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12-20 语法-定语从句


2014-12-20

I、基本概念 1、什么叫定语:修饰名词、代词的形容词、分词、介词短语或句子 叫定语。 e.g. an old film, a broken window, a sleeping boy, the plane in the sky, 2、什么叫定语从句? 修饰一个名词或代词的句子叫定语从句。 e.g. the boy who helped

me yesterday, those who want to go home on Sunday the book that she bought yesterday, the factory which makes tools 3、什么叫先行词? 被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。 先行词前一般用 “the” , 但在指“一个”概念时,用 “a , an ” 。 e.g. A plane is a machine that can fly. it alone. 4、什么叫关系代词、关系副词? 连接先行词和定语从句的词叫关系代词、关系副词。 e.g. the boy who helped me yesterday, on Sunday book that she bought yesterday, the factory which makes those who want to go home He is the boy who can do

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tools 5、定语从句的位置: 定语从句放在先行词之后,一般紧跟先行词,但有时定语从 句和先行词被某些成份隔开,这是由句子的结构需要决定的。 e.g. The student who is reading is my classmate. I saw something strange in the sky that I have never seen before. 6、引导词:引导定语从句的词分为二类: a. 关系代词: that, which ,who, whom ,whose b. 关系副词: when, where, why 关系副词 7、关系代词 who, whom, whose, that, which 的用法: who: 指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。 e.g. The man who helped me is a fat one. The boy (who) we saw was Jack. whom: 指人,在定语从句中作宾语。 e.g. She is the student (whom) the teacher praised in class. whose: 指人或物,在定语从句中作定语,后面必须接名词。 whose + n. = the + n. + of whom / which = of whom / which the + n. e.g. The boy whose hair / the hair of whom is red is from America. The room whose roof / the roof of which is broken is being repaired.

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that: 指人或物,在定语从句中作主语或宾语 e.g. The house that stands there is very big. 主语) The house (that) we built last year is very big. 作宾语) The student that made faces is in the office now. 作主语) He is the student (that) we helped. 作宾语) which: 指物,在定语从句中作主语或宾语 e.g. The pen which cost me 50 yuan writes well. Please show us the pictures (which) you took on the Great Wall. 注:关系代词作宾语时可省略,见以上句中的( ) 。 ( 指人, (指人, (指物, (指物, 作

II. 定语从句其实是两个单句的有机合并, 合并时按以下步骤: a. 找相同成分, 把其中的一个改为关系代词或关系副词, 放在该 句句首. b. 把所改句子整个的放在另一个相同成分之后,其余照写。

III. 使用关系代词的几个注意点: a. 以下情况(指物时),只使用 that 不用 which 1.先行词是不定代词时,如: all, anyth ing, everything, nothing,

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something, the one, little, few, much e.g. 1. I have never taken anything that is hers. 2.I told him all that I know. 3.He gave her everything that he had. 4.She has something that you can borrow. 5.There is not much that can be done. 2.先行词被 all, every, any, the very, the only, the just 等修饰时 1.I have read all the books that you gave me. 2.You can ta ke any book that you like. 3.Every dictionary that our library bought is good. 4.This is the very book that I want to find. 5.The flower is the only thing that I will take with me. 3.先行词被序数词和形容词的最高级修饰时: 1. This is the best book tha t I have ever read. 2. The first class that he gave was very interesting. 3. The second place that I want to visit is Shanghai. 4. The most important thing that you should remember is to try your best. 4.先行词既有人又有物时: 1.We talked about the persons and things that we remember in the school.

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2.The people and the animals that were killed in the earthquake have all been found. 5. 在 Who, Which 引起的疑问句中: 1. Who is the boy that helped you? 2. Which is the book that you bought yesterday? 6. 当先行词是表语时 1. Mr. Black is the man that helped you yesterday. b.当先行词为指人的代词时, 引导词只用 who 不用 that Anyone who knows how to do it can do it now. Those who want to see the film please put up your hands. Do you mean the one who is standing by the window? He, who has failed in the test, must do it again.


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