Section II Learning about the language
一、课前预习 I. 重点短语 1. 突然大笑起来 ________________________________ 2. 有时 ________________________________ 3. 摘下；逐个击落 ________________________________ 4. 消减；
砍倒 ________________________________ 5. 切碎 ________________________________ II. 完成句子：用上面的短语完成下列句子。 1. Hearing Michael’s amusing stories, they both _______________________________________. 听到迈克尔的滑稽故事，他们两个都大笑起来。 2. We no longer keep up the close friendship of ten years ago, though we still ________________. 我们的友谊不像十年前那么密切了，尽管我们有时还是拜访对方。 3. They are no longer worried about the cold weather, because they have ____________________. 他们不再担心冷天气了，因为他们已经把所有的苹果都摘了下来。 4. Now the income of the family was ________________________________________________. 现在家里的收入已经压缩了三分之一以上。 5. He is suffering from a toothache, so he always _______________________________________. 他现在牙痛，所以他吃饭前总是把食物切碎。 二、语法突破：动词的-ing 形式 (一) 动词-ing 形式的时态和语态 1. 动词-ing 形式除了可起名词的作用， 还可以起形容词或副词的作用。动词-ing 形式保 留动词的特征，可以带自己的__________、__________ 或表语，叫做-ing 短语。 2. 动词-ing 形式当然也有________________和____________的变化。 动词-ing 形式有一般 式和完成式两种时态，并有相应的被动形式，此外注意否定形式的表达方法：在-ing 分 词前加 not。在完成式中，若用 never 表否定时，never 应放在 have 之后，having never+ v-ed。 语态 时态 一般式 完成式 肯定式 doing having done 主动形式 否定式 not doing not done having 肯定式 being done having done been 被动形式 否定式 not being done not having been done
(二) 动词-ing 形式作表语 1. (1) The dinner looks . （性质，特征） 晚餐很诱人。 (2) His job is . （具体内容） 他的工作就是送报纸。 小结： 动词-ing 形式可作表语，说明主语的性质、特征或具体内容。
2. (1) _______________ everything is to know nothing =Knowing everything is . 世上没有万事通。 (2) Her job is the office clean. 她的工作是保持办公室整洁。 (3) Her job this afternoon is the office. 她今天下午的工作是打扫办公室。 小结：动词-ing 形式和不定式作表语时都可以表示主语的内容，两者常可换用。但两者也 有一定的区别：动词-ing 形式多表示泛指的、经常性的动作，而不定式则强调具体的、 一次性或将要发生的动作。需要注意的是，主系表结构中的主语和表语一般需要用同类 的非谓语动词，即主语和表语都用动词-ing 形式或都是不定式形式。 (三) 动词-ing 形式作定语 1. (1) In the distance we could hear (= a dog that is barking). 在远 处我们就能听见犬吠。 (2) The kids are playing happily in (=the pool for swimming). 孩子们在游泳池玩得正欢。? 小结：单个的动词-ing 形式作定语时，可表示主语的动作、状态或用途、性能，一般放在 被修饰词之前（前置定语） 。 2. (1) The man (=who is talking with our principal) is my father. 和我们校长谈话的那个人是我父亲。 (2) [错误] The expert coming here yesterday will give us a lecture. [正确] The expert will give us a lecture. 昨天来的专家将要给我们作一个讲座。 小结：动词-ing 短语作定语时，一般放在被修饰词之后（后置定语） ，相当于一个定语从句。 (四) 动词-ing 形式作宾语补足语 1. (1) I saw a small girl in front of a goldfish pond. 我看到一个小女孩站在金鱼缸前。 (2) I’m sorry to have kept you for me for so long. 对不起，让你久等了。 (3) The baby was heard in the nex t room. 人们听到婴儿在隔壁哭。 小结：动词-ing 形式及其短语可以在“主语+谓语动词+宾语+宾补”句型中做宾补，该句型 中的宾语往往是动词-ing 形式的逻辑主语。 常见动词有： 表示感觉和心理状态的 catch， feel，find，hear，listen to，observe，notice，see，smell，watch 等，及表示“致 使”等意义的 get， have， keep，leave，make，set 等。注意，上述句型若改为被动 结构，动词-ing 形式则为主语补足语。 2. (1) I heard him . 我听见他在敲门。 (2) I saw thief and disappear in the crowd. 我看见那贼下了火车，消失在人群中。 小结：在一些感官类动词如“see，hear”后既可以接省略 to 的不定式也可接动词-ing 形 式作宾语补足语，其区别在：动词的-ing 形式表示动作正在进行，不是指全过程；不定 式表示动作的完成，指全过程。 三、课后自测
（一）基础知识自测 I. 单词拼写 1 . There was nothing in the letter of （特别的）importance. 2. The opening of a ne w school is always a great (事件，场合). 3. The local government has made great efforts to balance the （预 算）. 4. Emma Watson is one of the best-known (女演员) among Chinese teenagers because of her role in Harry Porter series. 5. Seeing that George had no glass, Fred (使??滑动) the extra glass across the table. II．单项选择 1. I can hardly imagine Peter across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A. sail B. sailing C. to sail D. to have sailed 2. —Have you moved into the new house? —Not yet, the rooms . A. are being painting B. are painting C. are painted D. are being painted 3. —Why did you go back to the shop? —I left my friend there. A. waiting B. to wait C. wait D. waited 4. It’s fun to see all the food I have made in such a short time. A. eating B. to be eaten C. being eaten D. eaten 5. Martial Art Films are supposed to be educational, inspiring, as well as . A. joy B. entertained C. entertaining D. delighted 6. The flowers sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. A. to smell B. smelling ? C. smelt D. to be smelt 7. The old man, abroad for twenty years， is on the way back to his motherland. A. to work B. working ? C. to have worked D. having worked 8. The driver will be stopped at once if he is found over the limited speed. A. drive B. driving C. to drive D. driven 9. The salesman scolded the girl caught and let her off. A. stolen B. steal C. to steal D. stealing 10. Everything was quiet, but I was scared because I could hear someone softly toward m e. A. walk B. walking C. to walk D. being walking （二）能力提升自测 1. He couldn’t his father that John was telling the truth. A. convince B. believe C. admit D. display 2. We shouldn’t complain about being poor because many families are much .
A. better off B. badly of C. well off D. worse off 3. With the electricity , all the machines stopped. A. cut off B. cut down C. was cut off D. was cut down 4. —How are you getting on with your business, Tom? —I’m glad to say i t is . A. picking up B. making up C. taking up D. turning up 5. Whatever achievements you have achieved, you should not be with them. If you , it is unlikely that you will make further achievements. A. satisfied; do B. content; are C. satisfied; do D. contented; are 6. The man in the lead swung his right arm a signal for us to stop. A. as if to make B. even if making C. even though to make D. as though making 7. If money comes and goes without good planning, you are likely to live . So it is important for you to at the beginning of a year. A. on a tight budget; make a budget B. in a tight budget; budget C. for a tight budget; have a budget D. by a budget; plan a budget 8. Don’t be too about what you eat, or you are likely to develop an unbalanced diet, which is harmful to your health. A. special B. particular C. especial D. worried 9. My boss hate s interruptions, when he is trying to work. A. occasionally B. generally C. specially D. especially 10. Word came that the famous actor Chen Daoming, who has many well-known films, will his own film very soon. A. star in; direct B. starred; director C. been starred in; direction D. starred in; direct 11. It is believed that if an event is , it will surely the readers of the paper. A. astonished; astonish B. astonishing; be astonished C. astonishing; astonish D. astonished; be astonished 12. His to answer the question made the teacher disappointed. A. sense B. poverty C. failure D. difficulty 13. The audience got quickly because of his speech. A. bored; boring B. boring; bored C. bored; bored D. boring; boring 14. Could you the children for an hour while I make supper？ A. support B. observe C. deliver D. entertain 15. When I took his temperature，it was two degrees above . A. average B. ordinary C. regular D. normal （三）智能拓展训练 I. 阅读理解 I once knew an old man whose bad memory made him f amous. John Smith was so forgetful that he sometimes forgot what he was talking about in the middle of a sentence. His wife had to constantly remind him about his meetings， his classes—even his meals. Once he forgot，he ate breakfast twice，at home and at school. His wife liked to remind her neighbors，“If John didn't have his head tied on，he would forget
that too!” Since Smith was a professor at a well? known university， his forgetfulness was often an embarrassment. It wasn't that he was not clever，as some critical people tended to say，just very，very absent?minded. One hot summer day，Professor Smith decided to take his children to a seaside town about a three? hour train ride away. To make the trip more interesting for his young children，he kept the name of the town a secret. However，by the time they arrived at the station，Smith forgot the name of the town he was planning to visit. Luckily，a friend of his happened to be in the station. He offered to take care of the children while Smith hurried back home to find out where he was going. Th e professor's wife was surprised to see him again so soon. “Oh, my dear, I forgot the name of the town.” “What？You forgot the name? Maybe one day you will forget my name! Now I'll write the name of that town on a piece of paper，and you put it in your pocket and please，please don't forget where you put it.” Satisfied that she had solved the problem，she sent her husband off again. Ten minutes later she was astonished to see him outside the house for the third time. “What is the matter now?” “As you told me，I didn't forget where I put the name of that town，but I forgot where I left our children!” 1. In the opinion of the writer of this passage，the professor is ______. A. careless B. selfish C. foolish D. forgetful 2. The underlined word “embarrassment” in the first paragraph may mean ______. A. amusement B. satisfaction C. fun D. discomfort 3. From the end of the story, we know Mrs. Smith would probably be very______. A. satisfied B. sorry C. angry D. funny II．根据短文内容，从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余 选项。 1 When a person does a certain thing again, he is impelled (迫使) by some unseen force to do the same thing repeatedly; thus a habit is formed. Once a habit is formed, it is difficult, and sometimes impossible, to get rid of. 2 Children often form bad habits, some of which remain with them as long as they live. Older persons also form bad habits as long as they live. Older persons also form bad habits, and sometimes become ruined by them. 3 Many successful men say that much of their success has something to do with certain habits in early life, such as early rising, honesty and thoroughness. Among the habits which children should not form are laziness, lying, stealing and so on. 4 Unfortunately older pe rsons often form habits which ought to have been avoided. 5 A. There are other habits which, when formed in early life, are of great help. B. Whether good or not habits are, they are easy to get rid of. C. We ought to keep from all these bad habits, and try to form such habits as will prove good for ourselves and others. D. Habits, whether good or bad, are gradually formed. E. It is very important for us to know why we should get used to good habits.
F. These are all easily formed habits. G. It is therefore v ery important that we should pay great attention to the formation of habits.
Section II Learning about the language 一、课前预习 I. 重点短语 1. burst into laughter 2. on occasion(s) 3. pick off 4. cut down 5. cut up II. 完成句子 1. burst into laughter 2. visit each other on occasion(s) 3. picked off all the apples 4. cut down more than one-third 5. cuts up all his food before he eats it 二、语法突破 (一) 动词-ing 形式的时态和语态 1.宾语，状语 2. 时态，语态 (二) 动词-ing 形式作表语 1. (1) inviting (2) delivering newspapers 2. (1) To know; knowing nothing (2) keeping (3) to clean (三) 动词-ing 形式作定语 1. (1) a barking dog (2) the swimming pool? 2. (1) talking with our principal (2) who came here yesterday (四 )动词-ing 形式作宾语补足语 1. (1) standing (2) waiting (3) crying 2. (1) knocking at the door (2) get off the train 三、课后自测 （一）基础知识自测 I. 单词拼写 1. particular 2. occasion 3. budget 4. actresses 5. slide II. 单项选择 1. B. 考查动词-ing 形式。imagine 后面只可以跟 v-ing 形式作宾语； Peter 为 sailing 的逻辑主语。 2. D. 考查现在进行时的被动语态。be+ being+ v-ed 表示“房间正在被粉刷” 。 3. A. 考查动词-ing 形式作宾补。leave sb. doing sth.“使某人处于某种状态” 。 4. D. 考查非谓语动词作宾补的用法。 “看到我做的所有食物这么快就被吃光了很令人开 心” 。I have made 为定语从句，修饰 food。此处宾补与 food 应为被动关系，eating 为 主动形式，故排除；to be eaten 表示将来，语意不 符；being eaten 表示动作正在进行， 和文义不符；eaten 为过去分词表示一个已经完成的被动动作。 5. C. 考查动词 -ing 形式用法。 “武打片应该富有教育意义、振奋人心、且有娱乐性” 。 entertaining“娱乐的” ；entertained“感到有趣的” ；此处需要形容词作表语，joy n. 快乐，delighted“感到高兴的” ，两者和文义不符，故排除。 6. B. 考查非谓语动词的用法。smelling sweet“闻起来很香” ，动词-ing 分词主动形式作 后置定语；不定式表示动作未做，故排除 to smell 和 to be smelt；smelt 在此处是个连 系动词，连系动词不用于被动语态，故排除 smelt。 7. D. 考查非谓语动词作定语的用法。 “这位在国外工作了二十年的老人正在返回祖国的途 中”。having worked，动词-ing 形式的完成式 ，表示一个完成的动作，for twenty years
表示从过去持续到现在的一段时间，和完成式连用；working 表示和 is on the way 同时 或几乎同时发生的动作，与文意不符；不定式表示将来，故排除。 8. B. 考查非谓语动词用法。此处动词-ing 形式作主语补足语。he 和补语 drive 应为主动 关系，故排除表示被动的过去分词 driven；动词原形 drive 不能做补语，故排除该项； 不定式 to drive 表示将要发生的动作，与文意不符。 9. D. 考查动词非谓语形式作宾补的用法。本句主体部分为 the salesman scolded the girl and let her go。Girl 后面的非谓语动词短语作后置定语，可还原为 catch the girl + 非谓语动词。此处不能用动词原形作宾补，排除 steal；catch sb. doing“发现某人正 在作（通常是不好的事） ” ，不定式表示将来，故排除 stealing；过去分词表示被动，语 意不当。 10. B. 考查动词-ing 作宾补。 “万籁俱寂，但是我被吓坏了，因为我听见有人正悄悄地向 我走来” 。表示视听类的动词不能加带 to 不定式作宾补，故排除 to walk； “hear+宾语+ 省 to 不定式”表示听见全过程，和文义不符；walk 和宾语应为主动关系，排除 being walking。 （二）能力提升自测 1. A. 词意辨析。按照句意：他无法使他父亲相信约翰说的是事实。convince 使信服，说 服。常用于convince sb.，convince sb. of sth.或convince sb. that cl ...结构。 believe不能用于believe sb. that ...结构；admit承认，允许进入，接纳；display陈 列，展览，显示。 2. D. 考查句意。句意为：我们不应该抱怨贫穷，因为有许多家庭更加穷困。根据“贫穷” 可以排除A、C两项，much修饰比较级，所以选D。 3. A. 考查短语辨析及非谓语动词作宾补。cut off“切断” ；cut down“压缩” 。the electricity 与cut off之间呈被动关系，所以用“with+ sth.+ done”的结构。 4. A. 考查短语用法。pick up 在句中意为“有起色，好转” ；make up “化妆，弥补” ；take up“拿起，从事” ；turn up“出现；到场” 。 5. B. 考查动词的替代。satisfied 和 content 均表示“满意，满足” ，上文中动词为 be， 故下文中相应地用 are。 6. D. 考查虚拟语气。as if引导的从句中的主语和主句一致，且从句谓语中又包含动词be， 这个主语和be可以省略。 “领头的人挥舞着右臂， 好像在发信号让我们停下来” ， as though = as if“似乎，好像” ；even if= even though “尽管” 。as though making= as if he was making。 7. A. 考查短语固定搭配。 “如果你不认真筹划，花钱如流水，你很快就要生活拮据。所以 你有必要在年初做好预算。 ”live on a tight budget“生活拮据” ；make a budget“做 预算” 。 8. B. 考查同义词辨析。be particular about“对?讲究/挑剔” ，be worried about“为? 而担心/焦虑” ；particular“特别的、特殊的、挑剔的”，强调与众不同的，特定的，个 别的；especial“特别的、主要的、尤其”，强调的是重要性，有“优越、好感”之意； special“专门的、特殊的、特别的”，强调的是事物特有的性质，性格或专门的目的、 用途。 9. D. 考查词意。 “我的老板讨厌被打扰，尤其是在工作的时候” 。occasionally“偶然”； generally “一般地”；specially“专门地，特意”；especially“尤其，特别”。 10. D. 考查词意。star in a film“主演影片” ；star sb.“由某人担任主演”；direct v. 导演；director n.导演、厂长；direction n.指挥，方向。 11. C. 考查动词-ing 形式及动词用法。astonishing 相当于形容词，可作表语， “令人惊讶
的” ；第二个空需要谓语动词，故选择动词原形 astonish“使??感到惊讶” 。 12. C. 考查名词词意及搭配。 sense “感觉” ； poverty “贫穷” ； difficulty “困难” ； failure to do“没能做到某事”。 13. A. 考查 bore 的非谓语动词形式。bored“感到烦闷、厌倦的” ；boring“没趣的” 。 14. D. 考查动词用法。 “我做饭时，你能哄孩子玩一个小时吗？”support“养活，支持”； observe“观察”；deliver“传送，递送”；entertain“使??快乐”。 15. D. 考查形容词词意辨析。 “我量了他的体温，比正常高出两度” 。Average“平均值”； ordinary“普通的、平凡的、平庸的” ；regular“有规律的，定时的”；above normal“在 通常标准之上”，故 D 项符合题意。 （三）智能拓展训练 I. 阅读理解 1. D. 推理判断题。从文章开头两句“?John Smith was so forgetful that he sometimes forgot ?”可以看出，作者认为教授健忘。 2. D. 猜测词义题。根据第一段中的“Since Smith was a professor at a well? known university” 可 以 推 知 他 的 健 忘 常 常 是 一 种 不 好 的 事 情 。 所 给 的 四 个 选 项 中 satisfaction 意为“使(欲望)满足的事物， 乐事”， fun 意为“有趣的事物”， amusement 意为“娱乐”，均不符合语境，discomfort 意为“使人不舒服(或不安)的事物”。因此 答案为 D 项。 3. C. 推理判断题。根据“Smith forgot the name of the town he was planning to visit”； “Smith hurried bac k home to find out where he was going”；以及“I forgot where I left our children!”可推出史密斯太太肯定会很生气。 II． 1-5 DGAFC