该……了
It is time for you to go to bed. It is time you went to bed. 你该睡觉了。 你早该睡觉了。

It is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用 should 加动词原形,但 should 不可省略。 It is time that the children went to bed. (= It is high time that the children should go to bed.) 该到孩子们上床睡觉的时间了。

30. It is + the first / second time(表次数)+ that 从句 这是第一次 /第二次… …
该结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。若是“It was the first time that 从句”则用过去完成时 It is the first time that I have visited the city. It was the third time that the boy had been late.

31. It is + 一段时间 + since 从句(过去时) It has been + 一段时间 + since 从句自从… … 以来已经 … …
该句型中 " It is … since…"可代替"It has been … since …",意思不变。 It is (= has been) five years since we last met. 自从我们上次见面以来已经有五年了。 It is two years since I became a postgraduate student. 我成为研究生已有两年了。 It seems a long time since we last met. 自从我们上次见面以来似乎过了很长时间。 It was years/ ages since I had seen her. 自从我上次见过她已经多年/很久了。 It is just a week since we arrived here. 我们到这里刚一星期。 --- My uncle comes in from Iraq tonight. --- 我叔叔今晚从伊拉克回来了。

--- How long has it been since you last saw him? --- 你们分别后有多长时间了?

注意:since 从句中用延续性动词或状态动词的一般过去时,通常表示动作或状态的完成或结束。
It is five years since he lived here. 他不住在这儿已五年了。 It is a long time since he smoked. 他戒烟已有好长时间了。 It is three years since he joined the army. 他参军三年了。 It is three years since he was in the army. 他复员(离开军队)三年了。

32. It be + 一段时间+ before 从句 . It + be (not) + long before …
表示“(不)很久 / 才…”或“(没)过多久就 / …” It was (not) long before …. 过了多久就…(谈论过去) It will (not) be long before ….过多久才会… (谈论将来) It was some time before he could speak. 过了好一会以后他才说出话来。 It was not long before I realized my mistake. 不久我就意识到了我的错误。 It seemed a long time before my turn came. 似乎过了好一会儿才轮到我。 It may be many years before we meet again. 我们可能要好多年以后才能见面。 It will be a long time before we finish this dictionary. 我们要用很长时间才能完成这本词典。 It will be five years before we meet again. 要等 5 年我们才能在见面。

33. It / That (all) depends. 要看情况而定
--- Can you come to the party tonight? --- 你今晚能来参加晚会吗? --- It all depends when I finish my paper. --- 那要看我什么时候做完作业。 --- What will you do? --- I don’t know. It depends. --- 你愿意干点什么? --- 我不知道。要看情况。

34. It’s /That’s too bad + (that)从句. 太不幸了;太可惜了;真糟糕
It is too bad Jack doesn’t know German better. 真可惜杰克的德语没有学得更好一些。 It was too bad David had a bad cold when the circus came to our town. 真不凑巧,当马戏团来到我们镇上时戴维得了重感冒。

35. When / If it comes / came to the point, … …. 当谈到…,到了紧要关头;到采取行动或作出决定的时候
When it came to the point, he refused to help. 到了紧要关头时,他却拒绝援助。 I’m sure when it comes to the point, Mary won’t marry him after all. 我敢肯定,到做决定时,玛丽是根本不会嫁给他的。 It 的其他用法: it, one 和 that 作替代词的用法及区别 it, one 和 that 虽然都可以用来替代前面所提到的一个单数名词,以避免重复,但在具体用法上却有不同。 简述如下: 1. it 代替前面提到的同一事物,该事物既可以是可数名词也可以是不可数名词。 [原题再现] The news that they failed their driving test discouraged him, ____D____? A. did they B. didn't they C. did it D. didn't it 2. one 代替前面提到的同类事物中的一个。该事物只能是可数名词,前面可以有冠词,也可以被 this、that 或 形容词修饰,其后也可以有定语。 [原题再现] -Why don't we have a little break? -Didn't we just have___C_____? A. it B. that C. one D. this

3. that 代替前面提到的同类事物中特指的一个。该事物既可以是可数名词也可以是不可数名词,要有后置 定语,但不可以有前置修饰语。 [原题再现] Few pleasures can equal ____C____ of a cool drink on a hot day. A. some B. any C. that D. those


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