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高中英语必修5(北师大版)Unit 14 Careers 知识点总结


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高中英语必修 5(北师大版)Unit 14 Careers 知识点总结
一、重点词汇 income
·基本用法 income n. 收入;收益;所得 His large income enabled him to live in comfort. 他那丰厚的收入使他可以过舒服的生活。 It'

;s difficult raising a family on a small income. 依靠微薄的收入是很难养家的。 She decided to rent out a room to get extra income. 她为获得额外收入决定租出一个房间。 My monthly income was just over 200 pounds. 我每月的收入是 200 多磅。 His income is well below the average. 他的收入大大低于平均水平。 ·知识拓展--词义辨析:income/salary/wage/pay/fee 这些名词都可表示“工资,收入”之意。 income 指通过劳动或投资等手段所得到的收入,强调总收入。 salary 指按年定下,按月或星期平均给予的报酬,指脑力劳动者的薪水。 wage 多用复数形式,指按小时、日或星期的报酬,通常指体力劳动者的工资。 pay 是个通用词,可取代 salary 与 wage. fee 指提供某种服务收取的固定费用。

reward
·基本用法 reward n. 奖赏;回报,酬谢; vt. 奖励;奖赏;回报

You have received a just reward. 你已得到了应有的报酬。 He got a reward for helping them.

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他因帮助他们而拿到一笔酬金。 She deserves a reward for her efforts. 她积极努力,应得到奖赏。 She got nothing in reward for her kindness. 她的善心没有得到任何回报。
·知识拓展--相关短语 in reward for.... 作为对....的酬谢;回报

be rewarded with.... 得到...奖赏;回报 I sent him a book in reward for his help. 我送给他一本书来答谢他的帮助。 Their efforts were rewarded with success. 他们的努力获得了成功。 A good person will be rewarded with good luck. 吉人天相。(就是好人自有好报)

charge

· 原文再现 Lawyers charge higher fees than doctors. 律师比医生收费要高一些. · 基本用法 charge n. 费用;掌管;控告; vt. 收费,要价;充电;控告,承担

He is in charge of the operation of the steel mill. 他负责这家钢厂的经营工作。 The shop stuck an additional charge on the bill. 商店在帐单上增收了一笔费用。 Does your car battery charged easily? 你那辆汽车的蓄电池容易充电吗? · 知识拓展 相关短语 free of charge 免费

in charge of 负责,管理

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in/under the charge of 由...管理 take charge of 掌管 charge sb. with (doing) sth. 控告/指控某人(做)某事 charge sb. some money for sth. 为某物向某人要价 I'm in charge of the Marketing Department. 我是负责/掌管市场部的。 He was charged with pocketing public monies. 他被指控侵吞公款。 词义辨析:be in the charge of/be in charge of/take charge of 1. in the charge of 由??负责,由??管理 He is in charge of the matter. 他负责这件事。 2. in charge of 管理,负责照料 The matter is in the charge of her. 这件事由他负责。 3. take charge of 意思和 in charge of 相同,但是 take charge of 强调动 作,in charge of 强调状态。 He will take charge of the company instead of Mr Wang. 他将接替王先生负责公司的运营。 He has been in charge of the factory for 3 years. 他负责工厂的运营 3 年了。
aid

· 原文再现 You are working for an institute that gives aid to the poor in a small village. 你在一个小村庄里的旨在帮助穷人的机构里工作。 · 基本用法 aid n. 援助;帮助 v. 帮助;援助

It means to give the most-needed and timely aid. 它的意思是给予最需要的及时的帮助。 I'm collecting money in aid of starving children.

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为帮助饥饿的孩子们,我正在搞募捐。 · 知识拓展 相关短语 in aid of sb/sth give aid to first aid 支援或帮助某事物/某人

援助,救助 急救

aid sb to do sth. 帮助某人做某事 with the aid of= with the help of 在... 的帮助下 The collection is in aid of the blind. 这笔募集的捐款是用来救济盲人的。 词义辨析:aid/assist/help 这些动词均有“帮助”之意。 aid 正式用词,指帮助他人脱离危险或战胜困难,着重强者对急需帮助的弱者 的帮助。 assist 强调在提供帮助时, 以受助者为主, 所给的帮助起第二位或从属的作用。 help 最普通用词,含义广泛。指一般性的或迫切需要的帮助,侧重积极地为他 人提供物质、精神或其他 方面的帮助。
error

· 基本用法 error n. 错误;误差;过失

The accident was caused by human error. 这宗事故是人为过失造成的。 I sent the letter to my brother in error. 我错把信寄给我弟弟了。 The editor overlooked a print error. 这位编辑漏掉了一个印刷错误。 · 知识拓展--词义辨析:error/fault/mistake/shortcoming error 指思想或行动背离正题轨道或没有得到正确指引而出现的偏差或错误。 fault 一般指小并且可宽容的缺点,错误。

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mistake 是最普通用词,泛指思想上、行为上或认识上的判断或理解方面的错 误。 shortcoming 指没有达到所要求的标准、没有充分发展或没尽到职责的不足, 缺点或短处。多用复数形式。
consult

· 原文再现 He should consult Mr Jensen about the new account on the 24th. 他应该向杰森先生咨询有关 24 日的新账户的问题。 · 基本用法 consult v. 咨询;查阅;商量;向?请教

You had better consult a doctor soon. 你最好快点去看医生。 I have to consult with any partner. 我得跟我的搭档商量。 I'll have to consult the plane timetable first. 我得先查阅飞机时刻表。 We will consult together about her education. 我们将一起商议她的教育事宜。

· 知识拓展--相关短语 consult sb. about sth. 就某事向某人咨询 consult with sb. about/on sth. 与某人商议/商量某事
quarrel

· 原文再现 Don't quarrel with anyone. 不要和任何人吵架 · 基本用法 quarrel vi. 吵架;争论;挑剔 n. 吵架;反目;怨言;争吵的原因

I would rather be laughed at than quarrel with him. 我宁愿被嘲笑,也不愿和他吵架。 He seemed determined to pick a quarrel with us.

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他似乎存心要找我们吵架。 The whole thing turned into a bitter quarrel. 整件事酿成了激烈的争吵。 He quarreled about politics with George. 他同乔治争论有关政治活动的事。 · 知识拓展 相关短语 quarrel with sb. about/over sth. 因为某事和某人争吵

词义辨析:argue/quarrel
make up

· 原文再现 Make up information about yourself. 编造有关自己的信息。 · 基本用法 make up 编造,虚构,弥补,化妆

I don't like to see women making up in public.、 我不喜欢看见女人在公开场合化妆打扮。 The girls are making up for the dance. 女孩子们为了参加舞会正在化装。 Six women and nineteen men make up the committee. 6 位妇女和 19 位男的组成了这个委员会。 · 知识拓展--词义辨析:make 词组 make it 获得;实现;成功 make fun of 取消 make use of 利用 make up for 偿还;弥补 make up one's mind 下决心 make out 假称

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·原文再现 Make out you understand something when you don't ! 不懂的时候装懂! ·基本用法 make out 假称;听出,看出;理解

We can't make out what he is saying. 我们不懂他在说什么。 ·知识拓展--词义辨析:make 词组

go into detail(s)

· 原文再现 Go into a lot of detail about your personal life. 详细介绍一下你的个人生活。 · 基本用法 go into detail(s) 讨论;详谈 He refused to go into details about his plans. 他不肯详述他计划的细节。 It's unnecessary to go into details. 无须细说。 I can't go into details with you. 我无法与你细谈。 · 知识拓展--相关短语 have a good eye for detail
speak up

明察秋毫

· 原文再现 Speak up and express yourself clearly. 高声并清晰地表达出你自己的想法。 · 基本用法 speak up 自由而大胆地说出;大声地说;坦率说出 Speak up so that everybody can hear you.

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讲得响些,让大家都能听见。 It's time to speak up for those who are suffering injustice. 现在该为蒙受不公正对待的人们大声疾呼了。 You should have spoken up in the meeting. 会谈时你实在应该发言(然而你却没有)。 · 知识拓展--词义辨析:speak 词组 speak for... speak to speak ill of speak out 代表...讲话 提及 说坏话 畅所欲言 发表个人意见;为自己辩护

speak for oneself

speak highly of 高度评价
sit up

· 原文再现 Sit up straight and look people in the eye. 坐直身子,直视对方的眼睛。 · 基本用法 sit up 坐直,端坐;熬夜

This news made us all sit up and take notice. 这消息立即引起我们大家的注意。 Sit up, children! Don't lean over the table! 坐直,孩子们,不要趴在桌子上! It is a bad habit to sit up late at night. 熬夜是个坏习惯。 I shall get back very late, so don't sit up for me. 今晚我要回来得很迟,所以你不必等我回来再睡觉了。 Fold your arms and sit up straight! 两臂交叉,坐直!
appointment

· 原文再现

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I turned up for the appointment five minutes late, so I walked straight in and sat down. 我比约定的时间晚了 5 分钟,因此,我径直走进去坐了下来。 · 基本用法 appointment n. 约会,约定;任命;委派

Please make an appointment with my secretary. 请跟我秘书定个见面时间。 I have an appointment on Wednesday. 我星期三有个约会。 · 知识拓展 相关短语 make an appointment with sb. 和某人约会 keep an appointment 准时赴约 appoint sb. to be/as 任命某人担任某职务 be appointed as 被任命为 相关单词 appoint v. 指认,任命

We must appoint a time to meet again. 我们必须定出一个再次集会的时间。 He was appointed ambassador to the United States. 他被任命为驻美国大使。
instant

· 原文再现 The instant she stopped asking questions, I got up and went out of the room. 她一停止问问题,我就站起来走出了房间。 · 基本用法 instant n. 片刻;瞬息 adj. 立即的;紧急的;紧迫的

Wait a moment, I'll be with you in an instant. 等一下,我立刻就来。 She finished her work in an instant.

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她没有多久就完成了她的工作。 · 知识拓展 相关单词 instant instantly 相关短语 the instant 一....就...(引导时间状语从句) 如: adj. 立刻的;马上的 adv. 立刻;马上

I recognized her the instant I saw her. 我一眼就认出了她。 The instant I saw him I knew he was angry. 我一见到他就知道他生气了。
surrounding

· 原文再现

After the explosion the army sealed off the surrounding area. 爆炸发生后,军队封锁了周围地区。 · 基本用法 surrounding adj.周围的;附近的

The surrounding country is a wilderness of sand. 周围是茫茫一片砂石地。 · 知识拓展 相关单词 1. surround v. 包围,环绕

By surrounding the city our troops achieved a bloodless victory. 我军把城市包围起来,获得兵不血刃的胜利 2. surroundings n. 环境,周围的事物

We are living in pleasant surroundings. 我们生活在舒适的环境中。 Animals in zoos are not in their natural surroundings. 动物园里的动物不是生活在自然环境中。

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词义辨析:surroundings/environment 这两个名词均含“环境”之意。 surroundings 指人所在的周围地区或事物。 environment 侧重指对人的感情、品德思想等产生影响的环境。
believe in

· 原文再现 I asked her how she had achieved success and she told me that being curious, working hard, and believing in what was true make her the success she is today. 我问她是怎样获得成功的,她告诉我,是好奇心、努力工作和忠于事实的原则 使她成为今天的成功者。 · 基本用法 believe in 信任;信仰

Some people believe in God and others don't. 有人相信上帝; 有人则不相信。 He is looking for a philosophy he can believe in. 他在寻求一种他可以相信的哲学。 · 知识拓展 词义辨析:believe/believe in 相关单词 belief 相关短语 1. have belief in 相信,信任 n. 信念;信仰

I have no great belief in his promises. 我不大相信他许下的诺言。 2. in the belief that... 相信....

He comes to me in the belief that I can help him. 他到我这里来,相信我能帮助他。
turn over

· 原文再现

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We would look in old nests to find birds' feathers and we would even turn over stones to look at the little creatures there. 我们会在旧鸟巢里寻找鸟的羽毛,甚至把石头翻起来观察那里的小动物。 · 基本用法 turn over 反转;翻身;翻阅;颠覆;移交给

I had turn over my essay to the professor. 我已经把论文交给教授了。 If you turn over,you might find it easier to get to sleep. 你翻翻身,就容易睡着了。 They helped to turn over the huge stone. 他们帮助把这块大石头翻过来。 · 知识拓展--词义辨析:turn 词组 turn out turn to turn into turn away
overcome

证明是,结果是 求助于 把...变成 把(某人)赶走

· 原文再现 Although there were lots of difficulties to overcome, she never let her problems defeat her. 虽然生活中有许多困难要克服,但她从不让困难打败自己。 · 基本用法 overcome vt. 战胜;克服

Can you overcome your shortcomings? 你可以克服你的缺点吗? There will be no difficulty in the world that they cannot overcome. 世界上任何困难他们都可以克服。 · 知识拓展--同义词 get over Getting over the difficulty is possible. 克服这些困难是有可能的。

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He has got over the language barrier. 他已克服了语言障碍。
grasp

· 原文再现 She said she chose to be a journalist because it is important that people grasp what is going on around them. 她说选择做记者是因为人们了解周围发生的事是很重要的。 · 基本用法 grasp vt. 理解;领会;抓牢 n. 抓住;理解;控制

You must grasp this opportunity. 你必须抓住机会。 If you grasp this rope, I will pull you up. 如果你抓住这根绳子,我可把你拉起来。 · 知识拓展 相关短语 grasp at 企图抓到 have/get a grasp of 理解 out of/beyond one's grasp 超出某人的理解能力 in/within one's grasp 在某人掌握中 Success is within our grasp now. 现在成功已经在望。 He tried to grasp at the money, so he committed crime. 他企图攫取钱,因此犯罪了。 She has a good grasp of the English language. 她精通英语。 词义辨析:grasp/seize/catch
inspect

· 原文再现 I asked her if there was any special moment that make her realize this and she replied that it was

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after she was asked to inspect an illegal business. 我问她有没有什么特别的时刻使她认识到这一点, 她回答说是在被派去调查一 桩非法交易之后。 · 基本用法 inspect v. 审查;检查;视察;检阅

The government sent somebody to inspect our school. 政府派人来视察我们学校。 Police were called out to keep at the airport, and inspect the arriving planes. 警察们被紧急召集起来去守卫机场,并对到达的飞机进行检查。 · 知识拓展--相关单词 1. inspection n. 巡查;视察

We aren't nearly ready for the inspection. 对检查一事,我们还远未准备好。 2. inspector n. 视察员;巡视员

A ticket inspector got on the train. 查票员上了火车。
illegal
·原文再现 I asked her if there was any special moment that make her realize this and she replied that it was after she was asked to inspect an illegal business. 我问她有没有什么特别的时刻使她认识到这一点,她回答说是在被派去调查一桩非法交易之后。

· 基本用法 illegal adj. 非法的;违法的;违反规则的

He admitted that he was an illegal immigrant. 他承认他是非法移民。 It's illegal to carry guns in our country. 在我们国家,携带枪支是违法的。 · 知识拓展 相关单词 illegally adv. 非法地;违反规则地

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Two women workers have been illegally discharged. 两个女工被非法解雇了。 反义词 :legal adj. 合法的

Prince Charles is the legal heir of the crown. 查尔斯王子是王位的合法继承人。
pay off

· 原文再现 This paid off because she won an award for the report. 这些努力也得到了回报,她因为那篇报道获了奖。 · 基本用法 pay off 得到好结果;取得成功;还清债务

It took them three years to pay off the debt. 他们三年才还清欠债。 Our plan certainly paid off; it was a great idea. 我们的计划当然成功了,那是个很好的主意。 · 知识拓展--词义辨析:pay 词组 pay back pay out pay for pay up
commit

偿还 付出(钱);报复 支付;为...付出代价 偿还全部欠款

· 原文再现 I discovered then that as long as I am committed and never give up I will be able to produce high quality reports. 那是我发现只要坚持不懈,永不放弃,我就能写出高质量的报道。 · 基本用法 commit vt. 犯罪,做错事;把...交托给;指派?作战;使?承担义务

It is impossible not to commit mistakes. 不犯错误是不可能的。

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He won't commit himself on women's rights. 他不会对女权问题发表意见的。 He would not commit himself in any way. 他不愿做出任何承诺。 The man committed suicide by jumping off the cliff. 那人跳下悬崖自杀。 The girl was committed to the care of an aunt. 这女孩被交给姨母照顾。 · 知识拓展 相关单词 committed commitment adj.尽责的 n. 约定,承诺

相关短语 commit an error commit a crime commit a murder commit suicide 相关句型/结构 commit oneself to doing sth.
bend
·基本用法 bend v. 弯曲;屈服;朝向,倾向;专心于 n. 弯曲

犯错 犯罪 谋杀 自杀

专心致志于...

Laura bent her head and hurried on. 劳拉低着头匆匆往前走。 The stream takes a sudden bend to the east. 小溪突然转向东流。

It's dangerous to overtake on a bend. 在转弯处超车十分危险。 A Lan bent down and kissed the child.

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阿兰俯下身,亲了亲孩子。 · 知识拓展--词义辨析:bend/bow/twist 这些动词都含“弯、弯曲”之意。 bend 是普通用词, 指把某物变成曲线或角形。 用于人时, 指头部或身躯弯下。 bow 是指把头部或上身弯向前方的动作,也指社交中的礼节性动作。 twist 是指通过转动、拧或扭使某物成弯曲状。
stage
·基本用法 stage n. 舞台;阶段;时期 There are many spotlights on the stage. 舞台上有很多聚光灯。

She did the first stage of the trip by train. 她行程的第一段是乘火车的。 She's wanted to go on the stage from an early age. 她从小就想当演员。 The disease is still in its primary stage. 这疾病仍然在初发阶段。
hesitate

· 原文再现 She hesitated and then told me that the year before she had broken her wrist and that the previous month she had twisted her ankle. 她犹豫了一下,然后告诉我去年她摔断了手腕,上个月扭伤了脚踝。 · 基本用法 hesitate v. 犹豫,迟疑

Don't hesitate; seize the first opportunity that comes along! 别再犹豫了,一有机会就抓住它! If you are in need of anything, don't hesitate to let me know. 如果你需要什么,尽管对我说。 He did not hesitate to ask her to sit beside him. 他毫不犹豫地请她坐在他身旁。

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· 知识拓展 相关单词 hesitant hesitantly hesitation 相关短语 hesitate to do sth. 不愿做某事;犹豫,迟疑做某事 without hesitation
keep up with

adj. 犹豫不决的 adv. 犹豫不决地 n. 犹豫

毫不犹豫地

· 原文再现 Between now and the 21st century, citizens of the world's richest and most advanced nations will find it more and more difficult to keep up with the demand for change. 从现在起到 21 世纪,这个世界最富有和最先进的国家的公民将会感到越来越 难以跟上变化的需要。 · 基本用法 keep up with 赶上,跟上

She likes to keep up with the latest fashions. 她喜欢穿戴入时。 Mother set the pace so that her children would keep up with her. 妈妈定了速度好让她的孩子们能够跟上她。 I think it important that we keep up with the times. 我认为跟上时代是很重要的。 · 知识拓展--同义短语 keep pace with catch up with
decrease

跟上 赶上

· 原文再现 Jobs in farming, coal mining and heavy industry are decreasing rapidly. 农业,煤矿业和重工业的工作职位会迅速减少。 · 基本用法

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decrease

v. 减少,降低

The birthrate is on the decrease. 人口出生率正在下降。 The decrease in unemployment was 30 percent. 失业人数减少了百分之三十。 There has been a steady decrease in population in this city. 这个城市的人口在持续下降。 · 知识拓展 反义词 increase 相关短语 decrease to...下降到.... decrease by...下降了...
multiply
·原文再现 Without debt, the number of jobs in information technology will multiply. 毫无疑问,信息技术领域的工作职位将会大幅度增加。 ·基本用法 multiply v. 乘;增加;繁殖;adv. 多样地;复合地 adj. 多样的 He learned to multiply at the age of five. 他五岁学会做乘法。

增加

This will multiply our chances of success. 这将增加我们成功的机会。 Friendship multiplies joys and divide grieves. 友谊增加欢乐,减少痛苦。
branch
·原文再现 ....., instead of working just for one division or branch of a company. .....而不会只服务于一家公司的一个部门或分支机构。 ·基本用法 branch n. 树枝;分部,分公司;支流 v. 分支;出现分歧

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The gardener cut off a branch from the tree. 园丁从树上砍下一根树枝。

The road to the village branches off on the right. 通往该村的道路向右转为一条小路。 The river has three main branches. 这条河有三条主要的支流。
operate

· 原文再现 Similarly, companies will operate in different ways. 类似地,公司也将以不同的方式运转。 · 基本用法 operate v. 运转;动手术;操作;经营

John, is this the right way to operate the machine? 约翰,这是操作这台机器的正确方法吗? Her job is to operate an elevator. 她的工作是开电梯。 · 知识拓展 相关单词 operation n. 手术;操作;运转

When does the new law come into operation? 这项新法律何时生效? The actual operation lasted eight hours. 实际手术进行了 8 个钟头。
相关短语 operate on sb. 给某人动手术

respond

· 原文再现 Many more people will work for small, dynamic companies which can respond quickly to changes in the market.

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许多人会供职于小且具有活力的公司。 这样的公司能对市场变化作出快速的反 应。 · 基本用法 respond vi. 反应;回答,回复

He failed to respond to the medicine. 他服了这药未见起色。 I invited her to dinner but she did not respond. 我请她吃晚饭,但她未作回答。 · 知识拓展--相关短语 respond to 响应,对....作出反应 respond with a smile 以微笑作为回答
envy

· 原文再现 According to Dr Laurence Lyons of Future Work, women will be envied because they have an advantage in this area. “未来工作论坛”的劳伦斯.莱昂斯博士指出,女性将受人羡慕,因为他们在 这一领域占有优势。 · 基本用法 envy vt.& n. 羡慕,妒忌

He's the envy of the whole street. 整条街的人都很羡慕他。 He was filled with envy at my success. 他对我的成功满怀羡慕。 Her many talents were the envy of all her friends. 她多才多艺,所有的朋友都很羡慕她。
·知识拓展--相关短语

envy sb. sth. feel envy at... out of envy envy sb. for sth.

羡慕某人某事 对...感到妒忌/羡慕 出于嫉妒 因...羡慕某人

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· 原文再现 English will probably remain the international business language, so don't bother learning Russian or Spanish. 英语可能还会是国际商务语言,所以不必费心去学习俄语或西班牙语。 · 基本用法 bother v. 费心;麻烦;打扰 n. 麻烦;费心

I've no time to bother with such things. 我没时间为这种事烦恼。 He didn't even bother to say thank you. 他甚至连说一声谢谢都不肯。 You needn't bother to come to my office. 你不必特地来我办公室。 · 知识拓展--相关短语 bother to do sth. 费心做某事

bother sb. with sth. 用...打扰某人
in case

· 原文再现 Work with more than on program in case you have to use them at work, and try to read about new technology. 学习几种软件以备工作之需,并努力了解新的技术。 · 基本用法 in case 以防;万一 They watched him closely in case he should escape. 他们严密监视他,惟恐他会逃脱。 In case (=If) I forget, please remind me. 万一我忘记,请提醒我。 Write the telephone number down in case you forget. 把电话号码写下来以免忘了。

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· 知识拓展--相关短语 in case of... 假使...,如果发生... in this case 如果这样的话 in that case 假使那样的话 in any case 无论如何 in no case 决不,在任何情况下都不
panic

· 原文再现 First of all, don't panic. 首先,不要恐慌。 · 基本用法 panic v.&n. 恐慌,惊慌

She dropped to her knees in a panic. 她在惶恐中跪下。 The news threw the family into a panic. 这个消息使那一家人顿时陷入惊恐不安。 The idea might panic the investors. 这个想法可能会使投资者惶恐不安。 · 知识拓展--相关短语 panic sb. into doing sth. 使某人仓皇行事 get into a panic
due to

陷入恐慌

· 原文再现 I think I would be a good journalist due to my language skills. 我想我的语言能力会使我成为一名好的记者。 · 基本用法 due to 由于;应归于

Some students quit school due to poverty. 一些学生因贫困而辍学。 His successes were largely due to luck.

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他的成功主要靠运气。 His success is entirely due to hard work. 他的成功完全是努力工作的结果。 · 知识拓展--词义辨析:due to/owing to/because of/thanks to
in addition

· 原文再现 In addition, I am also a good photographer, which might be useful for some of the articles. 另外, 我也是一名好的摄影师,这可能对撰写某些文章有用。 · 基本用法 in addition 此外; 另外

She has two cars and in addition a motorboat. 她有两辆轿车外加一艘汽艇。 They eat a great deal of fruit in addition. 他们还吃大量的水果。 · 知识拓展 相关短语 in addition to... 除...之外(还) In addition to French, he has to study Japanese. 除了法语外,他还得学日语。 词义辨析:in addition to/besides/apart from/except for/except
二、重点句型 No one is hurt, but you are stuck on a forest road with no traffic. 虽然没有人受伤,但车陷在一条不能通车的林间小路上。

· 基本用法 1. 此句为并列复合句,连词 but 连接了两个并列分句,表示转折。 2. It won't hurt (sb./sth.) to do sht. 不会有坏处 It never hurts to do sth. (做....)

It wouldn't hurt you to be a bit more serious. 3. be/get stuck on/in 被陷在... We were stuck in a traffic jam for half an hour.

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司 Listen rather than speak----learn as much as possible about your job and the company. 少说多听--尽量多地了解你的工作及公司的情况。

· 基本用法 1. Listen rather than speak. 是祈使句。rather than=instead of “而不 是”。 He is an explorer rather than a sailor. 与其说他是一名海员,不如说他是一个探险者。 其搭配还有 prefer to do rather than do “宁愿做....也不愿”, 如: As we know, Germans prefer to save rather than spend. 众所周知,德国人喜欢节约而不擅长消费。 注意:当 rather than 引导并列主语时,谓语动词与最前面的主语一致。如: Tom rather than his friends is to blame for the accident. 汤姆应该对此事负责而不是他的朋友们。 2. Learn as much as possible ...也是祈使句。as much as possible 意为 “尽可能多地”。
keep your desk tidy at all times. 始终保持你的桌面整洁。

· 基本用法

此句为祈使句。keep your desk tidy 是“keep +宾语 +宾补”结构,表示“使 宾语处于某种状态。”宾语可以 为名词、形容词、代词;宾补可以为副词短语、介词短语、分词短语等。 You cannot keep her out for so long. Sorry, I've kept you waiting so long.
I find it a real battle being on my feet all the time like that. 我发现一直像这样站立着是一场战斗。

· 基本用法

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1. 此句中,it 是形式宾语,真正的宾语是 being on my feet all the time like that。 同时,“find+宾语+ 宾补”的结构中,a real battle 是名词短语作宾语补足语。 2. 有关 feet 的短语: be/stand on one's feet 站立;自立,独立 get on one's feet 站立起来 rise to one's feet 站起来 stand on one's own feet 独立,自立 struggle to one's feet 挣扎着站起来
The instant she stopped asking questions, I got up and went out of the room. 她一停止问问题,我就起身走出了面试室。

· 基本用法 1. the instant “一... 就... ” 用作连词,引导时间状语从句。 如: The instant I reached London, I phoned my parents for my safe arrival.

注: 表示“一... 就... ”的还有以下单词或短语 immediately, instantly, directly the moment/second/minute as soon as hardly...when..., no sooner...than...,scarcely...when... on hearing the news, upon the news, on his arrival · 出题建议 选择相关题目时,输入关键词 the instant。
I never thought about going on TV because my family didn't even have one until I was in junior high school. 我从没想过能上电视,因为直到我上初中的时候家里才有电视。

· 基本用法 1. think about sth./doing sth. 表示“考虑某事/考虑做某事”。 2. not...until... “直到...才...”表示直到从句的动作发生,主句的动作 才开始。主句动作不延续。 I didn't go be bed until he came back from work. 直到他下班回家,我才去睡觉。

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· 知识拓展 1. not until 位于句首时,从句用陈述语序,而主句则用倒装。 Not until Father came back did we begin to have supper last night. 昨晚直到爸爸回来了,我们才开始吃晚饭。 2. not...until...用于强调句时,句型为:it is not until + 被强调成分 +that... It was not until midnight that he came back home. 直到半夜他才回家。
I asked her how she had achieved success and she told me that being curious, working hard, and believing in what was true made her the success she is today。 我问她是怎样获得成功的,她告诉我是好奇心,努力工作和忠于事实的原则促成了 她今日的成功。

· 基本用法 1. 此句为主从复合句,how 和 that 引导的都是动词宾语从句,what 引导的是 介词宾语从句。 2. being curious, working hard, and believing....为动名词短语作主语。 动词-ing 短语作主语时谓语动词 要用单数。若两个或两个以上的动词-ing 形式作主语,表示两个或两个以上 的概念时,谓语动词用复数 形式。如: Swimming in summer and skating in winter are his greatest pleasure. Working with you is a pleasure. 3. made her the success 是一个复合结构,the success 作宾语补足语, 表 示”成功的人“。she is today 是 定语从句,修饰 the success。
She said she chose to be a journalist because it is important that people grasp what is going on around them. 她说选择做记者是因为人们了解周围发生的事是很重要的。

· 基本用法 1. 此句为主从复合句,said 后的部分直至句尾是动词 said 的宾语从句,省 略了引导词 that;同时,宾语

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从句中其 because 引导原因状语从句,that 引导主语从句,what 引导宾语从 句。 2. it is important that.... ,其中 it 是形式主语,真正的主语是后面 that 引导的主语从句。
I discovered then that as long as I am committed and never give up I will be able to produce high quality reports. 那时我发现只要坚持不懈,永不放弃,我就能写出高质量的报道。

· 基本用法 此句为主从复合句。that 引导一个宾语从句,这个宾语从句中还含有 as long as 引导的条件状语从句,并且 这个条件状语从句的时态是用一般现在时表示将来,即“主将从现”。
I asked Junyan what she like most about her job and she said that although there wasn't much glory in a reporter's existence, she found it interesting and challenging。 我问君燕她最喜欢工作中的哪些方面,她说作为记者虽然不会得到很多的荣耀, 但她觉得这一行业有趣且有挑战性。

· 基本用法 1. 这是 and 连接的并列复合句。第一个分句中 what 引导宾语从句;第二个分 句中 that 引导宾语从句, 其中 although 引导让步状语从句。 2. found it interesting and challenging 是 find 后跟复合宾语的结构, 即“find+宾语+宾语补足语”。 find+宾语+宾语补足语 (介词短语/副词/形容词/分词/动词不定式), 如: I found his room in disorder. The child was found safe and sound. I suddenly found myself running down the street. A whale was found washed up on the shore. They found him to be charming.
It is sometimes difficult to work out the patterns of change. 有时候变化的模式令人难以琢磨。

· 基本用法

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1. 此句中,it 作形式主语,句子真正的主语是 to work out the patterns of change。当主语部分太长, 谓语部分太短时,常常用 it 作形式主语,而将真正的主语后置,以避免头重 脚轻。结构为: It+be+adj./n.+真正的主语(从句/to do sth./ doing sth. )+ for/of sb. to do sth. 当表语是 good, use, a waste, useful 等时,通常用动名词作真正的主语。 It is my duty to care for that patient. It's no use crying over spilt milk. It is likely that they will beat us tonight. It is uncertain whether he can attend this conference or not. · 知识拓展 其它 it 作形式主语的句型 It is/seems/appears/happens+ that 从句 It is said/believed/agreed + that 从句 It is a wonder/ a waste + that 从句 It doesn't matter/ make a difference + that 从句 It takes some time to do sth. It feels good to do sth. It annoys/ amuses/disgusts sb. to do sth.
whatever I do, it will be with music. 无论我做什么,总是会跟音乐有关系的。

· 基本用法 whatever 用于引导让步状语从句,相当于 no matter what I do. 有同样用 法的词,还有 whichever, whoever, whomever, whenever, wherever, however。 · 知识拓展 wh-ever 与 no matter wh-的区别: wh-ever 既可以引导名词性从句,也可以引导让步状语从句。区别的方法是: 去掉 wh-ever 从句后,看 是否可以构成完整的句子,完整则为让步状语从句,反之则为名词性从句。

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no matter wh-只能用来引导让步状语从句。
I think I would be a good journalist due to my language skills. 我认为我会成为一名出色的记者,因为我有良好的语言素养。

· 基本用法 1. I would be a good ...是宾语从句,省略了引导词 that。 2. due to 由于,因为 The team's success was largely due to her efforts. 注意:“由于,因为”的其他表达:as a result of, on account of,owing to,thanks to 等,如: Owing to engine trouble, the plane had to make a forced landing. 由于引擎故障,飞机必须迫降。 Thanks to your help, we were successful. 由于你的帮助,我们成功了。 Innocent people get into trouble on account of others' misfortune. 由于他人的不幸会让无辜的人陷入麻烦。 The flood came about as a result of the heavy spring rains. 由于春季暴雨发生了洪水。
I have participated for the last three years in a volunteer programme, visiting old people in my area. I feel that I can get on well with people from different backgrounds... 过去三年我一直参加一个志愿者活动:看望社区老人。我觉得我能跟来自不同背景 的人相处得非常好...

· 基本用法 1. attend / join / participate in /take part in 的区别: attend: 侧重参加或出席会议或学术活动等 join: 普通用词,指加入党派、团体或游戏活动等 participate in:侧重参加某项群众性、集体性的事业、工作或活动,突出参 加者在其中发挥一定的作用。 2. for/in the last/past+一段时间,用现在完成时。 3. visiting old people in my area 是非谓语动词作伴随状语,visit 与逻 辑主语 I 构成主谓关系,故用现在

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分词来表示,如: He offered me a lot of help, leading to my success. The Titanic 3D moved all audience to tears once again, turning our attention to Cameron's films and the definition of true love. Pollutants have gradually accumulated over the course of recent windless days in Beijing, making the air quality even worse. 4. feel 后面的 that 从句是宾语从句。get on/along with sb./sth.与某人 和睦相处;进展...
This makes the job market very tough to get into and therefore good exam grades in school alone do not make an applicant stand out from the crowd. 这使得职场很难进入,因此只是在学校里取得好分数并不能使申请者脱颖而出。

· 基本用法 1. this makes the job market very tough to get into 这使得进入职场很 难。当不定式放在表语或宾语补足 语后作状语时,不受逻辑主语影响,一律用主动语态。如: The question is easy to answer. I find the book interesting to read. The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it is very comfortable to sit on. 2. stand out 引人注目;显眼 Every tree, wall and fence stood out against dazzling white fields. 3. 此句为并列连词 and 连接的并列复合句。前一分句的 make the job market very tough..., 与后一分句的 make an applicant stand out,都是使役动词 make+复合宾语的结构。
It was my mother who taught me to be curious. 是母亲教我对事物充满好奇心。

· 基本用法 该句为一个强调句,it 无意义,只帮助改变句子的结构,使其中某一成分得 到强调。强调句的结构是 It+be

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+要强调的部分 +that(或 who)+句子其他成分。强调句型可以用来强调一 个句子中除了谓语以外的 任何成分。除强调人时可以用 who 之外,其余都要用 that。如: Tom met your brother in the street yesterday. 可以借助强调句型,各强调一个不同的成分: It was Tom who(that) met your brother in the street yesterday.(强调 主语) It was your brother that Tom met in the street yesterday.(强调宾语) It was in the street that Tom met your brother yesterday.(强调地点 状语) It was yesterday that Tom met your brother in the street.(强调时间 状语)
三、重点语法 祈使句变间接引语(I)

· 基本用法 引述别人的话语一般采用两种方式:一种是直接引述别人的原话,把它放在引 号内,这叫直接引语;另一 种是用自己的话转述别人的话,叫间接引语。间接引语相当于一个宾语从句。 直接引语是祈使句,变为间接引语时,要变为 ask/tell/order sb (not)to do sht.结构。人称、时间状语、地点 状语应按要求作相应变化。如: 1. The teacher said to us, "Start writing now." The teacher ordered us to start writing then. 2. "Please don't disturb me," he said to the boy. He asked the boy not to disturb him. 3. Our English teacher said, " Bring your old clothes to school tomorrow." Our English teacher told us to bring our old clothes to school the next day. 4. "Stay here until tomorrow," begged my grandma. My grandma begged me to stay there until the next day.
直接引语与间接引语的转换

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· 基本用法 人称的变化 在直接引语中,代词要随句意进行改变。大致遵循“一随主,二随宾,第三人 称不更新”的规律,即第一人 称一般要变得与引述部分的主语一致; 第二人称一般要变得与引述部分的宾语 一致;第三人称一般不改 变。如: He said, " I like it very much."-----He said that he liked it very much. He said to Mrs Green, " How do you go to work every day?"---He asked Mrs Green how she went to work every day. My father said, " Jack is a good neighbor."---My father said that Jack was a good neighbor. 时态的变化 1. 如果主句的谓语动词是一般现在时,从句的时态则无需变化。主句的谓语 动词是一般过去时,从句的 谓语动词在时态方面要作相应的变化。如: He said," I am using the knife."---He said that he was using the knife. (现在进行时--过去进行时) She said, " I have not heard from him since May."---She said that she had not heard from him since May. (现在完成时--过去完成时) He said, " I came to help you.----He said that he had come to help me. (一般过去时--过去完成时) 2. 时态不需要变化的情况 (1). 直接引语是客观真理、自然现象或名言警句时。如: Our English teacher said, " All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy."--Our English teacher told us that all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. 我们的英语老师告诉我们, 只顾学习不休息,聪明孩子也变傻。 (2). 直接引语中有确定的过去时间时。如: Tony said, "The story took place in the 1930s."----

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司

Tony said that the story took place in the 1930s. (3). 直接引语时习惯性行为时。如: He said, " I usually go to bed at 10:30."--He said he usually goes to bed at 10:30. (4). 只着眼于转述事实,而不侧重动作先于转述动作的时间时。 如: The boy said," I found the key just under the table."---The boy said he found the key just under the table. (5). 所转述的动作或状态说话时仍在继续,并对此点加以强调时。如: The reporter said, " The war between the two countries is still on."---The reporter said the war between the two countries is still on. (6). when, while, since 等引导时间状语从句时。如: My grandfather said, " It is many years since I worked here."--My grandfather said it was many years since he worked there. (7). 直接引语中的情态动词没有过去式时。如: My mother said, "You must clean the room today."--My mother said I must clean the room that day.

指示代词,时间状语,地点状语在间接引语中的变化: 直接引语-----间接引语 this-------------that these----------those now-----------then today---------that day tonight-------that night last night-----two days before yesterday-----the day before/the previous day tomorrow----the next/following day this evening----that evening here-----------there bring----------take

-- 中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司

come---------go 如: He said, " I haven't seen her today."---- He said that he hadn't seen her that day. She said," I went there yesterday."----- She said that she had gone there the day before.

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