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高考语法复习之非谓语动词做状语及与状语从句的相互转化与语法填空的应用


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非谓语动词作状语 高考对非谓语动词作状语的考查多与对动词其他形式的考查同时进行主要包括以下几个方面的内容: 1.不定式作状语; 2.-ing 分词作状语; 3.-ed 分词作状语。 一、不定式结构作状语 不定式结构作状语通常有以下几种情况: 1、目的状语(分词一般不能作目的状语) He bought a bicycle to

go to town more quickly . To catch the train ,she hurried through her work 注:表目的的不定式还常与 so as 或 in order 连用,构成 so as (not) to do 和 in order (not) to do 结构, 其中 so as (not) to do 不能用于句首。 To get there in time, we got up very early. = In order to get there in time, we got up very early. = We got up very early (in order/so as) to get there in time. 2、原因状语 不定式结构作原因状语常用在作表语用的形容词后。 I’m sorry to hear that . We’re proud to be young people of China . We are glad to hear the news. 3、结果状语 不定式结构作结果状语,有时表示未曾预料到的、或令人不快的结果。 (常和 only 连用) 。 He ran all the way to the station ,only to find the train had left . ★ 而现在分词作结果状语常常是可以预料的结果,是伴随谓语动词而产生的自然结果 The police opened fire ,killing the robber . He died ,leaving his wife with five children . 4. 有时,不定式还可修饰一个句子,表明说话人的态度。 to tell you the truth, to be honest, to be frank, to be fair, to make things/matters worse 等。 To tell you the truth, I don't like the film. ★高考真题检测: 1、________ late in the after noon ,Bob turned off the alarm . A .To sleep B .sleeping C .sleep D .Having slept 2、You were silly not ________your car . A .to lock B .to have locked C .locking D .having locked 3、The news reporters hurried to the airport ,only ________ the film stars had left . A .to tell B .to be told C .telling D .told 4. Good-bye, Mr Jones. I’m pleased __________. A. for meeting you B. to meet you C. to have been meeting you D. to have met you 5 Tom is waiting __________ the doctor. A. to see B. for to see C. for seeing D. for see 6. I went to see him __________ him out. A. finding B. find C. only to find D. only found 7. __________, I don’t like her sister. A. Telling the truth B. Been told the truth C. To tell the truth D. To tell the true
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二、分词结构作状语 形式 doing having done done being done having been done 意义 与句中主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系,与句中谓语动词同时发生, 或基 本上同时发生。 与句中主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系,先于谓语动词发生。 与句中主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系,时间不确定 与句中主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系,且与谓语动词同时发生,一般作 原因状语置于句首。 与句中主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系,且先于谓语动词发生。

判断步骤 A:首先看主语,确定该动词与主语之间是主动关系还是被动关系。 B:然后看谓语动词,确定该动词与谓语动词之间动作发生的先后关系。 Hearing the bad news, she burst into tears. (主动/同时进行) Not having received an answer ,he decided to write another letter .(主动/完成) Having found a seat, she left her books on it.(主动/完成) Having been beaten by a snake, she was frightented at it.(被动、完成) Having been told many times, he still repeated the same mistakes.(被动、完成) Seen from the hill ,the city looks beautiful. (被动) Given more time, we could have done it much better. (被动) (一) .分词作状语,主句部分。 一般表示时间,条件,让步,原因,其形式 doing ,done,having done,having been done ,being done 1)时间状语 1.Hearing the news,they got excited.→When they heard the news, they got excited. 2.Having finished my homework, I returned home. →After I finished my homework,I returned home. 3.Seen from the hill, the park looks more beautiful. →When it is seen from the hill, the park looks more beautiful. 2)原因状语 1.Having been beaten by a snake, she was frightented at it. →Because she had been beaten by a snake, she was frightented at it 2.Not having received a reply, he decided to write again. →Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again. 3.Reading attentively,he forgot the time for lunch. →Because he was reading attentively,he forgot the time for lunch. 4.Not knowing his address, I can’t write to him. →Because he doesn’t know his address, I can’t write to him. 5.Being so poor in those days, they couldn't send the boy to school. →Because they were so poor in those days, they couldn't send the boy to school. 6.Being League members, we are ready to help others. →As we are League members, we are ready to help others. 7.Born in a poor family, the boy could not go to school. →As he was born in a poor family, the boy could not go to school.
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3)条件状语 1.Given a chance, I can surprise the world.→If I am given a chance, I can surprise the world. 2.Working hard, you will surely succeed.→ If you work hard, you will surely succeed. 3.Reading carefully, you'll learn something new. →As long as you read carefully, you'll learn something new. 4)让步状语 1.Having been told many times, he still repeated the same mistakes. →Though he had been told many times, he still repeated the same mistakes. 2.Admitting what she has said, I still think that she hasn't tried her best. →Although I admit what she has said, I still think that she hasn't tried her best. 3.Admitted into the university , he was still upset. →Although he was Admitted into the university , he was still upset. 二、主句部分,分词作状语。 在这一句型中,分词作状语可表示结果,方式,伴随,可以转换为一个并列的谓语成分。这一句型的 分词作状语通常有两种种形式:doing, done 1)结果状语 1.It rained heavily, thus causing severe flooding in that country. →It rained heavily, and thus caused severe flooding in that country. 2.He fired, killing one of the passers-by. →He fired, and killed one of the passers-by. 3.He died, leaving his wife with five children. →He died, and left his wife with five children. 2)伴随状语 1.The teacher came into the lab, followed by some students. →The teacher came into the lab, and was followed by some students. 2.I stood there, listening to the broadcast.→I stood there and listened to the broadcast. 3)方式状语 1.Traveling by jeep, we visited a number of cities. →I travelled by jeep, and visited a number of cities. 2.He earns a living driving a truck. →He earns a living by driving a truck. 高考实例 1. Don’t sit there ______ nothing. Come and help me with this table. A. do B. to do C. doing D. and doing 2. My cousin came to see me from the country, ______ me a full basket of fresh fruits. A. brought B. bringing C. to bring D. had brought 3.We often provide our children with toys, footballs or basketballs,____ that all children like these things. A. thinking B. think C. to think D. Thought 4.Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, ___ a record US$ 57.65 a barrel on April 4. A. have reachedB. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching 5. __________ for several weeks, the city was short of food and clothing. A. As having flooded B. As flooding C. Having been flooded D. to flood 6. _________ from the tallest building, the whole city looks very beautiful.. A. See B. Saw C. Seeing D. Seen 7. We walked as fast as we could, __________ to catch the 9:30 train. A. hoping B. to hope C. we hoped D. being hoped 8. _____ the diamond, he had to look for a place to hide it.(Steal) 9. _____ the front door painted, he had to enter the room through the back door.(See)
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10. The sun was shining brightly, _____ everything there _____ more beautiful.(make; look) ●_______(surprise)at the way the question was put forward,the students didn’t know the answer to it. ____ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. ( lose) ______ in white, she looks more beautiful.( dress) ______ of the boring speech,the old man started to read a novel.(tire) A:此类形容词有 excited / exciting;surprised /surprising; amazed / amazing embarrassed /embarrassing encouraged / encouraging ; frustrated / frustrating ; interested / interesting; thrilled / thrilling terrified / terrifying; pleased / pleasing, = pleasant; satisfied/ satisfying; frightened / frightening tired / tiring; bored / boring ; relaxed / relaxing; fascinated / fascinating; annoyed / annoying moved / moving; worried / worrying; confused / confusing ; inspired / inspiring B:形容词短语 be lost in; be dressed in; be interested in;be devoted to;be caught in , be seated in; be prepared for;be determined to , be faced with ,be based on,be tired of,be located in , 1.她坐在窗边,陷入了沉思。 2.由于对医学非常感兴趣,他想成为一名医生。 3.广州在中国的南方,总面积 7000 多平方公里。 4.面对困难他从未放弃过。 ●有一些分词或分词短语可用来表示说话人的态度或看问题的角度,这些分词或短语已转变为独立成 份 judging from /by 根据--来判断,frankly speaking 老实地说,坦率地说 generally speaking 一般地说 strictly speaking 严格地说 properly speaking 确切地说来 taking-- into consideration 考虑到 Supposing 假如,taken as a whole 总地来说,given 考虑到,compared with 与--相比 Judging from his appearance,he looks like an old doctor. Strictly speaking,her pronunciation is not quite good. Taken as a whole,there is nothing wrong with the article. Supposing she doesn’t come, what shall we do? Given their inexperience, they’ve done a good job. Considering the distance, he arrived very quickly. Taking everything into consideration, you should leave. 1.. _____ he’s only been learning English for a year, he speaks it very well. ( Consider ) 2. ___________ the past, our life is much better. A. Comparing with B. Be compared with C. To compare with D. Compared with 综合练习 1.___and out of breath, we reached the top of the mountain and stopped to admire the beautiful scenery.(tire) 2.Each of them got up early ______ to catch the early bus.(hope) 3.How pleased the Emperor was ______ what the cheats said!(hear) 4.They arrived at their university very late, ______ the gate closely shut.(find) 5.After ______ for the job, you will be required to take a language test.(interview)
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6.Peter received a letter just now ________(say) his grandma would come to see him soon. 7. As the light turned green, I stood for a moment, not ___ (move), and asked myself what I was going to do. 8.. ___________(walk) in the fields on a March afternoon, he could feel the warmth of spring. 9. ______________ (wait) in the queue for half an hour, the old man suddenly realized he had left the cheque in the car. 10. __________ (blame) for the breakdown of the school computer network, Alice was in low spirits. 11.. He hurried to the booking office only _____________ (tell) that all the tickets had been sold out. 12.. European football is played in 80 countries, ____________ (make) it the most popular sport in the world. 13. You were silly not ________________(lock) your car. 14.. I like getting up very early in summer. The morning air is so good _____________(breathe). 15.. _____________ (complete) the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day. 16._________ (search) the website of the Fire Department in your city, and you will learn a lot about firefighting. 17.________ (give) the general state of health, it may take him a while to recover from the operation. 18.___ the corners of the handkerchief to the points of the cross, and you will have a nice strong kite.(tie) 19.______ the problem with me and I ‘ll see what I can do with it.(leave) 20.He finished his work, and went home ______ the book on the desk.(leave)

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