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Unit 3 Travel journal 单元要点预览 词语 辨析 词形 变化 1. finally/at last/in the end 3. persuade / advise 1. organize vt. 组织 2. wool n. 羊毛 3. determine v. 决定 2. across/through/over 4. beneat

h / under / below organization n. 组织 determination n. 决心; 坚定性

organized adj. 有组织的 woolen adj. 毛纺的; 纯毛的 determined adj. 坚决的

词 汇 部 分

重点 单词 重点 词组

1. prefer v. 更喜欢,选择某事物(而不选择其他事物) 2. persuade v. 说服;劝说 3. insist v. 坚持 4. determine v. 决定;确定;下定决心 1. care about 关心,在乎 go through 经历;经受 2. give in 屈服,让步,投降;上交 3. change one’s mind 改变主意

I 词语辨析 1. finally/at last/in the end 【解释】 finally 指一系列事物或论点的顺序,在列举事物时可以用来引出最后一项内容。finally 有两个用法:一是在列举事物或论
点时,可用来引出最后一项内容;二是用在句中动词前面,表示“等了好久才……”。finally 既可指时间位置,也可指 时间的先后顺序,但 finally 不带感情色彩
finally ended 终于结束了 Finally finished 终于完成 Finally over 终于结束了 His name finally came to her. 最后她想起了他的名字。

at last 只能指时间位置,而不能指时间顺序,在语义上指经过,周折,等待,耽搁后的“最后,终于”得到所期待的结果。
But we have tamed it at last. 但我们终于把它驯服了。

in the end 经过周折,等待,努力出现了非期待的结果。表示结局,有时可与 at last 换用,但 in the end 不仅可指“过 去”还可表示对“未来”的预计,其余两个则不行。
He calmed down in the end. 他的情绪终于平定下来。

2. across/through/over 【解释】 across 表示从表面上横穿,指“从??的一边到另一边” ,强调横过,across 是介词,通常在用 go, run, swim. 等搭配
go across 穿过 across from 在?对面 Tell your children not to run across the street. 告诉你的孩子们不要跑着穿过大街。

through 表示穿过空间内部,侧重从一端穿到另一端。
A path winds through the forest. 一条小路蜿蜒穿过森林


表示“越过”,指从较高物体的一侧到另一侧;常和动态动词连用,指“从??上面越过”或“横越” ;表静态时,指“在彼处”
He swung himself over the fence. 他纵身一跃跳过了篱笆。

3. persuade / advise 【解释】 persuade 指通过劝说、感情交流等而使对方做劝说者所希望的事。强调劝说已收到成效。persuade sb
Can you persuade her out of her foolish plans? 你能劝她放弃那些愚蠢的计划吗? 说服某人 ; 劝服

advise v. 并不涉及是否有成效 advice n. make advice 提出建议

please advise 请指导;请指示 some advice 一些建议

advise of 通知

give advice to

I advise you to be cautious. 我劝你要小心谨慎。 persuade 劝说(并使之听从) advise 劝说(但不一定说服) suggest 建议,提议

4. beneath / under / below 【解释】 beneath 书面用词,指紧挨……之下 We finally stop at the top of a hill and sit beneath a tree. under 普通用词,指在某物的正下方 Ms. Currie then took the box and stored it under her bed at home. below 指位置低于某物或在某物下方,但不一定在正下方, 所指范围较宽
It ends at the Dead Sea, the lowest point on Earth, four hundred meters below the level of the Mediterranean Sea.



II 词性变化 1. organize vt. 组织 2. wool n. 羊毛 3. determine v. 决定 organized adj. 有组织的 woolen adj. 毛纺的; 纯毛的 determined adj. 坚决的 determination n. 决心; 坚定性 organization n. 组织

Ⅲ 重点词汇 1. prefer v. (preferred/preferring) 更喜欢,选择某事物(而不选择其他事物) [典例] 1). I prefer dogs to cats. 猫狗之中我更喜欢狗。 2). I prefer speaking the truth to lying. 我宁愿讲实话而不愿说谎。 3). Would you prefer that we put off our wedding till next mouth? 你是否更愿意把我们的婚礼推迟到下个月? [重点用法] prefer sth../doing prefer A to B prefer doing A to doing B Is there any particular reason that you prefer living in San Francisco to other places? Most people prefer buying to sewing. 大多数人宁愿买现成的衣服而不自己缝制了。 And many prefer not to exercise their imaginations at all. 而且,许多人根本不喜欢训练他们的想象力。 She chose Spain, but personally I'd prefer to go to France.她选择了西班牙,而我个人倒更愿意去法国。 And they would prefer to hear French than to hear Russian.他们更喜欢听到法语,而不是俄语。 prefer (sb.) to do (rather than do) prefer that-clause

2. persuade v. 说服;劝说 [典例] 1). We persuaded him to take the job / into taking the job. 我们说服了他接受这份工作。 2). My mother finally persuaded me not to go to the party / out of going to the party.妈妈最终说服我不参加这次聚会。 3). How can I persuade you of my sincerity? 我如何能让你相信我是真诚的? 4). I am almost persuaded that he is honest. 我几乎相信了他是诚实的。 [重点用法] persuade sb. to do sth.= persuade sb. into doing sth. 说服某人做某事 persuade sb. not to do sth. = persuade sb. out of sth./doing sth. 劝阻某人做某事 persuade sb. of sth. 使某人相信某事 persuade that-clause 使某人相信...



3. insist v. 坚持 [典例] You can come back later, if you insist. 如果你一定要坚持,你就稍后再来吧。 [重点用法] insist on/upon sth./( sb’s) doing 坚持某事/要求(某人)做某事 I still insist on my viewpoint. 我仍然坚持我的观点。 He insisted on paying for the meal. 他坚持要付饭钱。 Mother insisted on our washing the clothes by ourselves. 妈妈坚决要求我们自己洗衣服。

4. determine v. 决定;确定;下定决心 [典例] 1). Attitude determines everything. 态度决定一切。 2). We determined to go to the railway station at once. 我们决定立刻去火车站。 3). I wonder what determined her to marry him in the end. 我想知道是什么使她最终下决心嫁给他的。 4). The court determined that the man was guilty of robbery. 法庭裁定那个人犯了抢劫罪。 [重点用法] determine on/upon (doing) sth. determine + n. determine to do sth. 表示一个动作 determine against 决定不;作出不利于??的判决 (用 determine on <something>时,一般要加 a, an, such, this, the, that 之类的副词在<something>的前面) determine something,为决定出某某事,或制定出某某方案。 determine on 可理解为决定采纳或决心用某某方案,这 on 可理解为中文的"上",即某某方案上或选择上。 Did he determine on an early start? 我还没有决定什么时候召开这次会议。 I have determined on [upon] going to the countryside after graduation. 我已决定毕业后选择到农村去。 The management committee determines departmental policy.管理委员会决定(出)各部门的政策. I spoke to him after class again today, and he assured me this semester was going to be different. He was determined to do better. 今天,在课后我又一次找他谈话,他对我保证这学期的表现会有所不同。他决心比上学期做得更好。 5. graduate vt. 授予?学位;分等级;标上刻度 vi. 毕业;渐变 n. 研究生;毕业生 adj. 毕业的;研究生的 [典例] 1). Brown is a graduate of University of Phoenix with a Bachelor of Science in business administration. 2). Once you graduate from this adventure, escape is sure to be your new favorite verb. [归纳拓展] graduate student n. 研究生;毕业生 graduate from v. 从?毕业 college graduate 大学毕业生;大专以上学历 graduate in 毕业于...学科 fresh graduate 刚毕业的大学生 graduate from college 大学毕业 post graduate 研究生 graduate as 取得资格 determine sb. to do sth. 使某人下定决心做某事 determine + that-clause be determined to do sth. 表示一个状态

In fact, women today are more likely than men to attend and graduate from college. Richard Loeb was the youngest graduate in the history of the University of Michigan. 理查德·勒伯是密歇根大学 历史上最年轻的一名毕业生。 The average college graduate earns 80 percent more than those who stopped after high school. Ray, a graduate student at Pennsylvania State University, takes a different approach to scientific music making. 3


6. view [典例]

n.(个人的)看法;意见,见解,态度;观看;看;视野;视线,(从某处看到的)景色,风景; v.把……视为;把……看作;看;仔细看

1). How do you view the situation? 2). Kahn was very careful to make sure they all received natural light and a view of the ocean. [归纳拓展]
have a good/wonderful/bad view of..对……能够很好/不好地观看

on view 陈列着;在展出 out of view 不在视野之中,看不见 in view of 考虑到;鉴于;由于

come into view 看得见;进入视野 在某人看来 on a long view/short view 从长远/短时期看

And but most of the time, you come up with enlarged point of view, a broader point of view. I like to be absolutely out of view and out of earshot.但大多数情况下,会想出一个扩大的观点,一个更广泛的观点。 Unions need to take a long-view on this issue themselves. In view of the above-mentioned facts, we wish to make the following proposals. 鉴于上述情况,我们提出以下建议。 She waved until the train was out of view. 她一直挥着手,直到火车从视野中消失。 The mountains are favorites of local hikers and have a wonderful view of the Austrian Alps. 这两座山是当地登山 客的最爱,有著奥地利阿尔卑斯山的超赞景观。 People instinctively notice other people right away when they come into view. 当别人进入到视野的时候,人们本 能的会立马注意到他们。 But at least it’s now back on view. 不过至少现在它已经回到了展览中 [易混辨析] scene,scenery,view,sight scene 指展现在眼前的情景,也可以指 scenery 的一部分,可以是自然形成的,也可人工造成的。
a. (事件发生的)地点,现场 b. 场面,场景 on the scene 在场;出现 behind the scene 幕后;幕后花絮 c. [俚语](尤指反映一种生活模式的)活动领域;生活方式 d. 当众出丑

on the scene [口语]到场;出现; make a scene 当众大吵大闹; 当众出丑

urban scene 城市风光

' And, it was like a movie scene, the next 10 people order the same thing.

scenery 指某地总的自然风光或景色,尤指美丽的乡间景色。
scenery spot 景点 wonderful scenery 胜景 ; 佳景 scenery picture 风景图片 ; 风景画 Northern Scenery 北国风光 picturesque scenery 山清水秀;景色如画 natural scenery 自然风光

What magnificent northern scenery! 好一派北国风光!

sight 既可以指场景,眼前看到的景观,也可以指名胜、风景,在表示“名胜、风景”时,用复数形式。
at first sight 乍一看;初看之下 in sight 在即,在望;看得见;被看到
out of sight 看不见;在视野之外;在看不见的地方

first sight 第一眼;乍看起来;初见 at sight 一见就 catch sight of 看到;瞥见

on sight 一见就,立即

The ships in the bay present a beautiful sight. 海湾内的船舶呈现一派美丽的景象。

view 常指从某个位置或角度所看到的景色,指“视野,眼界”, 还可以表示:概观,概括,梗概。 以及“观点”: 侧重指对重大的或引起公众关注的问题所持的看法和态度。
advice suggestion 普通用词,侧重依据个人经验、学识和正确判断而提出的忠言 普通用词,语气比 advice 婉转客气,也不如 proposal 正式。着重为改进工作、解决困难等提出的建议,有时含所提建 议不一定正确,仅供参考的意味。 opinion 日常用词,泛指对某事物的想法和意见 beautiful view 美丽的景色 bird's-eye view 鸟瞰;鸟瞰图

Mountain View 山景 distant view 远景



Ⅳ 重点词组 1. care about 关心,在乎 [典例] 1). The only thing he cares about is money. 他唯一在乎的东西就是金钱。

2). Family members should always care about each other. 一家人应该互相关心。 3). Could you help care for my child when I am out? 我外出时能帮忙照顾下我的孩子吗? [短语归纳] care for 喜欢(多用于否定、疑问句);照顾 I don’t care for coffee. 我不喜欢喝咖啡。 take care 注意;小心 take care of 照顾;注意;抚养 health care 卫生保健 take care of oneself 照顾自己;颐养 medical care 医疗护理 skin care 护肤品;皮肤护理 take good care 好好照顾;珍重 take good care of 照顾好;好好照看

Are we willing to do right by our parents and take care of our children? Take care to spell every word right. 注意把每个词拼正确。 You should take care of yourself. 你应该照顾好自己。 Medical care was however the most extensive and maybe the most important branch. 然而,医疗照顾是最具扩展性和可能是最重要的分支。 Trees are our good friends. We should plant more trees and take good care of them.树是我们的好朋友。我们应该 种更多的树,并好好照料它们

2. give in 屈服,让步,投降;上交 [典例] 1). Seeing that he could not persuade me, he had to give in (to my view). 由于无法说服我,他不得不认输。 2). It’s time to give in your examination papers. 到了交试卷的时间了。 [短语归纳] give in (to sb./sth.) 向…让步 give up sth./doing 放弃(做)某事 give off 放出,散发(光、热、烟、气味等)

give over 交付 give out vt. 分配;分发;发布 vi.(食物,燃料,电力等)用光;筋疲力尽

give away 赠送;泄露 give back 归还;恢复

Soon, Tom gave up trying to persuade people to believe him. 不久,汤姆就放弃了说服别人相信他的话。 When can you give back the money that you owe?你什么时候可以归还欠款? Mosquitoes often target larger people, who tend to give off more carbon dioxide, he said They gave the escaped prisoner over.他们移交了那个越狱的犯人。 I saw a man giving out handbills in the street.我看见一位男子在大街上散发传单。 We have invited a famous actor to give away the prizes.我们邀请了一位著名演员颁发奖品 5


3. change one’s mind 改变主意 make up one’s mind (to do) 下定决心(做某事) [典例] 1). Maybe you’ll change your mind after thinking it over. 也许你仔细考虑之后会改变主意。
2). I have made up my mind to leave, and nothing you say will change it. 我已经下定决心,不管你说什么我都不会改主意了。

[短语归纳] 与 mind 有关的常用短语 have a/no mind to do 有/无意做 lose one’s mind 失去理智 speak one’s mind 直言不讳 be in/of two minds 拿不定主意 keep one’s mind on 专心于… bear/keep sth. in mind 记住某事 put sb. in mind of sth. 使某人想起某事

read one’s mind 看出某人的心思 be of the same mind 意见一致 give one’s mind to 注意… take one’s mind off sth. 转移某人的注意力 bring/call sth. to mind 回忆某事

I couldn't read her mind, of course, but I think I detected some uneasiness as she talked about these two ideas. 当然我是无法读到她的内心,但是我察觉出当她谈论这两个看法的时候有某些不自在。 I need to give my mind and body a rest. 我需要让身心好好休息。 He was not the only prisoner to lose his mind. 他不是唯一一个失去理智的囚犯.
Bear this in mind as you are reading the book, because it is easy to kind of forget who's talking and what they represent.

I can't keep my mind on work. 我无法集中精神工作。
Children are children after all, and most of them speak their mind. 孩子毕竟是孩子,他们大多数会坦率地说出自己的想法。



在(指导、照顾等)之下: We learned a great deal under his teaching.在他的教导下,我们学到很多东西。 在(管辖、监督等)之下: He had thirty men under him.他手下有 30 人。 General Lewis Hyde had served under General Mitchell.刘易斯·海德将军曾在米切尔将军麾下服役。 在(程度、数量等方面)低于;少于;次于;在…之下: His salary is under £300 a week.他每周的薪金不到 300 镑。 在…的过程中;正在经受: The matter is under consideration.这件事正在考虑中。 ...fishermen whose livelihoods are under threat.…生计受到威胁的渔民们。 Firemen said they had the blaze under control.消防员们说他们已控制住了火势。 按照…,根据…: under the provisions of the law 根据法律条款 Under law, your employer has the right to hire a temporary worker to replace you. 按法律规定, 你的雇主有权聘用临时工来代替你。 在…期间;在…时代: The drama in England flourished under Elizabeth I.在伊丽莎白一世时代英国戏剧繁荣兴旺。 There would be no new taxes under his leadership.在他的领导下不会有新的税项 属于;在…分类之中;列在…项下: Rabbits come under “animals.”兔属于动物。 以 (…名) Were any of your books published under the name Amanda Fairchild? 你的书有以阿曼达· 费尔柴尔德的名字出版的吗? 在 (某年龄或数量) 以下 ...free or subsidized health insurance for children 13 and under.…13 岁及 13 岁以下儿童的免费的或给予补助的健康保 险。

(程度、数量、比率、价格等)低于,在…之下: The price of houses is not likely to fall below the present level for some time to come. 房价一时不见得会跌到目前的价格以下。 below cost 亏本了 (级别、地位、军阶、智力等)低于: I occupy only a humble position in the company,but there are several people below me.我在公司里职位低微,不过有几 个人比我还低。 to be below someone in rank 职位比某人低 (数量、比率、水平等) 在…下面 Night temperatures can drop below 15 degrees Celsius.夜间温度可能会降到 15 摄氏度以下。 below freezing point 在冰点以下 在…的下游: There is a bridge below the waterfall.在瀑布下游有一座桥。 在下文中 Please write to me at the address below.请按以下地址给我写信。



V 重点句子 ) 1. It was my sister who/that first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River. 首先想到沿湄公河骑车旅游 的是我姐姐。 [解释] 强调句型 It is/was + 被强调部分 + that/who + 其余部分。被强调部分可以是原句的主语、宾语、状语、 从句。 强调主语: It is the ability to do the job that matters, not where you come from or what you are. 关键是你的工作能力而不是你从哪来或你是谁。 强调宾语: It was Michael that/who I gave this ticket to. 我把这张票给了麦克。 强调时间状语: It was about 600 years ago that the first clock with a face and an hour hand was made. 大约 600 年前,第一个有钟面和时针的钟诞生了。 强调地点状语: It was in Brooklyn that Beckham first met Victoria, so they named their first son Brooklyn. 布鲁克林是贝克汉姆和维多利亚第一次相遇的地方,所以他们给第一个儿子取名布鲁克林。 强调从句: It was because he is in critical condition that the doctor decided to operate on him. 医生之所以决定为他动手术,是因为他病情危险。 2. She insisted that she (should) organize the trip properly. [解释]insist + that-clause insist 意为“坚持要求(做某事)”时,宾语从句用虚拟语气,谓语用 should do 的形式, should 可省略;而 insist 意 为“坚持认为,坚持某种观点”时,宾语从句的动词时态根据具体的语境变化,不用虚拟语气。 suggest (建议),demand (要求),require (要求),request (请求),order (命令)等动词的宾语从句也常用 “(should) do” 表示虚拟语气。 It is time 后的定语从句用虚拟语气从句谓语通常用过去式表示现在或将来,有时也用过去进行时或“should+动词原 形”(较少见,且 should 不能省略),其意为“(早)该干某事了”。 He insisted that he hadn’t made a mistake. 他坚持认为自己没有犯错。 The bodyguards insisted that the president (should) keep away from the crowd for the sake of safety. 出于安全考虑,护卫人员坚决要求总统远离人群。 带虚拟语气宾语从句的四个数字 在表示“坚持”、“命令”、“建议”、“要求”等后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气。这类动词有人归纳为“一个坚持(insist)、 两个命令 (order, command) 、三个建议 (advise, suggest, propose) 、四个要求 (demand, require, request, ask)”,这类虚拟语气由“should+动词原形”构成,其中的 should 在美国英语中通常可以省略。如: He insisted that I (should) go with them.他坚持要我同他们一起去。 He ordered that it (should) be sent back.他命令把它送回去。 The doctor advised [suggested] that he (should) not smoke.医生建议他不要抽烟。 He requires that I (should) appear.他要求我出场。 注:这类句子有时可用于被动结构,前面用先行词 it 作主语,代表后面的从句。如: It was proposed that this matter be discussed next time.有人提议这事下次再讨论。 动词 insist 后接宾语从句时,除可用虚拟语气外,也可用陈述语气,两者的区别是:若谓语动词所表示的动作尚未 发生,或尚未成为事实,则用虚拟语气;若谓语动词所表示的动作已经发生,或已经成为事实,则要用陈述语气。 比较: He insisted that I had read his letter.他坚持说我看过他的信。 He insisted that I should read his letter.他坚持要我看他的信。 与动词 insist 相似,动词 suggest 后接宾语从句时,除可用虚拟语气外,也可用陈述语气,两者的区别也是:若 谓语动词所表示的情况尚未成为事实,则用虚拟语气,此时 suggest 通常译为“建议”;若谓语动词所表示的情况 为既成事实,则要用陈述语气,此时的 suggest 通常译为“表明”、“认为”。比较并体会: He suggested that we (should) stay for dinner.他建议我们留下吃饭。 What he said suggested that he was a cheat.他说的话表明他是个骗子。 8


I suggested that you had a secret understanding with him.我觉得你与他心照不宣。 课文佳句 It was my sister who first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River from where it begins to where it ends. 首先想到要沿着湄公河从源头到终点骑车旅游的是我的姐姐。 [要点] 句子结构: 强调句 It is /was + 强调部分+ that/who…


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