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英语基本句型


英语基本句型
句型 1.定语从句中缺主语,修饰人时用 who /that,修饰物时用 which /that 引导。如: 2.从句中缺宾语,修饰人时用 who /whom /that 或省略引导词;修饰物时用 which /that 或省略引导词 3.从句中缺时间状语,用 when 或介词+which 引导 4.从句中缺地点状语,用 where 或介词+which 引导

5.从句中缺原因状语或先行词是 reason 时,引导词用 why /for which / that 6.从句中缺定语,人和物都用 whose 引导 7.当先行词是 way 时,其定语从句的引导词用 in which /that。 引导词 as 可引导限制性定语从句,也可引导非限制性定语从句。 1.当先行词是整个主句时,可用 as /which 引导非限制性定语从句。引导词 as 和 which 的区别在于 ①as 引导的非限制性定语从句可放于主句前、主句中、主句后,而 which 引导的非限制 性定语从句一般放于主句后或句中。 ②as 常与从句中的 know,see, hear,expect 等动词连用,也常用于 as often happens, as is often the case(常有的事)等句子中;而 which 一般不用于以上情况。 ③as 有“正如”的含义,which 没有此含义 先行词是物时,其引导词可用 which 也可用 that,通常情况下二者可互换,但在有些情 况下不能。 1.用 which 不用 that 引导定语从句的三种情况: ①在引导非限定性定语从句时,和在介词后不能用 that,应用 which ②先行词为 that 时,为了避免重复,定语从句用 which 不用 that 引导 ③介词后用 which 不用 that 引导 2.用 that 不用 which 的七种情况: ①先行词前有形容词最高级或序数词修饰时,用 that 不用 which 引导 ②先行词为 little, much, all, none, few, (the) one, something, everything, nothing, anything 等不定代词时,用 that 引导

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③先行词既有指人的名词又有指物的名词时,用 that 引导 ④先行词前有 any,all,no,few,every,some,little, much, (the)very, (the)only, (the)last 等词修饰时,用 that 引导 ⑤先行词为 which 时,为了避免重复,用 that 引导 ⑥先行词在从句中作表语时,常用 that 引导 ⑦当主句是 There be. . .句型时,用 that 引导。 在“one of+复数名词+定语从句”结构中,从句的谓语动词应与复数名词保持一致;当 one 前有 the only 修饰时,从句的谓语动词应与 the only one 保持一致 引导词前有介词或短语介词时,修饰人只能用 whom,修饰物只能用 which 引导 1. 常用 that 不用 which 的情况: 1)先行词为不定代词 all,little,few,much, anything, everything, nothing, something 等时 2)先行词被序数词、 形容词最高级或 the only, the very 等所修饰或其本身就是序数词﹑ 形容词最高级时 3)先行词既有人,又有物时 4)当主句是以 who 或 which 开头的疑问句时, 定语从句用 that 引导, 以避免重复。 若被修饰的名词充当从句介词宾语时 介词可提前于引导词之前,此时的引导词只能用 whom 或 which. 当先行词为 way 其后的定语从句用 in which 或 that 引导,也可不用引导词。 关系代词 that 的用法 1)不用 that 的情况 a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时 (错) famous here. b)介词后不能用 We depend on the land from which we get our food. 2) 只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况 a) 在 there be 句型中,只用 that,不用 which。 b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little 等作先行词时, The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very

只用 that,不用 which。 c) 先行词有 the only, the very.(恰恰,正好).any. few. little. no. all 修饰时,只用 that。 d) 先行词由序数词、数词、形容词最高级修饰时,只用 that。
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e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。 不能用关系代词 Which 的几种情况 1.当先行词为 all, little, much, few, everything, none 等不定代词时关系代词用 that 而不用 which. 2.当先行词既有人又有物时,关系代词用 that, 不用 which. 3.当先行词有形容词最高级修饰时,关系代词用 that, 而不用 which. 4.当先行词有序数词修饰时,关系代词用 that, 不用 which. 5.当先行词被 the only, the very, the same, the right 等修饰时,关系代词用 that,不用 which. 6.当先行词被 all, every, any, much, little, few, no 等修饰时,关系代词用 that,不用 which. 7.当主句是以 which 开头的特殊问句时,定语从句关系代词一般用 that 而不用 which. 8.在强调句型" It is ... that ..." 中,只用 that,不用 which. 9.在" such (the same) ... as ..." 句型中,关系代词要用 as, 而不用 which. 10.表示" 正如... 那样 "," 正象..." 之意时, 用 as, 不用 which. 11 : As 引导的定语从句可以放在主句前面 , 也可以放在主句后面或主句中间 , 而由 which 引导的定语从句只能放在主句后面。 used to/be used to 的分别 used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。 be used to + doing: 对??已感到习惯,或"习惯于",to 是介词,后需加名词或动名词。 Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现在习惯于散步) used to 的用法 (否定式简写为 usedn't) 过去经常,以前常常 This used to be a shabby house. (此房年久失修) used to,would 这两个词语都可以表示过去常做某事,有时可以换用。 used to do 强调过 去习惯性的行为或状态,但是现在没有这种行为或状态了。因此,这个短语的内涵是今昔对 比。 关系代词的不可省略和可以省略 1.关系代词 which,whom,who,that 在定语从句中作宾语时可以省略。 Here is the man (who/that/whom)you're been looking for. 以下情况不能省略: (1)在介词+whom 与介词+which 中,whom,which 不能省略。 (2)在非限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词也不能省略。
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The elephant is like a spear,as anybody can see. (3)在 the same ...as,such...as,as...as,the same...that 中,as,that 即使作宾语,也不能省略 I have bought the same bicycle as you have (bought). (指同类用 as) This is the same book that I read the day before yesterday. (that 指同一个) (4)当由 and,but,or 等连词连接两个或两个以上的定语从句修饰一个先行词时,第一 个关系代词可省,但第二,第三个不可省略。 This is the book (which) I read yesterday and which I find very interesting. 2.当 that 在从句中作补语时可以省略。 She is all (that) a teacher should be. 3.在 there be 结构中出现定语从句,或在定语从句中出现 there be 时,用作主语的关系 代词也可省略。 This is the best dictionary (that) there is in the library. 4.状语的省略 (1)当先行词是 reason,而且定语从句中作原因状语时,关系代词可用 why,that,也可 以省略。 That is the reason (why) I did it. (2) 当先行词是 way,且在定语从句中作方式状语时, 关系代词可用 in which,that,也可以 省略。 I don't know the way that/ which leads to the top of the mountains. (3)当先行词是 time 时,关系代词可用 when,that 或省略。 I don't know the exact time (when/that) the sports meet will take place. 注意:关系代词作宾语有时也不能省略。 定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,有时也可以 修饰部分或整个句子。 被修饰的名词, 词组或代词即先行词。 定语从句通常出现在先行词之后, 由关系词 (关 系代词或关系副词)引出。 关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which, as。 关系副词有:when, where, why, how。 关系代词和关系副词放在先行词和定语从句之间, 起连接作用, 同时又可做定语从句的 一个成分。当关系代词做宾语时可以省略。
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定语从句中的谓语动词必须在人称上和数量上和先行词保持一致。 定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。 1 、关系代词引导的定语从句 1) who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词, 在从句中所起作用如下: Is he the man who/that wants to see you?(who/that 在从句中作主语) He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.(whom/that 在从句中作宾语) 2) whose 用来指人或物, (只用作定语,若指物,它还可以同 of which 互换) ,例如: Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 3) which, that 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语 等,例如: A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. (which / that 在句中作宾语) The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. (which / that 在句中作宾语) 关系代词 that 和 which 都可以指物,that 和 Who 都可以指人,其用法区别: 不用 that 的情况: a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时 (错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here. b) 介词后不能用 We depend on the land from which we get our food. c) 多用 who 的情况 ①关系代词在从句中做主语 ②先行词为 those, people 时 Those who were either fools or unfit for their offices could not see the cloth. ③先行词为 all, anyone, ones, one 指人时 One who doesn't work hard will never succeed in his work. ④在 There be 句型中 There is a stranger who wants to see you. ⑤在被分隔的定语从句中 A new teacher will come tomorrow who will teach you German.
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⑥在有两个定语从句的句子中,其一用 who,其二用 that,但若先行词后接两个以上的 并列定语从句时,后一个必须重复前一个关系代词。 The student who was praised at the meeting is the monitor that is very modest and studies very hard. There is a teacher who is always ready to help others and who enjoys what he does. 2) 只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况 a)在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, everything, all, much, few, any, little 等作先行词时,只用 that,不用 which。 All that is needed is a supply of oil. Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. b)先行词有 the only, the very, the just 修饰时,只用 that。 He is the very man that helped the girl out of the water. c)先行词为序数词(the last) 、数词、形容词最高级时,只用 that。 The first English book that I read was “The Prince and the Pauper” by Mark Twin. d)先行词既有人,又有物时。 He talked about the teachers and schools that he visited. e)当主句是以 who 或 which 开始的特殊疑问句时,用 that 以避免重复。 Who is the person thatf)关系代词在从句中做表语 is standing at the gate. He is not the man that he used to be. 2 、关系副词引导的定语从句 关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点、方式或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。 关系副词 when, where, why, how 的含义相当于“介词+ which”结构,因此常常和“介 词+ which”结构交替使用,例如: There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? I'm surprised the way how (by which) he works out the problem.
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注意: ①在非限制性定语从句中, “介词+ which”结构不能代替关系副词。 如:They set up a state for their own , where they would be free to keep Negroes as slaves. ②含有介词短语的动词一般不能拆开,介词仍放在动词后面。 Is this the book which (that) she was looking for? 3、名词/数词/代词 /形容词最高级 + 介词 + 关系代词引导定语从句 4、as, which 引导非限定性定语从句的差别 由 as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as 和 which 可代整个主句,相当于 and this 或 and that。As 一般放在句首,which 在句中。

4、as 可引导非限制性从句,常带有“正如”的意思。 用法区别: (1) as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而 which 不可。 As we all know,he never smokes. (2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若 为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用 which。 (3)非限定性定语从句中出现 expect, think, suppose 等表示猜测、想象、预料等 时。 She succeeded in her doing the research work , as we expected. (4) As 的用法 the same? as; such?as 中的 as 是一种固定结构, 和??一样?? I should like to use the same tool as is used here. We should have such a dictionary as he is using. 一 全部倒装

全部倒装是指将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。 此结构通常只用与一般现在时和 一般过去时。常见的结构有: 1. here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run。例如: 1) There goes the bell. 铃声渐渐消失了。
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2) Then came the chairman. 然后主席就来了 3) Here is your letter. 这是你的信。 2. 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。例如: 1) Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. 轰炸机下面发出了一颗导弹。 2) Ahead sat an old woman. 注意: 上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词, 如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒 装。例如: 1) Here he comes. 他来了。 2) Away they went. 他们走了。 二 部分倒装

部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。 如果句中的谓语没有助 动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词 do, does 或 did,并将其置于主语之前。 1. 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如 no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until? 等。例如: 1) Never have I seen such a performance. 我从来没看过这样的表演。 2) Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. 你在哪儿都不会找到这 个问题的答案。 3) Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. 妈妈直到 孩子睡着才离开房间。 注意:当 Not until 引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。 注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装。例如: 1) I have never seen such a performance.我从来没看过这样的表演。 2) The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep.妈妈直到孩 子睡着才离开房间。 2. 带有否定意义的词放在句首,语序需要部分倒装。常见的词语有: not , never , seldom , scarcely , barely , little , at no time , not only , not once , under on condition , hardly ? when , no sooner ?than ?等。例如: 1) Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. 他不仅拒收了礼品,还狠狠批评了送礼的人。 2) Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.
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她刚要出门时

有个学生来找她。 3) No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 她刚要走时 一个学生来看她。 注意:只有当 Not only? but also 连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如 果置于句首的 Not only? but also 仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。例如: Not only you but also I am fond of music. 我和你都喜欢音乐。 3. 表示“也”、“也不” 的 so, neither, nor 放在句首时,句子作部分倒装。例如: Tom 能说法语,我也能。

1) Tom can speak French. So can Jack.

2) If you won't go, neither will I. 如果你不去,我也不去。 注意: 当 so 引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时, 不可用倒装结构。 意为 “的 确如此”。例如: 1) Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. Tom 让我去踢足球,我去 了。 2) ---It's raining hard. ---So it is. ---雨下得很大。 ---的确很大。

4. only 放在句首,强调状语(副词,介词短语或状语从句等),全句语序要部分倒装。 例如: Only in this way, can you learn English well.你只有用这种方法才能学好英语。 Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. 他被请了三次 才来开会。 注意:如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装 Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed. 他只有病得非常严重 时才会卧床休息。 三 as, though 引导的倒装句

as / though 引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义 动词提前)。此时应注意:1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词;2) 句首是实义动词, 其他助 动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放在主语之前。例如: Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. 尽 管他愿意努力工作,但是他好像从来都不能令他的工作満意。 注意: 让步状语从句中, 有 though, although 时, 后面的主句不能有 but, 但是 though 和 yet 可连用。
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其他部分倒装

1. so? that 句型中的 so 位于句首时,需倒装。例如: So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. 他害怕得动都不敢 动。 2. 在某些表示祝愿的句型中,例如: May you all be happy. 望大家开心愉快。

3. 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有 were, had, should 等词,可将 if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。例如: Were I you, I would try it again. 如果我是你,我就再试一次。

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时间状语从句 主要引导词:when, whenever, before, after, until, while, since, once, so long as, as soon as, the moment, every time, as, next time 常用引导词:when, as, while, as soon as, before, after, since , till, until 特殊引导词:the minute, the moment, the second, every time, the day,the instant, immediately , directly, no sooner ? than, hardly ?when, scarcely ? when
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地点状语从句 常用引导词:where 特殊引导词:wherever, anywhere, everywhere 地点状语从句一般由连接副词 where, wherever 等引导,已经形成了固定的句型,例如: 句型1:Where+地点从句, (there)+主句。 【注意】此句型通常译成“哪里??哪里就??” ;主句在从句后面时,there 可用可不用; 如果主句在从句的前面时,一般都不用 there。例如: You should have put the book where you found it. 你本来应该把书放回原来的地方。 句型2:anywhere/wherever+地点从句/主句。 【注意】 anywhere 本身是个副词,可以引导从句,相当于连词,意思相似于 wherever, anywhere 引导的从句可位于主句之前,也可以位于主句之后。 而 wherever 本身就是个连 词,表示“在何处,无论何处” 。例如: Wherever the sea is , you will find seamen.有海就有海员。 原因状语从句 主要引导词:because, as, since, considering that, now that, not that, seeing that 注意:in that 是书面语中原因状语从句的引导词,相当于 because, 在填空题中曾经 出现 常用引导词:because, since, as, for 特殊引导词:seeing that, now that, in that, considering that, given that. 目的状语从句 主要引导词:so that, in order that, for fear that, in case, lest 常用引导词:so that, in order that 特殊引导词:lest, in case, for fear that,in the hope that, for the purpose that, to the end that 结果状语从句 主要引导词:so?that, so that, such?that 注意: so?that 句式和 too?to 句式的区别是重要考点之一, so?that 接从句; too?to 接不定式 常用引导词:so ? that, such ? that, 特殊引导词:such that, to the degree that, to the extent that, to such a degree that,
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条件状语从句 主要引导词:if, unless, in case, so long as, on condition (that), provided (that) 常用引导词:if, unless,whether(whether...or not) 特殊引导词:as/so long as, only if, providing/provided that, supposing that, in case that, on condition that 让步状语从句 主要引导词:though, although, no matter, even if, even though, however, whatever 注意 though, although 等都不能够与 but 连用 常用引导词:though, although, even if, even though 特殊引导词: as( 用在让步状语从句中必须要倒装 ) , while ( 一般用在句首 ) , no matter ?, in spite of the fact that, whatever, whoever, wherever, whenever, however, whichever 比较状语从句 常用引导词:as(同级比较), than(不同程度的比较) 特殊引导词:the more ? the more ? ; just as ?, so?; A to B is what/as X is to Y; no ? more than; not so much A as B 方式状语从句 常用引导词:as, as if, how 特殊引导词:the way

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