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高中英语语法专题及练习


高中英语语法及练习(一) 定语从句 (一)定义 在一个复合句中,如果一个名词或相当于 一个名词的词被一个句子修饰,那么这个句子 就是定语从句。 构成 先行词+引导词 +句子 引导词的分类 1. 关系代词及其用法: 指人:who/ that(作主语或宾语)whom(做宾 语) whose(表所有) 指物: which/ that (作主语或宾语) whose(表 所有) eg:(1

).The man who/that is wearing a red hat is Mr Smith. (2). The book which/that is on the desk is mine. (3). The man whose son is a soldier is standing under the tree. (4). The book whose cover is red is my sister’s.

(5). The man (whom/who/that) my father is talking to is Mr Smith. (6). The book (which/that) you are holding is mine. (二). 分类 限定性和非限定性定语从句 限定性定语从句对先行词起修饰限制作用; 非限定定语从句对先行词起补充说明作用.在 非限定定语从句中,先行词与从句之间往往有 逗号隔开. eg:1.He has two sons,who work in the same company.(He has only two sons.) 2.He has two sons who work in the same company.(he has more than two sons perhaps.) 关系代词的作用: (1).连接作用:关系代词引导从句,把主句 和从句连接起来. (2).替代作用:关系代词在从句中替代它 前面的先行词. (3).成分作用:关系代词在从句中总是充 当句子成分. 关系代词的用法与分类的三个依据: (1).根据所引导的从句的限定性和非限

定性. (2).根据所替代的先行词是指人还是指 物. (3).根据它在从句的所充当的成分----主语、宾语、表语、或定语。 关系代词 that 和 which 的用法: 限定性定语从句只能用 that 的情况: 1. 当 先 行 词 是 不 定 代 词 all , much, little ,something, anything , everything , nothing, none , the one 时: eg:(1). Do you have anything else that you want to say for yourself? 你还有要为自己说的话了吗? (2).You should hand in all that you have. 你应该上缴你所有的东西。 2.当先行词前有 the only the very (恰好) any, few , little, no , all 等词修饰时。 eg:(1).This is the very bus that I am waiting for. (2).The only thing that we can give you is some money. 3.当先行词是形容词最高级或被最高级修饰 时

eg:(1).This is the most interesting film that I have seen. 4.当先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰时。 eg:(1).The train is the last that will go to Suzhou. 5.当先行词即有人又有物时。 Eg:(1).Do you know the persons and things that they are talking about? 6.当主句的疑问词是 who 或 which 时。 Eg:(1).Which is the bike that you lost? (2).Who is the boy that won the gold medal? 7.有两个定语从句时,其中一个宜用 which, 另一个宜用 that. eg:(1).They secretly built up a small factory ,which produced things that could cause pollution. 8.先行词在句子中作表语,而关系代词在句子 中也作表语时. eg:(1).Shanghai is no longer the city that it used to be. 当先行词是物/事时,只能用 which 的情况: 1.在非限定定语从句中只能用 which. eg: Helen was much kinder to her youngest son

than to others, which made the others envy him. 2.当动词短语的介词提前时,只能用 which. eg: This is a house in which Lu Xun once lived. 有关练习: 1.I refuse to accept the blame for something____was someone else’s fault. A.who B.that C.as D.what 2.He talked a lot about things and persons______he remembered in the school. A .which B.that C.whom D.what 3.The girl in plain clothes,______was wonderfully caml in face of danger ,was just sixteen years old. A.when B.which C.what D.who 4.After graduating from college, I took some time off to go travelling,___ turned out to be a wise decision. A.that B.which C .when D.where 5.This is one of the most interesting

films_____shown last week. A .which B.that was C.which were D.that were 答案 BBDBD 关系代词 who whom whose 和 that 的用 法:在从句中作主语时,用 who/that ,不可省 略;在从句中作宾语时,用 whom/that/who, 可以省略;在从句中作定语时用 whose,不可省 略 。 可 指 人 也 可 指 物 , whose+n.=the+n.+of which 或 of which+the+n. ( 指 物 ); whose+n.=the+n.+of whom 或 of whom+the +n.(指人)。 eg:(1). She is the girl who/that lives next door. (2). That’ the girl whom/who/that I teach. (3). This is the scientist whose achievement are well known (4). This is the house whose window broke last night.=This is the house ,the window of which broke last night=This is the house ,of which the window broke last night. 介词+关系代词引导的定语从句:

介词+关系代词引导的定语从句指物时关系 代词只能用 which,指人时只能用 whom.即 介词+which/whom. 介词选择的几种情况:所属关系用 of ;动词短 语中固有的介词;根据语境临时选用的介 词。 eg:(1).I picked some apples,some of which were bad. (2).I have seen many foreingers,most of whom are from Europe (3).He has ten sons, half of whom are soldiers. (4).This is the girl from whom I learned the news. (5).He is the man on whom you can depend. (6).The house has many small windows, through which light can go into it. 但是一些动词短语是固定的,其介词不能提 前:look after; look for ;look forward to; take care of. eg: Is this the knife which you are looking for?(for 不能提前)。 注意:请辨别下列一组句子,

注意下列句子的定义: I picked some apples .some of them ;some of them were bad. ,and/but some of them ,some of which 有关练习: 1. The clever boy made a hole in the wall,_____he can see what was going on inside. A .which B.through which C.that D.through that 2.Children who are not active or ____diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly. A.what B.whose C.which D.that 3.In the dark street there was nobody___he could turn for help. A.that B.whom C.in whom D.to whom 4.She brought with her three friends,____I had ever met before. A.none of them; B.all of who

C.none of whom D.all of these 5.My friend Jennifer,_____help I have made great progress in my studies,will leave for Canada next week. A.in whose B.in her C. with whose D.with her 6.The voice of China is a program_____ the young are very familiar in China. A.in which B. to which C.by which D.with which 7.Our country has a long history and lots of interesting customs,_____we are very proud. A.of which B.with which C.in what D. for which 在限制性定定语从句中,当介词位于定语从句 末 尾 时 , 可 用 that/which( 指 物 ); that/whom/who(指人) 作介词宾语, 。 而且可以 省略。 Eg:This is the hero that/who/whom we are proud of.(可省略)。 This is the pen that/which I wrote the letter with.(可以省略). 答案:BBDCCBA

复合介词短语+关系代词 which 引导的定语从 句,这种定语从句常常与先行词用逗号分开, 定义从句常用倒装句。 eg:He lived in a big house ,in front of which stood a tall tree. 关系代词 as 引导的定语从句: 关系代词 as 即可引导限定性定语从句, 也可引 导非限定性定语从句, 在句中作主语、 as 宾语、 或表语。 引导限定性定语从句常用于下列句式: 1. Such +名词+as 像……一样,像…..之类。 2. the same +名词+as…和……同样的. (1).We have found such materials as are used in their factory.(主语) (2).These houses are sold at such a low price as people expected.(宾语) He is not the same man as he was. (表语) 。 注 意 : such…as… 引 导 的 定 语 从 句 和 such…that…引导的结果状语从句的区别: He is such a clever boy as everyone likes. He is such a clever boy that everyone likes him.

as ,which 的区别: as 引导的非限定性定语从句,即可放在主 句前,也可放在主句后,还可插入主句中。而 which 引导的非限定性定语从句只能置于主句 后。相同的是两者都可替代主句的整个内容, 而不是主句的某个词。 eg: The weather turned out to be very good, which was more than we could except. 当非限定性定语从句放在主句前时,只能用 as.主要有以下句式: as anybody can see 正如人人能看到的那样; as is well-known=as is known to all 众所周知;as we had excepted 正如我们 所预料的那样; often happens 正如经常发生 as 的那样; has been said before 如上所述; is as as mentioned above 正如上面提到的。 注意下列典型表达: As is known to everybody, the moon travels around the earth once every month. (as 引导 的是非限定性定语从句前置)。 =The moon travels around the earth once every month,as/which is known to everybody.(as/which 引导的非限定性定语从句

后置)。 =It is known to everybody that the moon travels around the earth once every month.(it 是形式主语,that 引导的是主语从句)。 =What is known to everybody is that the moon travels around the earth once every month.(what…everybody 是主语从句;is 后是 表语从句)。 有关练习: 1.I have bought the same dress____she is wearing. A.as B.that C.which D.than 2.Can you solve such problems__raised by the audience? A.what were B.as were C.that were D.which were 3.He must be from Africa,_____can be Seen from his skin. A.that B.as C.it D.what 4____is reported in the newspapers,talk between the two countries are making progress. A.It B.As C.That D.What

5.The Beatle,____many of you are old enough to remember ,came from Liverpool. A.What B.that C.how D.as 答案:ABBBD 2. 关系副词的用法 当先行词在定语从句作状语时,要用关系副 词.其中 when=表示时间的介词(in;at; on ;during 等)+which;where=表示地点的 介词(in;at ;on ;under 等)+which;why=表 示原因的介词(for)+which;how=表示方 式的介词(in)which. eg:(1).I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing.(when=on which) (2).Can you tell me the office where he works?(where=in which) (3).Do you know the reason why he is absent?(why=for which) 介词+关系代词 which=when/where, 有时为了表达清楚,还可以在 where/when 前 加上 from,to,during 等: (1).China is the place of kites, from where kite flying spread to Japan,Korea,Thailand and India.

(2).We went up to the roof,from where we had a good view of the lake. (3).We stood near the window, from where we could see the whole garden. 注 意 : 当 先 行 词 是 case,condition,situation,position,point,stage 等名词,表示情况,方面,处境时,用关系 副词 where;表示时间,地点,原因的先行 词在句中作主语、宾语时,应用 that 或 which. eg:(1). There are some cases ,where this role doesn’t hold good(适用)。 (2). I will show you the point where you fail. (3). He had to face the condition where press was heavy. 请注意下列句子中时间,地点,原因的不同作 用: Do you still remember the days that/which we spent in Qingdao? Do you still remember the days when we spent the summer in Qingdao? This is the reason that he gave us.

This is the reason why he was late for meeting. Have you been to the place that your parents visited last summer? Have you been to the place where Luxun was born? 从上例可以看出表示时间、 地点、 原因的先 行词的引导词需要根据该词在句子中的成 分而定, 如作状语就用 when, where,why 引 导。如作主语或宾语就有 which/that 引导。 这是定语从句的难点之一。 He lived in London for three months ,during which time he learned some English. 有关练习: 用 that,when, why,where,which 填空: I want to know the date ___you were born. I have forgetten the date___you told me. Do you know the reason____he is absent today? That is the reason___I want to know This is the factory____his father works This is the factory___his father built. 1.I walked up to the top of the hill with my

friends,____we enjoyed a splendid view of the lake. A.which B.where C.who D.that 2.Between the two parts of the concert is an interval,___the audience can buy ice-cream. A.when B.where C.that D.which 3. Whatever is left over may be put into the refrigerator,____it will keep two or three weeks. A. when B.which C.where D.while 4. Mozart’s birthplace and the house___ he composed ‘The Magic Flute ‘ are both museums now. A. where B.when C.then D.which 5. It is helpful to put children in a situation____they can see themselves differently. A. that B.when C.which D.where 答案:BACAD 定语从句的其他要点: 关系代词在句中作主语时不可省略。 定语从句的谓语动词在人称、数方面,应该与 先行词的单复书保持一致。

The book which is on the desk is mine. The books which are on the desk are theirs. one of +复数名词+关系代词+动词复数: eg: Moyan is one of Asian writers who win the Nobel Prize . the only one of +复数名词+关系代词+ 动词的单数: Moyan is the only one of Chinese writers Who wins the Nobel Prize. 但 not the only one of…=one of… Tom is not the only one of boys who have passed the exam 定语从句的特例: I,who am your teacher ,will try my best to help you. To own a computer in families ,which we thougt was impossible twenty years ago, becomes true now. 有关练习: 用下列动词的适当形式填空: (1).He is one of the drivers who___(have) passed the driving exam. ( 2 ) .He is the only one of the drivers

who___(have)passed the driving exam. (3).He is not the only one of the drivers who ____(have)passed the driving exam. (4).I ,who__(be)very busy now,can’t help them at the moment. (5)).The idea, which I think__(be)reasonable, was brought up by a child. 注意 way 和 time 后的定语从句的情况: 当先行词是 way(方式、方法)时, 引导从句的关系词有下列三种形式: eg:What surprised me was not what he said but the way in which/that/不填 he said it. The way that/which/不填 he explained to us was quite simple. The way that/in which/不填 he explained the sentence to us was very simple. 当先行词是 time 时,作次数讲时用 that;作一 段 时 间 或 时 代 讲 时 用 when 或 介 词 at/during+which.引导定语从句。 eg:(1).This is the second time that he went back to his homeland. (2).I could not remember how many times that I have failed.

(3).This was a time when/during which there were no radios,no TV sets, no computers. 有关练习: 用正确的关系代词和关系副词填空: (1).I don’t like the way___you laught at her. (2).This is the second time___I have been here. (3).Can you still remember the time___we spent together in our childhood? (4).The first time___he saw her ,he fell in love her.` 注意下列相似结构: Is this museum the one that they visited yesterday? Is this the museum that/which they visited yesterday? Is this the museum where they stayed yesterday? It was the museum where/in which you saw many treasures. It was in the museum that you saw many treasures. It was in the museum which you droped in that you saw many treasures.


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