非谓语动词功能比较 to do的复合结构 -ing form的复合结构 非谓语动词的否定式
-ing form 与 pp 的区别
宾语、表语、定语和状语等的动 词，叫做非谓语动词。 We should serve the people heart and soul. （谓语） I am reading a novel. （谓语） She found English hard to learn. （状语） Seeing is believing. （主语和表语） The results obtained are quite satisfactory. （定语） Please stop speaking. （宾语）
2.非谓语动词的分类 不定式(infinitive) 分词（participle） 动名词（gerund） 3.非谓语动词的特点 1) 不能单独做谓语，但可和助动词或情态动词 组成谓语。 You ought to have been here yesterday. 2) 具有动词的特征，可以有自己的宾语或状语。 The Party called on us to serve the people . The students ran out of the classroom, laughing merrily .
to do -ing form pp
1. to do 表示具体的动作， -ing form 表示泛指的动作。
eg. I like skating,but I don’t like to skate today. Playing with fire is dangerous. Look out！To play with fire is dangerous. eg. There is no joking about such matters. There’s no saying what he’ll be doing next. There’s no telling what he’s going to do.
2.“there is no +主语”句型中，多用-ing form.
3. 不定式短语作主语时，往往放在谓语 之后，用 it 作形式主语。
It is right to give up smoking. It made me very happy to hear her talk about it. 【注意1】 【注意2】 It is + adj + for sb to do sth It is + adj + of sb to do sth （for 引出动作发出者）
It is no use / good doing…
（of 引出 adj 修饰的对象）
? It is easy for me to finish this work before ten. ? It is a great honor for us to be present at your birthday party. It is very kind of you to give me some help. ＝You are very kind to give me some help. It's impolite of you to speak to the teacher like that. ＝You are impolite to speak to the teacher like that.
注意：常用在 of 句型中的 adj 有： kind, good,
nice, wise, unwise, clever, foolish, cruel, careless, stupid, naughty, polite, impolite, silly, wrong, brave, honest, noble，right, rude等
The officers narrowly escaped_____ in 宾语 the hot battle. A. have killed B. to kill C. to be killed D. being killed ? Don’t you remember_____ the man before? A. seeing B. to see C. saw D. to have seen ? “Have you decided when_____?” “Yes, tomorrow morning.” A. to be leaving B. to leave C. will you leave D. are you leaving ? She _____ me when I passed by. A. didn’t pretend to see B. pretended not seeing C. pretended not to see D. pretended to have not seen
考点一: demand, want, expect, promise,
determine, refuse, offer, fail, manage, learn, agree, seem, hope, decide, prepare, pretend, wish, start, afford 等 + to do
把不定式宾语放在宾语补足语之后，而用 it 作 形式宾语。
My teacher made it a rule only to speak English in class. I find / feel it interesting to work with him． find / think / feel / make / consider it +adj / n + to do sth.
consider, delay, deny, enjoy，escape, excuse， face，fancy (设想), feel like，finish，forgive， give up, imagine，include，keep，mention， mind，miss，pardon, practise，put off， resist, risk，suggest，can’t help，can’t stand
(无法忍受) 等 +
like, love, hate, prefer, begin, start, continue, intend + doing / to do
begin to know / understand / realize …
考点三：forget，remember，regret ， go on，
义上有区别。 I remember doing the exercise. 我记得做过练习． I must remember to do it. 我必须记得去做这事． I mean to come early today. 我打算今早些来． Missing the train means waiting for another hour． 误了这趟火车意味着再等一个小时．
Stop doing sth. Stop to do sth.
考点三：forget，remember，regret ， go on，
义上有区别。 Forget doing sth. Forget to do sth. Regret doing sth. 忘记做过某事． 忘记要做某事．
Regret to do sth.
Go on doing sth.
继续做某事（同一件事） Go on to do sth. （做完某事后）继续做（另一件事）
allow，advise，forbid，permit + doing allow，advise，forbid，permit + sb to do be allowed / advised / forbidden / permitted + to do
smoking We don’t allow __________here. to smoke We don' t allow students___________. to smoke Students are not allow ____________.
hearing 例如：I look forward to _________from you soon. 考点六：动词 need，require，want 作“需要”解， + doing to be done The window requires cleaning _____________. to be cleaned _____________.
考点五：在短语 devote… to，look forward to，stick to, be used to，object to， get down to, be ( kept) busy，be worth, have difficulty／ trouble／ problem (in)，have a good／ wonderful／ hard time (in) + doing
1.The story was ___,we were all ____. A. moving, moving B. moved, moved C. moving, moved D. moved, moving 2.There is a ___ expression on his face. Maybe the problem is too difficult for him. A. puzzled B. puzzling C. puzzle D. to puzzle 3.With his son too___, the father was sad. A. disappointed B. disappointing
1. 从时态上看， -ing form 表示正在进行的动作, pp表示已经完成的动作, to do表示将来的动作。 eg. He attends the meeting being held in the room now. He attended the meeting held yesterday. He will attend the meeting to be held tomorrow. 2.表示被修饰词的内容时， 用to do. eg. She has a strong wish to go to college. the way / chance / ability / right / willingness to do
3. I have some books for you to read.
He is looking for a room to live in ． There is nothing to worry about． 注意：不定式动词在介词but，except，besides后面时， 如果这些介词之前有行为动词do的各种形式，那么，这 些介词后的不定式不带to，否则要带to。 She could do nothing but cry． What do you like to do besides swim? I have no choice but to go．
swimming pool opening speech
frying-pan walking stick
sleeping-pill teaching method
? If you wave your book in front of your face, you can feel the air_____ against your face. A. moved B. moving C. moves D. to move ? They would not allow him_____ across the enemy line. A. to risk going B. risking to go C. for risk to go D. risk going ? Don’t leave the water __ while you brush your teeth. A. run B. running C. being run D. to run
? -ing form与宾语为主动关系，强调动作正在进行；
? (to) do只单纯表示一个事实，强调动作的全过程。
stealing eg. I found him __________the money. (steal)
stolen I found the money ____________.
When he came to himself, he found himself
_______________by being looked after an old lady. ( look after)
sing I often hear Mary _________this English song.
补足语 注意1： ask, advise, allow, permit, get, beg, cause, command, order, force, oblige, encourage, instruct, remind, warn, want, wish, expect, prefer, would like, call on, depend on, ask for, wait for, help + sb to do 注意2：在 feel，hear，listen to， look at，notice，observe，see，watch， have，1et，make 等词后的补足语中，不定式不带
to。但是这些句中如果变成被动结构时，就必须带to。 I often hear him sing the song． He is often heard to sing the song·
注 意 3 ： catch, keep, mind, 补足语 prevent, remember, stop, start, smell, excuse, send, fancy + sb doing
例如： She caught her son smoking a cigarette.
? We’d better keep the fire burning. ? I don’t mind you joking. I like it. ? The heavy rain prevented us coming here on time. ? We must try to stop them getting into trouble. ? I don’t remember him ever saying anything like that. ? His words started me thinking seriously. ? Can you smell something burning? ? The earthquake sent the china and glass crashing to the ground.
-ing / pp 表示时间、原因、条件、方式、 伴随情况等等, to do 表示 1. 目的;
2. 结果—表示出人预料的情况或结 果。常用only强调。 3. 原因—表示造成情感变化的原因。
eg. They worked hard to pay for the necklace.目的 I went to see him only to find him out. 结果 I am glad to see you. 原因
to do 作状语的其它几种情况:
1. 目的状语: in order to 或 so as to
In order to pass the exam，he worked very hard． We ran all the way so as not to be late．
I am very glad to hear it. The question is difficult to answer．
3. too + adj/adv + to do
He is too old to do that．
4. enough + adj/adv + to do 作状语 5. so / such … as to do 表结果
The room is big enough to hold us．
He was so angry as to be unable to speak. I am not such a fool as to believe you.
-ing form 与 pp 作状语
现在分词 ( 短语 )与过去分词 (短语 )作状语 , 表示 时间、原因、
? When leaving the airport, they waved again and again to us. ? United, we stand; divided, we fall. ? (=When / If we are united …) ? Seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful. ?Climbing to the top of the tower, we saw a ma gnificent view.
Being sick, I stayed at home.
She caught cold sitting on the grass.
Adopting this method, we will raise the avera ge yield（产量） by 40 percent. We will not attack unless attacked. Even if invited, I won’t go.
(4)表示让步 Admitting what she has said, I still think that she hasn't tried her best. (5)表示结果 It rained heavily, causing severe flooding in that country. It rained for two weeks on end, completely ruining our holiday. (6)表示方式或伴随情况 He ran up to her breathing heavily. Please fill in the form, giving your name,address Surrounded by a group of pupils, the old teacher walked into the room.
与主语动词同时，应用现在分词。 分词作时间状语，如果先于主动词的动作，且强调 先后， 要用 having done。 B long 1) The secretary worked late into the night, ___a speech for the president. A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing 2）___ C a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received Having studied 3）______________in the university for 3 years, he knows the way very well．
A ? _________by the teacher，Li Ming gave up smoking． A. Having been criticized B. Being Criticized C. Criticized D. Having criticized ? Waiting for a bus, C _____. A. a brick fell on my head B. A little girl came to talk with me. C. I was hit by a brick on the head D. I was hit by a brick on my head
分词作插入语 或 转化为介词和连词
其结构是固定的，意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。 generally speaking 一般说来 talking of (speaking of) 说道 strictly speaking 严格的说 judging from 从…判断 all things considered 从整体来看 taking all things into consideration 全面看来 given / considering 考虑到 supposing , provided, providing 假若 例如：Given his age, he did very well. Supposing she doesn’t come, what shall we do?
表明说话人的立场或态度, 在句中作独立成分。 to be honest / frank / fair / ； to tell you the truth; to begin / start with ； to cut / make a long story short; to get (back) to the point ； to make things / matters worse; to put it another way ； not to speak of …
eg.To be honest, I have never heard of Winston Churchill. He knows English and French, not to speak of German.
not + to do / -ing form
He decided not to do it. She wished never to see him again. Not seeing John,I asked where he was. Not having done it right, I tried again. His not coming made me a little angry.
-ing form 与 pp 的区别
-ing form 表示主动，正在进行, Pp 表示被动，已经完成
作表语时或定语时，-ing form表示“令人” , pp表示 “感到”，常见的有下列感官动词：move, surprise, astonish, delight, comfort, disappoint, puzzle, frighten
下列表示关系的词用 - ed seated in (on) 坐在 located 坐落 stationed 驻防 dressed 穿着 prepared 准备着 related 关系 lost in absorbed in
devoted 忠诚于 hidden 藏在 connected
1. He was hidden under the desk. 2. Dressed like a lawyer, she came to the court. 3. Stationed in Hongkong, a group of PLA men followed HongKong customs.
4. Seated at the back of the classroom,he
listened to the teacher carefully.
5. Located on the seashore, the building
______the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. A. The president will attend B. The president to attend C. The president attended D. The president’s attending 1. 形容词性物主代词/名词所有格+ing form↗主语 Tom’s coming his coming
2. 代词宾格/名词+ing form Tom coming him coming
说出-ing form 动作的执行者时，须用复合结构
1. Do you mind opening the door? →Do you mind me/my opening …
2. Going there saved us a good deal of trouble. →Tom’s going there saved us a good … 3. Being late again made the teacher angry. →His being late again made…