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APS审核--车辆工程专业


APS

PART1 introduction
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About myself About my hometown Choose Germany&university My major My plan How long have you studied german?<

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PART2 About courses
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Professional courses Special basis course Basic courses Optional courses Others now

Professional courses (9)
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Automobile construction Cognition practice of automobile construction Automobile theory Others (related) Engine theory Vehicle network technology Driving practice Introduction to automotive engineering Mechanical vibration Professor lecture(automotive engineering)

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Automobile structure
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------Fahrzeugaufbau
This course introduces the typical structure of ICE vehicle (internal combustion engine vehicle),including engine, drive line, steering system, braking system and so on.

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engine

Drive line
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Transmissions provide a speedtorque conversion from a higher speed motor to a slower but more forceful output. Drive line is used to transmit the power of engine to driving wheel. I’ll give you a typical structure of FR drive line by picture.

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A.clutch A clutch is mechanism for transmitting rotation, which can be engaged and disengaged. In opposite to a gear box, clutches are not changing the transmitted forces and power.

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(FR:front engine rear wheel drive)

The clutch shaft spins with the driven plate. When the pressure plate drive the driven plate spinning with flywheel by spring, the power of engine is transmitted.

?If you step on the clutch pedal, the driven plate will be seperated from the flywheel, and then the transmission of engine’s power is stopped. ?Transmission line
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C drive axle Final drive---change the rotating direction of torque, increase the input torque and reduce rotating speed. Differential---make the right and left wheel rotate in different rotating speeds. --Guarantee pure rolling between two driving wheels and the ground while turning. Half axle Driving axle housing

Steering system
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Function—change or return to driving direction Ideal equation of steering wheel deflection angle Cot a=cot b+B/L L:wheelbase Guarantee each wheel pure rolling while steering Mechanical steering system

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Power steering system(hydraulic)

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Braking system
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Function---make the vehicle slow down or stop, when the vehicle drive downhill, it supports a stable speed, in addition, it keeps the stopped vehicle still. Structure: disc

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Drum

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differences: disc/drum 1.structure: On the disk brake, the fluid from the master cylinder is forced into a caliper where it presses against a piston. The piston, in-turn, squeezes two brake pads against the disk(rotor), which is attached to the wheel, forcing it to slow down or stop. The process is similar to a bicycle brake where two rubber pads rub against the wheel rim creating friction.

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With drum brakes, fluid is forced into the wheel cylinder, which pushes the brake shoes out so that the friction linings are pressed against the drum, which is attached to the wheel, causing the wheel to stop. In either case, the friction surfaces of the pads on a disk brake system, or the shoes on a drum brake convert the forward motion of the vehicle into heat. Heat is what causes the friction surfaces(linings)of the pads and shoes to eventually wear out and require replacement.

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2 Braking efficiency (braking distance , braking deceleration) and stability are different.

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As we know, when the temperature of brakes rise, the friction moment will drop significantly. ? From the figure, we can find out that the disc brake is more stable, even though its braking efficiency is not as good as drum brake.

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Apply Usually they will be equipped with disc brakes on the front wheel and drum brakes on the rear wheels. Reason:economy, practicality Drum brake is cheaper. Because of inertia effect while braking, the braking force of front wheels is larger than that of rear wheels. We should pay more attention to its stability.

Running system
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Function---take in the torque from drive line, then produce a driving force to keep vehicle driving.
Structure---frame , axle, wheel and suspension, among them, suspension is consisted of elastic element, shock absorber and guide mechanism.

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Figure 11

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Cognition practice of automobile construction
Fachpraktikum
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This course is aimed to make us understand another course automobile construction more clearly. You can see from the transcript that we learnt them at the same time. It is a very interesting course. We, a group of a few people, dismount and mount some parts of vehicle in the laboratory. (You see, it’s not easy for a undergraduate in contact with the real objects.)

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It lasted about 3 weeks. At the end of the practice, we had a test. I remember my teacher asked me to explain the four strokes of the engine, and the effection of compression ratio. ↑--- p. T ↑(after compression stroke)---v ↑ (speed of compression)--the output power of engine ↑---economy performance ↑
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Automobile theory
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Fahrzeugtheorie Acceleration performance
It has three Evaluation index: Maximum vehicle speed (Umax)—the maximum speed which the vehicle can get under good and flat road. Maximum gradeability (Imax) ---in the first gear

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This course is aimed to find out a method to design and use vehicle according to the relationship between the parameters of structure and performance of vehicle . It tells us some main performances of vehicle about dynamics, for example, acceleration performance, economical performance, braking performance and so on.

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Accelerating time (t): still?top gear accelerate when top gear.

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Vehicle economy
It measures the economical driving ability when dynamic characteristics is guaranteed. That is to say , the vehicle would better cost as little fuel consumption as possible. The common Evaluation index is fuel consumption per 100km (L/km)---Qs Measure the fuel consumption per 100km in different vehicle speed, then we can get a diagram (requirement : a certain load, the top gear, good and flat road.) Qs-Ua diagram
Braking performance
It is the ability of stopping vehicle in a short distance , and remaining a certain speed when the vehicle is on lasting downhill.

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three evaluation index: 1)braking distance/ braking deceleration 2)constancy of braking efficiency (the ability of keeping braking while high speed or downhill) 3) stability of vehicle direction while braking. ? The analysis of forces on wheel while braking---?

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Constancy of braking efficiency mainly shows in heat fade, when the temperature of brake rises, the friction torque will drop significantly. factor: structure of brake e.g. Drum&disc braking efficiency-friction coefficient

Other performances ? Ride performance ? occupants’ surroundings should reach a certain comfort level . Vehicle should have the ability of keeping goods in good condition. ? Experiment: 3points of entry(1 bearing surface of a seat 2 seat backs 3 bearing surface under the foot)
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From the figure, we can find out that the disc brake is more stable, even though its braking efficiency is not as good as drum brake.

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Steering stability under steer K>0?good neutral steer K=0 over steer K<0 Passing stability
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Engine theory
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Motor Prinzip
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This course mainly introduces the working principle of engine, analyzes the working cycles of gasoline engine and diesel engine separately. There are some similarities and differences between the two main types of engine. As engine is the source of the power, the course also introduces some performances of engine, which affects some performances of a vehicle.

Principle Gasoline engine---based on ideal otto cycle (constant pressure heating cycle)

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ideal thermal efficiency

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The fuel and air are usually premixed before compression. (it is done by electronically controlled fuel injection.) Diesel engine – modeled on diesel cycle

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It uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber during the final stage of compression. There is no park plug in the diesel engine.

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Others: Gas exchange process of engine
This process is aimed to let out exhaust gas in time, and let in enough fresh gas. We should extend the time of gas exchange, so that exhaust gas could be drained, more fresh gas could be got in. Sometimes make use of inertia to let in gas
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Vehicle network technology
Netzwerk für Autotr?ger
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There are more and more electric control modules in a vehicle, information transmission between them is necessary. The course mainly introduces three kinds of buses applied in the vehicle, they are CAN bus , LIN bus and Most bus. The application of the three kinds of buses can be described clearly by picture.

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CAN bus---bus type Figure

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Reduce the wiring cost--communication between nodes is easier by the two signal lines High speed---max: 1Mbps Control important ECUs, such as SRS (supplementary restraint system)

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LIN bus Structure main-slave nodes figure Cheap Speed 20Kb/s 40m There are many accessories like the front light, window, they don’t need communicate with the main controller very soon. Most Bus Structure

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In fact ,different buses communicate by gateway. Gateway is like a translator . It translates the different data forms to those each bus can recognize.

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In common: Local Area Network Others ? Computer network— topology structure of network star/bus/circle type
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Accuracy control A high speed multimedia network --higher than CAN Apply in DVD player, guided system and so on.

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Driving practice
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Fahrübung

The course aims at teaching us how to drive on a flat and good road. We, a group of 4 students, drove a jeep in turn with the guidance of a teacher. We drove on a open space without pedestrians. We just learnt how to drive straight and shift gear steadily. My teacher said that, as a student majoring in automotive engineering, we should know something about how to drive even though we haven’t got a driver’s license.

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Q:discribe the process of driving?
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1. switch on the car 2. push down the clutch pedal with left foot while in the first gear 3. step on the gas with right foot , then lift the clutch pedal slowly 4. keep the car driving steadily

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Introduction to automotive engineering
Einführung in die Fahrzeugtechnik
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The course briefly introduces the basic knowledge about Vehicle , like the history of Vehicle , basic structures and functions of each part, and some new technology. For example, chassis is mainly composed of drive line, running gear , steering system and braking system.
The function of drive line is to drive the power from engine to driving wheel. Front axle, rear axle and suspension are the three main parts of running gear . They hold the whole car body, the frame and the engine.

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Braking system works on letting car slow down , parking and keeping the same speed while going downhill. When the car wants to go left and right , the steering system is necessary.

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In the course Automobile structure and Automobile theory , we analyze in this field more deep. The history: For example, Karl Benz ,one of the founders of Daimler AG,is a pioneer of the modern automotive industry , called the father of car. Like Henry Ford ,the founder of Ford , makes vehicle from luxury to necessities of life by inventing standard manufacturing. New technology-------professor lecture
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Mechanical vibration
Maschinenschwingung
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This is a optional course, at first, tells the importance of the vibration to mechanical engineering, for example, if the vibration isn’t in allowed band , it will produce a large dynamic load and noise, so that it will do damage to the working performance and the useful life of the mechanical facilities . Then, it mainly introduces a few normal vibration like free vibration and forced vibration.

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Free vibration is a vibration without external force so that it can last forever. Take this mass-spring system as an example.

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put a press on the mass to the end and then let it go.

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Professor Lecture
Vortrag (Fahrzeugtechnik)
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The course professor lecture is a course that professors tell us about the new technology in their own research fields .Each class has one topic. Because the researches of Professors are too complex and hard to a undergraduate. We just need to know what it is, the basic conception and structure of it and so on. For example,I remember one class,our teacher talked about AT, automatic transmission.

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It is different from the traditional manual transmission. AT can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from shifting gears manually. AT mainly consists of hydraulic torque converter, planet gear and hydraulic control system.It changes speed and torque by the combination of hydraulic transmission and gears. It makes use of the change of kinetic energy in liquid flow cycle process to transmit the power from engine to input shaft of AT, while changing with running resistance. back

Special basis course 1 (10)
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Mechanical design Manufacturing technology Hydraulic and pneumatic transmission Measurement techniques of mechanic engineering Mechanical & Electrical transmission control Material forming technology Fluid mechanics Basis of control engineering Basis of mechanical accuracy design Engineering thermodynamics

Special basis course 2 (10)
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Material mechanics +course design Principle of mechanics + course design Engineering drawing 1 2 +course design CAD Engineering materials Virtual prototyping technology ---adams Theoretical mechanics Electrical engineering 1 2 Metalworking practice Principle & interface Technique of micro-computer
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Mechanical design
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Maschinenentwurf The course mainly introduces the design methods of some common parts , such as belt and gear. They transmit mechanical power in many machines. For example, in the design of double reduction gearbox, we use gears to transmit the power Total transmission ratio

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When two gears transmit motion, they are often under three kinds of forces: peripheral force---Ft Radial force---Fr Normal force---Fn Check the contact fatigue strength of gear in order to avoid some failures, the main affected parameters are gear diameter and center distance.

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Belt drive is widely used in product transmission in the factory because of its long centre distance. It is also used in the first drive of electric motor with its feature of overload protection.
Others *shaft According to the position of parts , forces on shaft and so on, we can design the shape and size of shaft. 1

Bearing: rolling bearing— deep groove; angular contact Journal bearing

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Manufacturing technology
Fertigungstechnik
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cutting parameters

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form of chips. Continuous chip is most common. It is more likely got in high cutting speed. segmented chip will appear if the cutting speed is lower. f

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Cutting parameters can also influence the processing quality. When it is rough machining, we can choose a lager feed and cutting depth. when it is finish machining, the cutting speed should avoid the speed which is easy to produce build-up edge. About BUE While cutting, there will be a severe friction between chips and rake face , cutting materials will bond to the rake face when the temperature of the contact is high and the high pressure exists as well. The bonding layer will become BUE

working processing ? Excircle surface processing: turning ? Hole processing: drilling boring ? Threading ? Plane processing: milling others ① Geometric parameters of tool ② Bed ③ Types of tool material tool steels - high speed steels metal carbides - cast alloys

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Hydraulic and pneumatic Hydraulik und luftgetriebe transmission
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In fact, this course only introduces something about hydraulic transmission. (maybe because the principle of pneumatic transmission is the same with hydraulic transmission, our teacher just took it as an example.) So this course mainly tells us the working principle of hydraulic transmission, it makes use of the pressure potential energy of liquid to transmit power and control.

This course also introduces some control elements, they are divided into direction control valves, pressure control valves and flow control valves. ? Working principles ? In a hydraulic system 1)the pump: the mechanical energy of the prime motor ?the pressure energy of liquid 2)the pressure energy of liquid changes by going through several control valves and pipes
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3)the actuator such as a motor or cylinder: the pressure energy of liquid?the mechanical energy so that the operating mechanism is driven to work. Control elements ? Direction control valves: direction reverse valve — control the flow direction

one-way valve – control the oil to flow only in one direction rather than the returning direction ? Flow rate control valves: throttle valve -regulate the flow rate speed control valve – regulate the flow rate and keep it stable ? Pressure control valve: overflow valve pressure reducing valve sequence valve Disadvantages/advantages

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hydraulics Advantages Small volume, light weight Easy to change direction Overload protection Easy to control Disadvantages High price Not easy to repair leakage

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hydraulics closed system using fluid works slowly and easy to control produces very high power very quiet oil harms the environment more expensive pneumatics open system using gas work too quick but can't control well power is less very noisy Environment friendly more cheap
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Measurement techniques of mechanic engineering
Prüftechnik für Mashinen
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This course is related to the course elementary control theory. We have learnt that a measuring system should contain signal input, measuring equipment and signal output. So how to process the signal input, how to choose a right measuring equipment and how to process the signal output, are what this course mainly discussed.

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Process the signal input 2 kind– periodic signal nonperiodic signal Time-domain ? frequency domain ( Fourier transform)

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The frequency spectrum of periodic signal is discrete The frequency spectrum of nonperiodic signal is continuous

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Process signal output The signal output from sensor sometimes concludes ineffective information. We could use filter to only let the effective information pass. low-pass filter High-pass filter Band pass filter Band stop filter Electric bridge

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transmission and control of mechatronics
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Elektromechanisches Getriebe It is an optional course. Just ? Structure of motor like the name of the course, ? 2kinds: transmission and control of ? AC motor(alternating current mechatronics means that motor) transmit power to machines ? DC motor(direct current motor) by motor and control the ? E.g. DC motor motor . So I think this course ? Consists of stator, rotor, electrical mainly tells us what’s bushes, power, magnetic poles… structure of motor, how could it transmit power stably, and how to control the motor so that manufacturing process could proceed normally.

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Material forming technology
Werkstoffformierung
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The course mainly introduces the processing knowledge of casting, forging and welding. In fact, we have contacted the three kinds of processing methods in the course metalworking practice. However, metalworking practice only tells us what it is and how we can do about it. This course teaches us more about why we do like this and how we can do better.

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Casting E.g. Processing of bushing 1.Part drawing Important processing surface—quality A two-part mold + place the bushing----not horizontally---vertically

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2.casting process drawing Machining allowance+pattern draft+sand core Not Small hole 3.material?gray iron(good liquidity) Pouring conditions: temperature+speed? avoid shrinkage and deformation (in order to avoid shrinkage, we can solidify inturn, and sometimes control the cooling speed with cool iron)

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Design parts in a proper structure Advantages &Disadvantages Used ---eg engine blocks, engine manifolds, cylinder heads, transmission cases. Forging Yield strength---plastically deform Forgeability of metal---chemical compositions of metal and the processing condition (pure metal > alloy ; low carbon steel> high carbon steel) Welding A process of permanently joining two or more metal parts by melting both materials. Most widely—SMAW (shield metal arc welding)---advantages / disadvantages Manufacturability of welding structure back

Fluid mechanics
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Hydromechanik

The course mainly focuses on some mechanical motion laws about fluid. First, there are some basic assumptions in the course, for example , fluid is assumed incompressible, so that the density of fluid is constant. Second, the course introduces some basic properties of all fluids such as pressure, density and viscosity which is a new conception to us. Third, this course also tells the knowledge about hydrostatics and hydrodynamics.

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Hydrostatics: U-type pipe(measure pressure) From Pascal’s principle, we know that pressure is transmitted undiminished in an enclosed static fluid. Hydrodynamics: bernoulli equation (conservation of energy) For ideal fluid ( incompressible) steady flow? mass force is only gravity
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e.g venturi tube (measure the flow in pipe line)

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For viscous fluid steady flow: energy loss Loss along the way ( friction) Local loss (area changes ? turbulent flow) ? Reynolds number Re-2320 laminar flow/turbulent flow
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Basis of control engineering
Regelungstechnik
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The course aims at solving how to achieve automatic control in engineering. It introduces the basic ways of automatic control, such as open-loop control, closedloop control. Then it tells us how to describe a system by mathematical function, and analyse system’s stability or dynamics. So that we can acquare some improvement measures to achieve automatic control better.

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Basic ways of automatic control Open-loop control Simple structure easy to control but easy to be disturbed Close-loop control Make use of deviation to produce control action in order to cut down the deviation High class of accuracy Not easy to be disturbed Transfer function---laplace transform of a system’s differential equation Simplify the calculation

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Basis of mechanical accuracy design
Entwurf über Maschinenpr?zision
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The course introduces some related knowledge about tolerance, the definition, the necessity, the classify and so on. By the course, we know, in the practical production, the rational use of tolerance affects the quality of products. Specially, this course introduces the fit between shaft and hole, symbols of form and position tolerance and the meaning of roughness .

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Tolerance---allowance for specific variation of a part in the size and geometry

D—basic size With the limit of machining accuracy?Dmin,Dmax

Es hole upper deviation EI hole lower deviation So Tolerance of hole: Th=Es-EI Similarly,shaft… Tolerance zone the length represent Tolerance Fit-clearance fit; transition fit ; interference fit ? Hole basis system ? Shaft basis system

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Symbols of form and position tolerance

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The proper dimension of roughness

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Roughness Ra---roughness figure

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By any machining By material remove working By no-material remove working About thread M 16XPh3XP1.5-7g6g-S-LH

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Rz---roughness depth

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The highest---Zp The lowest---Zv Rz=Zp+Zv

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Engineering thermodynamics
Technische Thermodynamik The course mainly introduces some basic concepts, such as pressure, temperature, and volume. It gives an important Gas equation of state about the three parameters— ideal gas law. (pV=nRT) ? It also introduces some laws of thermodynamics, they are used extensively in the discussion of heat engines .
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To my major, this course relates to another course engine theory An ideal gas is defined as one in which all collisions between atoms or molecules are perfectly elastic and in which there are no intermolecular attractive forces.

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Material mechanics +course design
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Werkstoffmechanik The course mainly introduces the material’s mechanical property such as deformation and failure, that is to say, the reaction of metals when external force operate on them, like tension, compression, shear, torsion and bend. Construction member in a mechanical structure should have enough ability to bear a certain load. It should have enough strength, stiffness and stability.

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Studienarbeit über Mashinentheorie
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This is a pratical course, we need to design a transmission shaft according to the question task. The material of the shaft is quality carbon structural steel---45 steel. The shaft is under varies kinds of loads, such as tension, compression, torsion or bending. We need to analyze it and draw the torque diagram and bending stress diagram. Then design the diameter of the shaft according to strength condition. Maybe we calculated the deflection as well. I don’t remember clearly. But I can give you an example to show the train of thought about the course design.
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Principle of mechanics + course design
Maschinentheorie + Studienarbeit über Maschinentheorie
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The course mainly researches on machines and mechanisms . It includes the analysis of mechanisms’ structure and movement. A mechanism is consisted of links and joints, it is a system of elements arranged to transmit motion. To a mechanism, we can analyze its degree of freedom at first. Then, analyze the motion of the mechanism.

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Course design This is a practical course. We were divided into several groups. Each group had a different machine to design and students in a group got different design data . My task was to design a cold heading machine. The exact construct I can’t remember clearly, but I remember, it transmits power from a electrical machine to plunger chip by belt pulley and gears. The rotation speed of electrical machine and the motion of plunger chip were known, we could calculate the transmission ratio and distributed it. At last. The cold heading machine could work as design. back

Engineering drawing 1 2 +course design
Zeichnung +Praktikum über zeichnung
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The course mainly introduces some drawing methods such as the projection of the point, line, plane and body, and 3view drawing. It also tells us how to read the assembling drawing. I think this course trains our ability of space analyzing. It is the foundation part of the whole study of engineering, especially in some course design.

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I’ll give you a body as an example to explain the 3-view drawing.

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Frontal view Top view Left view

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Course design
The course put what we learnt in the course engineering drawing into practice. In the course design, we were divided into several parts. Each part had to measure a pump together and then draw it on a paper. With the guidance of our teacher, each of us completed a drawing on the paper in A0 size.

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Measure tools vernier calliper micrometer ordinary ruler

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CAD
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This is a practical course. We learnt how to draw engineering drawing by a software named autoCAD. CAD means computer aided design. That is to say, it helps designers design by a computer and its graphics equipment. In fact , the software is widely used , in some course designs.

E.g click the icon mirror offset array

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Engineering materials
Werkstoffkunde
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The course mainly introduces the composition , constitution and property of the common engineering materials. It tells three typical structures of crystals. And we learnt that the size of grain could be controlled. The finer grain is, the higher grain’s strength , hardness, and then the better its plasticity, toughness. So we can fining grains to improve the mechanical property of metal material by some heat treatments. Iron-carbon alloy phase diagram is also an important part in this course.

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Structures----they are body-centered cube, face-centered cube and hexagonal close-packed. Crystal: atom in crystals arrange in regular periodicity. It has melting point and anisotropism .

Ferrite---F ? Austenite---A ? Cementite-----Fe3C ? Liquid phase---L Steel---carbon steel----cast iron Wc <0.0218%--2.11%--6.69% Heat treatment: anneal normalizing quenching(hardening) tempering
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Virtual prototyping technology Virtueller Technologietr?ger ---adams
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The course mainly introduces a software named adams. The software can simulate many mechanisms and if a force acts on it, it can also simulate the motion. The software can help us understand mechanical principles better, more visually.

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E.g a four-bar mechanism If a torque M acts on link AB, then the software can simulate how this mechanism reflects. You can get some figures which shows its speed , angle velocity , and motion moment.

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Theoretical mechanics
Theoretische Mechanik
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This course studies on rigidbody which doesn’t deform in any case. In fact, object under stress will deform, if the deformation is tiny, we can ignore it and regard the object as a rigid-body. That is the most important assumption in this course. So based on the assumption, this course introduces force analysis, some conditions of equilibrium and some simple motion of a rigid-body.

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Jz the rotational inertia of a rigid-body to axis-Z mi a point mass in the rigid-body ri the perpendicular distance to the rotation axis of the point mass E.g

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Electrical engineering 1 2
Elektrotechnik
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This is a foundation course, mainly introduces some basic electric elements and circuits. For example, the most common electric element : resistance, capacitor, inductor. we often use the kirchhoff’s current law and the kirchhoff’s voltage law to calculate voltage, current or some other parameters. This course also introduces diode and transistor. Others: logic circuit

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Sinusoidal ac circuit

Diode---current flow in one direction only Its voltage-current property is like this: In one direction only ? Reverse--current nearly 0 ? Reverse voltage is too large, the diode will break down.

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P-type (more hole) N-type (more electron) Application----half-wave rectifier Full-wave rectifier

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Transistor---made from different arrangements of p-n junctions

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A amplification function
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Metalworking practice
Metallpraktikum
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This is a practical course, we learnt many kinds of processing by doing something ourselves. For example, we spent nearly half of the semester making a small hammer by turning, drilling, benchwork and so on. It is very interesting.

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First—hander Cut a stick of cylinder steel ?drill two center hole?turn the external cylinder?mill the left cylinder to 4 planes Second---hammer head Cut a stick of square steel? mill it to replace the iron rust?use the file cutter to file a slope plane Then Drill a through hole At last Assemble (in vice bench)
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Principle&interface Technique of micro-computer
Mikrocomputer und Interface ? This course introduces the structure of microcomputer like this: ? The data bus has 8 Separate lines the address bus—16 the control bus—a few lines Buses: the exchange of information Some concepts: bit—a single binary digit a ―0‖ or a ―1‖ byte—an eight-bit word

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A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a computer’s CPU on a single microchip. We also learnt how to change decimal system to binary scale which is used in computer. So we learnt BCD , in BCD, a numeral is usually represented by four bits which, in general, represent the decimal range 0 through9 Example: 2?0010 3?0011 9?1001 (34.15)10=(0011 0100 . 0001 0101)BCD We also learnt some ordinary logic device like: and gate or gate and-not gate or-not gate
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Basic courses (7)
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Advanced mathematics 1 2+Experiment of calculus 1 2 Linear algebra Probability and statistics C language programming + Experiment in C language designing Introduction to computers + College basis of computer engineering College physics 1 2+Experiment of college physics 1 2 General chemistry and experiment

Advanced mathematics12 +Experiment of calculus 1 2
H?herer Mathematik 1 2 Versuche über Differenzial und Integral
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Experiment of calculus

Advanced mathematics Because I have changed my major. Even though I have learnt advanced mathematics I in the first year. The credits of advanced mathematics in two different majors are different. So I have to take the exam again according to the school?s rules. This course mainly introduces some knowledge about calculus, like how to take a derivative , how to have the integral, some common formulae are given in this course. It is a basic course and widely used in many other courses.

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In this course, we mainly learnt how to calculate integral, derivative and plot them by a software named Mathematic. The software can help us work less because computer runs faster than the human brain. The software can release us from complex calculation by the help of computer.
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Linear algebra
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Lineale Algebra

It is a basic course. This course introduces some basic conceptions such as matrix, determinant. And we also learnt how to operate the matrix or determinant.
It is a long time since I learnt this course. So I can only remember some basic knowledge.

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Probability and statistics
Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie und Statistik
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It is a basic course , a branch of mathematics, mainly introduces some properties of probability. For example, the probability of a sample point ranges from 0 to 1. and some rules which can be used to compute probability, like P(A)=1-P(A’) This course also introduces some knowledge about statistics, such as mean, variance, standard deviation and so on.
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C language programming + Experiment in C language designing
C-Programmierung + Praktikum über H?here Programmierung
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This course teaches us how to program by using C language to solve some problems. For example, output the largest number from 3 numbers and so on. Example It is a long time for me to use the language, so I can’t remember clearly.

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Experiment In fact, this is a course of Computer science and technology. It is a practice course about C language. Put what we have learnt in the course C language programming in to practice. We solve some problems by C language programming in computer laboratory.
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Introduction to computers + College basis of computer engineering
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Computer Einführung + Grundlagen der Informatik ? The course mainly This is a course of Computer introduces some basic Science and Technology concepts about computer college. Because I have and networks. changed my major. In automotive engineering ? For example, computer college, we needn’t to learn components are mainly this course. screen, motherboard, CPU, memory, power supply, CDWell, I remember, this ROM drives, Hard disk course mainly introduces drive, keyboard, mouse some basic knowledge and so on. about computer, tells us what we will learn separately ? I t also tells us something in the next three years. about network topologies.
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College physics 1 2 +Experiment of college physics 1 2
Akademische Physik + Physikalische Versuche
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This course mainly introduces some knowledge about motion, such as one dimensional motion, some laws of motion, circular motion and so on. (there are many formulae about them like…) It also tells something about circuits. Kirchoff’s Voltage/Current law

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experiment We did some experiments related to physics in this course. For example We once did a experiment to check the Ohm’s Law. V=IR
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General chemistry and experiment
Allgemeine Chemie und Versuche
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In this course , we learnt acids, bases and chemical reactions. We can describe a reaction by using simple equations. E.g 4Fe+3O2?2Fe2O3 Iron reacting with oxygen in the corrosion process is like this. In engine theory, we learnt that some air pollutant like Nox. And the engine, just makes use of the chemical energy to transmit power. Some experiments in this course reflect the reaction. We can test PH by PH test strips.
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Optional courses (5)
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College chinese IV(appreciation of classical chinese poetry&prose) Appreciation of western music Entrepreneurship study Comment of chinese contemporary writers Law of economy

College Chinese IV(appreciation of classical Chinese poetry&prose)
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Akademisches Chinesisch IV (Chinesische Klassische Dichtungen)

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This course mainly appreciates some Chinese classical poetries and analyzes rules and forms of classical poetic composition such as the number of sentences in a poetry and the number of words in a sentence and the rhythm. Poetry is a chinese traditional culture and this course makes me have a basic understanding to poetry.

Appreciation of western music
Westliche berühmte Musik

This course is a music appreciation lesson, mainly introduces some western music compositions. It tells some works and genres in music history. For example, Bach’s Brandenburg concertos, Beethoven’s fifth,sixth,ninth Choral Symphony and so on are very famous. It is apparently to find that german music is known to all the world.

Entrepreneurship study
Pioniertat Management(Kernfach)

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This course mainly researches on the pioneering work of the enterprise management level. Our teacher taught us how to do pioneering work by telling some examples like the experiments of Bill Gates, Jobs and so on. She also told us how to manage and some related law.

Comment of chinese contemporary writers
Einsch?tzung über chinesische moderne Autoren(Kernfach)

This is a literature composition appreciation lesson, mainly introduces some chinese writers in modern and contemporary age. Our teacher analyzes their works and evaluates the central theme of the works. For example, wall, written by Qian Zhongshu, told us, life is like a wall,each of us live under the pressure. We should learn to face, rather than thinking about escaping.

Law of economy
Wirtschaftsrecht(Kernfach)
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This course mainly introduces the developing history ,the basic conceptions of economic law which is used to adjust the market economy by our government. It also tells the form of business enterprise such as stateowned enterprise, private enterprise and joint venture. Through some examples of case, we know some basic knowledge about economic law.

Others
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(8)

Military training Ethics & Principles of law Situation & Policy 1 2 Military theory The introduction to Marxism philosophy Chinese modern history outline Career instruction for college students An introduction to Mao Zedong thought and the theoretical system of socialism with chinese characteristics

Military training
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Milit?rtraining

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This is a practical course. At the beginning of our freshmen year, each of us should take part in the military training. The training lasted about one month and it is very strict. We did the standing, walking all day. Well , although we were tired those days, we form a health habit of waking up early.

Ethics & Principles of law
Moralbildung und Einführung ins Gesetz
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This course mainly includes two parts, one is the knowledge of moral, the main contents of that is to adapt to college life, establish a new goal for life, learn to adjust ourselves, fully understand the society, as well as to set up the correct job purpose, in order to better step into the society; the other one part is the basic theory of Chinese law, such as simple constitution, administrative law, civil law and criminal law and so on. Through this course, we should know how to be a qualified college student, which aspects of quality and ability should we have, and we should work hard to develop these qualities in college.

Situation & Policy 1 2
Situation und Politik I II
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This course mainly analyses the prospect of the employment and postgraduate education of present university graduates according to current social situation. For instance the teacher predicts the number and the major of the students that want to take a postgraduate education and enrollment ratio of the university in last few years. By employment the teacher focus on employment directions and enterprises of our major in recent years, as well as the income and future’s development etc. In this course we grasp the useful information for ourselves, and make a decision of what I will do after graduation from university.

Military theory
Milit?rtheorie
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Military theory is a part of military training, mainly in the form of lectures. It introduced to us the modern military theory, war concept and the necessary national defense education. For example, the necessity for China to make aircraft carrier, the problems of sovereign rights between China and other countries and so on.

The introduction to Marxism philosophy
Marxismus Prinzip
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Because China is a socialist country, we must study in college political course, the basic principles of Marxism is one of the important required courses. This course mainly includes three main components, which are also the three components of Marxism, namely, Marxist political economics, dialectical materialism and historical materialism, and scientific socialism. In the course of Marxism is expounded the specific meaning of each part, analyzes the application and development of the fundamental principle of Marxism in China.

Chinese modern history outline
Moderne Chinesische Geschichte
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This course mainly introduces the Chinese history from the opium war at 1840 to now, altogether more than 160 years. As a Chinese, learning about Chinese history is necessary, and the purpose of this course also lies in this. Chinese modem history is history that many generations of Chinese people struggle for rescue. From revolt the Japan Empire, to build a new China, to explore the socialist road, until now develop China in all ways, I think, the Chinese people is a hardworking, brave and great people

Career instruction for college students 1
Studenten Berufsberatung I
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This course guides us how to plan our four-year college life and future career, so as to finish the transition from learning to working smoothly. Firstly, we conducted a series of tests, such as MBTI character analysis; in order to know what characteristics we have, what kind of things can we do, as well as what advantages and disadvantages we obtain etc. Then the teacher guides us to learn how to plan life and adjust target. Eventually everyone completes a plan report according to oneself, which includes self analysis, job analysis, job orientation, process planning and target adjusting.

An introduction to Mao Zedong thought and the theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics
Mao Zedong Gedanken,und Chinesisches Sozialismus
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?

In this course, we mainly study three important thoughts of three important leaders of China, namely, Mao Zedong thought, Deng Xiaoping theory and ―three represents‖ thought of Jiang Zemin. These three kinds of theory is the product of the gradually combination of Marxism theory and China's specific conditions, which are important instructions to explore the development road of China and have a great influence to China and Chinese. I think, Deng Xiaoping's policy of ―reform and opening‖ is a great strategy to help China from a poor country to become a prosperous one, which is an important measure to today’s China.

Now (3)
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Automobile design
Automobile drive techniques Career instruction for college students Course design of mechanical design

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Automobile design
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The course mainly introduces the theoretical method of automobile design, including some basic knowledge of each part of a vehicle, such as clutch, gearbox, driving axle, suspension and so on. It tells us how to choose the reasonable parameters to make sure the performances of the vehicle. For example, the arrangement form has an effect on the usability of vehicle. To passenger vehicles, there 3 kinds. FF FR RR Each kind has its disadvantages and advantages. For example, when we design the braking system, we often choose the disc brakes on the front wheels and the drum brakes on the rear wheels. …

Automobile drive techniques
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This is a optional course. We learnt more about the driving line of vehicle. We knew that in addition to the traditional manual transmission, there are some automatic transmission , like AT which mainly consists of hydraulic torque converter, planet gear and hydraulic control system . It changes speed and torque by the combination of hydraulic transmission and gears. It makes use of the change of kinetic energy in liquid flow cycle process to transmit the power from engine to input shaft of AT, while changing with running resistance. It also tells some theoretical knowledge about how to choose the maximum transmission ratio , the minimum transmission ratio and how to distribute the transmission, so that we can acquire a right performance of vehicle.


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