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短 文 改 错 技 巧
“短文改错”题是各类考试中的一个重要题型。尽管该题难度不大,但仍有一些同 学在做此类题目时不得要领,因而得分甚少。本文结合高考试题,对“短文改错”题中 的常见错误加以分析,从中找出命题者设置错误的规律并介绍一些解题技巧。 一、 “短文改错”题中的常见错误类型 (一) 名词方面的错误 名词方面的错误多指名词单复数形式的误用,可数名词与不可数名词的错误,名词 所有格中“’s”的误置等。例如: 1. He had no ideas that the kitchen was not for guests. 2. In summer, the sea under the blue skies is even more beautiful. 3. ... you’ve been settled down in Boston and are getting used to the local ways of life. 4. ... but she marked strictly on student’s actual performance ... (二) 动词方面的错误 动词错误在短文改错中所占比重最大,它所涉及的错误包括动词的时态、语态错误; 易混动词的用法错误;动词的第三人称单数错误;动词的非谓语形式,以及动词的句型 搭配错误等。在改错题中,动词方面的考查比例较大。例如: 1. The air keeps the balloon up was escaping quickly and the balloon ... 2. I just want to thank you for helping me becoming a different person. 3. How about join us? The camp is at the foot of a small hill. 4. I’ll send my friend Charlie meet you at the airport. (三) 形容词、副词方面的错误 这类错误多指误用形容词修饰形容词,误用副词修饰名词,误用形容词修饰动词, 误用形容词或副词的原级、比较级和最高级以及误用带-ly 的副词与不带-ly 的副词等, 特别注意根据上下文该用比较级而未用的“暗中比较” 。例如: 1. They came back lately and had some tea. 2.... you always gave me specially attention ... 3. ... they fly down immediate and catch them without delay. 4. Yes,it is clearly that your life in your country is quite different from ... 5. I know you are particular interested in Human Rights. 6. Last year, my English teacher proved to be the more popular in our school.

(四) 连词方面的错误
短文改错中出现连词就要判断连词用的是否正确, 是否符合句子意思; 连接的是词还是句子, 是否符合逻辑关系。 此外如果是平行结构就要注意前后时态、语态、词性一致问题平行结构常借助与并列连词

and, or, but, not

only…but also…, …not…but…, either…or…, neither …nor…, as well as 等, though 不与 but 连用,because 不与 so 连用等。 1. It started to rise higher again. So it was still too close to the water. 2. I became very active but made new friends. 3. My hometown is a pretty city, so people there are kind and polite. 4. While they find fish come to the surface, they fly down immediately. 5. Both your aunt or I look forward to seeing you again. (五) 代词方面的错误
这类错误主要包括形容词性物主代词与名词性物主代词的误用,关系代词、连接代词的误用,代 词主格与代词宾格的误用,代词单数与代词复数的误用,各个不定代词之间的误用,反身代词与代 词宾格之间的误用,代词的指代错误,定语从句中多用代词等。

1. ... the men threw away most of his clothes to save themselves. 2. a lot of white birds come to my city for food. I can wait patiently above the sea for quite a long ... 3. If he spends most of his time playing about in the way that he used to as a child, they will go hungry. 4. That night, we sat down to what they thought would be a pleasant, uninterrupted ... 5. I just smiled to me and thought ... 6.... your life in your country is quite different from me. 7. Everybody sleeps in tents, that is very exciting. (六) 介词方面的错误 这类错误多指漏掉介词、多用介词或介词与其他词语搭配的错误等。例如: 1. The crowd waiting for to greet them in England was very surprised ... 2. He was looking for a glass the cupboard. 3. After autumn arrives,the city looks as an old man with leaves ... 4. ... he can no longer expect others to pay his food, his clothes ... 5. On the front door stood a five-year-old boy from across the street. 6. Could you share your experience for us? 7. My mother was a career woman and had her own problems to take care.

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(七) 冠词方面的错误 这类错误多指 a(n)与 the 的误用,a 与 an 的误用。有时也表现为:单数可数名词前面 该用冠词的地方缺少冠词,不该用冠词的地方多了冠词。例如: 1. An American and a Frenchman decided to cross the sea between France and England in the balloon in 1784. 2.... the popular teacher is at same time the one who should be strict with ... 3. And if he breaks the law of society ..., he may go to the prison. 4.... so we will have plenty of spare time to visit the area and have a fun. (八) 时态、语态方面的错误 这类错误主要为现在时态与过去时态、主动语态与被动语态的误用。做题时,应注 意把握文中动词时态的呼应规律,注意把握诸个并列动词时态、语态的呼应规律。例如: 1. We had guests last night who have not stayed in a B&B hotel before. 2. Today,I got a letter that said I had been admitting to a college. 3. We hung a sign on the front door that was read: “We’re having dinner ...” 4.... sometimes all that is need is someone to rely on. 5. I’ll send my friend Charlie to meet you at the airport when you arrived. (九) 主谓一致方面的错误 这类错误主要指主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词形式的错误。因此做题时,要注 意谓语动词的形式要和句子主语在人称和数上保持一致。例如: 1. “I just want to know what the sign say.” 2. Anyone can borrow books if he or she wish. 3. Here are the information about Manchester University. 4. What may surprise you are that I’m going to ... (十) 短语、句型固定搭配错误 主要考查介词与动词、名词、形容词的固定搭配;副词、动词的固定搭配;及物动 词后多介词或副词以及不及物动词后少介词,英语中的一些固定句型与习惯搭配等。 1. My teacher advised me to keep my diary. keep a diary 是固定搭配, 意思是“写日记”. To one’s surprise 是固定搭配 2. In my surprise, he did very well in his previous job. 为固定结构。
时刻保持巅峰状态,力争做第一。- 2 (一) 分成“四步走”

想做好“短文改错”题,不妨试试分成“四步走” ,遵循“四原则” ,实施“四查法”具体做法如下: 1. 通读全文,了解大意。注意语篇结构和行文逻辑。不能在不了解文章大意的情况下,逐字逐 行地进行修改。 2. 先易后难,缩小范围。在通读全文的过程中,可以先把文中明显的错误找出来改正,然后再 根据具体语境,仔细分析判断,将注意力集中在较难的句子上。 3. 把握句意,逐行判断。可依据“动词形,名词数,注意形和副;非谓动词细辨别,习惯用法 要记住;句子结构多分析,逻辑错误须关注”的口诀行事。 4. 再次通读,复查验证。把大部分错误改正之后,如果还有拿不准的地方,就应再次通读全文, 并利用语感来做最后的判断。 纵观近几年的“短文改错”题,正确的地方只有一处;多词和缺词的地方约有 3 处;用错词的地 方一般有 6 个,且多为动词。这种比例或许也能帮助你做出最后判断。 (二) 遵循“四原则” 1. 改动处以最少为原则。 “短文改错”题要求每行只能改动一处,改动的方法可以是增词、删词 或换词,但无论作何种改动,只能是增加一词、减少一词或把一个词改成另一个词。当然,没有错 误的行无需改动。也就是说,每行改动之处不能超过一个。 2. 实词以改变词形为原则。在“短文改错”题中,一般只是改变实词的形式,而不能改变实词 的词义,也不能将其改换成另一个实词,更不能随便增删。例如: ① The air keeps the balloon up was escaping quickly and the balloon ... (把 keeps 改为 keeping) ② Yes, it is clearly that your life in your country is quite different from ... (把 clearly 改为 clear) 3. 虚词以添加或删除为原则。历年的“短文改错”题中需要添加或删除的地方差不多有 3 至 4 处。这些需要添、删的词一般都是虚词(如冠词、介词等),不是实词(如动词、名词等),否则会改变 句子的原意。例如: ① They did not want breakfast because that they were going out early ... (删去 that) ② He was looking for a glass the cupboard. (the 前面加 in) 4. 以保持句子原意不变为原则。做“短文改错”题时,一般不应改变句子原意。改错时,应该 针对短文中的用词错误、语法错误、逻辑错误加以改正,不应更改作者的原意。做到换词不改意, 加词不增意,去词不减意。如有多种改法,应以保持原意为条件,择其佳者而从之。例如: But I have spent most my money, so I cannot… 改正:在 my 前加 of。也有同学去掉 most,这种改 法虽改正了语法错误,但改变了原意。作者想说的是“花掉了大部分的钱,而不是全部” 。

3. I thought that was dull to watch a game… 此题考查 it 的功能,It + be + adj. + to do

(三) 实施“四查法” 1. 左顾右盼查名词。考生应注意搜寻名词之前及其本身出现的错误,还要看该名词 前面是否缺限定词、该用何种限定词,尤其要查名词前冠词的使用情况。当名词前面有 形容词修饰时更要加倍注意。例如: Your knowledges of Greece can help the whole class. (把 knowledges 改为 knowledge) 2. “语(态)” 、 “时(态)”俱进查动词。考生应认真分析动词时态、语态的使用是否 正确, 尤其要根据上下文所提供的时间信息, 仔细推敲, 从而选用正确的动词时态形式。 例如: (2006 天津) I gained so much confidence that I go back to school ... (把 go 改为 went) 3. 启承转合查连词。若要使文章结构严谨,应在文中使用各种启承转合的连词。这 些连词能使文章在结构上和意义上通顺流畅。例如: It started to rise higher again. So it was still too close to the water. (把 So 改为 But) 4. 文通理顺查逻辑。 “文通”指行文合乎英文词法、句法; “理顺”指行文逻辑符合 人们普遍认可的道理。例如: (NMET 2006) The air keeping the balloon up was escaping quickly and the balloon was coming up. (把第二个 up 改为 down) 总之,要想做好“短文改错”题,除了掌握上面讲的原则、做法、步骤之外,平时 还要加强语言基础知识的学习,多做有针对性的训练。
I. 重点词汇 1. prefer v. (preferred/preferring)更喜欢,选择某事物(而不选择其他事物)[经典例句] 1). I prefer dogs to cats. 猫狗之中我更喜欢狗。 2). I prefer speaking the truth to lying. 我宁愿讲实话而不愿说谎。 3). Would you prefer that we put off our wedding till next mouth? 你是否更愿意把我 们的婚礼推迟到下个月?[重点用法] prefer sth../doing prefer A to B prefer doing A to doing B prefer (sb.) to do (rather than do) prefer that-clause [练习] 中译英 1). 比起乘坐拥挤的公共汽车,他宁愿骑自行车。_________________ _ 2). 玛丽更愿意我在外面等她。________________________

Keys: 1). Rather than ride on a crowded bus, he always prefers to ride a bicycle. 2). Mary prefers me to wait for her outside. 2. persuade v. 说服;劝说 [经典例句] 1). We persuaded him to take the job / into taking the job. 我们说服他接受这份工作。 2). My mother finally persuaded me not to go to the party / out of going to the party. 妈妈最终说服我不参加这次聚会。 3). How can I persuade you of my sincerity?我如何能让你相信我是真诚的? 4). I am almost persuaded that he is honest. 我几乎相信了他是诚实的。 [重点用法] persuade sb. to do sth.= persuade sb. into doing sth. 说服某人做某事 persuade sb. not to do sth. = persuade sb. out of sth./doing sth. 劝阻某人做某事 persuade sb. of sth. 使某人相信某事 persuade that-clause 使某人相信... [练习] 中译英 1)他正试图说服他的朋友放弃抽烟。 2) 我们使亨利相信是他错了。 3) 我几乎相信他是诚实的。 Key:1) He is trying to persuade his friends to give up smoking. 2) We persuaded Harry that he was wrong. 3)I am almost persuaded of his honesty. 3. insist v. 坚持[经典例句] You can come back later, if you insist. 如果你一定要坚 持,你就稍后再来吧。 [重点用法] insist on/upon sth./( sb’s) doing 坚持某事/要求(某人)做某事 I still insist on my viewpoint. 我仍然坚持我的观点。 He insisted on paying for the meal. 他坚持要付饭钱。 Mother insisted on our washing the clothes by ourselves. 妈妈坚决要求我们自己洗衣服。

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[练习] 选择填空 1). The man insisted _______ a taxi for me even though I told him I lived nearby. A. find B. to find C. on finding D. in finding 2). I insist that a doctor _______ immediately. A. has been sent for B. sends for C. will be sent for D. be sent for 3). Some people insisted that the person _____ a thief and insisted that he _____ to the police station. A. was; be taken B. was, would be taken C. should be; should be taken D. be; be taken Keys: 1). C 2). D 3). A 4. determinev. 决定;确定;下定决心 [经典例句] 1). Attitude determines everything. 态度决定一切。 2). We determined to go to the railway station at once. 我们决定立刻去火车站。 3). I wonder what determined her to marry him in the end. 我想知道是什么使她最终下 决心嫁给他的。 4). The court determined that the man was guilty of robbery. 法庭裁定那个人犯了抢劫 罪。 [重点用法] determine on/upon (doing) sth. determine + n. determine to do sth. determine sb. to do sth. 使某人下定决心做某事 determine + that-clause adj. be determined to do sth. [练习] 中译英 1). 你决定好暑假做什么了吗?__________________________________________ 2). 她决心要上哈佛大学。___________________________________ Keys: 1). Have you determined what to do in the summer holidays? 2).She was determined to go to Harvard University.

II. 重点词组 1. care about 关心,在乎 [经典例句] 1). The only thing he cares about is money. 他唯一在乎的东西就是金钱。 2). Family members should always care about each other. 一家人应该互相关心。 [短语归纳] care for 喜欢(多用于否定、疑问句);照顾 I don’t care for coffee. 我不喜欢 喝咖啡。Could you help care for my child when I am out?我外出时能帮忙照顾下我的孩子吗? [练习] 中译英 1). 她关心的只是她的社交活动。__________________________ 2). 他深深地爱着她。_____________________________________________________________ Keys: 1). All she cares about is her social life. 2). He cares for her deeply. 2. give in 屈服,让步,投降;上交 [经典例句] 1). Seeing that he could not persuade me, he had to give in (to my view). 由于无法 说服我,他不得不认输。 2). It’s time to give in your examination papers. 到了交试卷的时间了。 [短语归纳] give in (to sb./sth.) 向? 让步 give up sth./doing 放弃(做)某事 give away 赠送;泄露 give back 归还;恢复 give off 放出,散发(光、热、烟、气味等) give out vt. 分配;分发;发布 vi.(食物,燃料,电力等)用光;筋疲力尽

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[练习]用 give 构成的短语的适当形式填空。 1). When will the food supplied of our enemy________. 2). He intended to________ a large amount of money to the Project Hope. 3). Because of his low salary, he had to _________ his dream trip to Europe. Keys: 1). give out 2). give away 3). give up 3. change one’s mind 改变主意 make up one’s mind (to do) 下定决心(做某事) [经典例句] 1). Maybe you’ll change your mind after thinking it over. 也许你仔细考虑之后会改变 主意。 2). I have made up my mind to leave, and nothing you say will change it. 我已经下定 决心,不管你说什么我都不会改主意了。 [短语归纳] 与 mind 有关的常用短语 read one’s mind 看出某人的心思 keep one’s mind on 专心于 ?bear/keep sth. in mind 记住某事 bring/call sth. to mind 回忆某事 [练习] 中译英 1). 我决心当医生。____________________________________________________________ 2). 任何事情都不能使我改变主意。_________________________________ Keys: 1). I've made up my mind to be a doctor. 2). Nothing will make me change my mind. III. 重点句子 1. It was my sister who/that first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River. 首先想到沿湄公河骑车旅游的是我姐姐。 [解释] 强调句型 It is/was + 被强调部分+ that/who + 其余部分。被强调部分可以是原句的 主语、宾语、状语、从句。强调主语:It is the ability to do the job that matters, not where you come from or what you are. 关键是你的工作能力而不是你从哪来或你是谁。强调宾语:It was Michael that/who I gave this ticket to. 我把这张票给了麦克。强调时间状语:It was about 600 years ago that the first clock with a face and an hour hand was made. 大约600年前,第一 个有钟面和时针的钟诞生了。强调地点状语:It was in Brooklyn that Beckham first met Victoria,

so they named their first son Brooklyn. 布鲁克林是贝克汉姆和维多利亚第一次相遇的地方, 所以他们给第一个儿子取名布鲁克林。强调从句:It was because he is in critical condition that the doctor decided to operate on him. 医生之所以决定为他动手术,是因为他病情危险。 [练习] 中译英 1). 我 把 这 张 票 给 了 ______________________________________________________________ 麦 克 。

2). 医 生 之 所 以 决 定 为 他 动 手 术 , 是 因 为 他 病 情 危 险 。 ______________________________________________________________ Keys: 1). It was Michael that/who I gave this ticket to. 2). It was because he is in critical condition that the doctor decided to operate on him. 2. She insisted that she (should) organize the trip properly. [解释]insist + that-clause insist 意为“坚持要求(做某事)”时,宾语从句用虚拟语气, 谓语用 should do 的形式, should 可省略;而 insist 意为“坚持认为,坚持某种观点”时,宾语从 句的动词时态根据具体的语境变化,不用虚拟语气。He insisted that he hadn’t made a mistake. 他坚持认为自己没有犯错。The bodyguards insisted that the president (should) keep away from the crowd for the sake of safety. 出于安全考虑,护卫人员坚决要求总统远离人群。suggest (建 议),demand (要求),require (要求),request (请求),order (命令)等动词的宾语从句也常用 “(should) do”表示虚拟语气。 [练习] 中译英 1). 我坚决要求你立刻采取行动把事情处理好。___________________________________ 2). 他反应冷淡表明他并不喜欢这个主意。_______________________________________ Keys: 1). I insist on your taking/insist that you take immediate action to put this right. 2). His cool response suggested that he didn't like the idea.

时刻保持巅峰状态,力争做第一。- 5 -

(2) burst ____ anger/joy 勃然大怒/乐不可支 Ⅰ . 单词荟萃 1._____ vi. (使)爆裂;爆发 n.突然破裂;爆发→_____ 2.____ n.污垢;泥土→_____ adj.脏的;污秽的 3.______ n.休克;打击;震惊 vt.&vi.(使)震惊;震动→ ____ adj.震惊的→______ adj.令人震惊的 4._________ n.电;电流;电学→_______ adj.电的;用电的→_________ adj.发电的 _____________ n.祝贺;(复数)贺词______________ →_____________ vt.祝贺 6.______ n.骑自行车的人→_____ vt.骑自行车 7._______ vt.(使)惊吓,吓唬→__________ adj.受惊的;受恐吓的→__________ adj.令人恐惧的 8._______ vt.表示;表达 n.快车;速递→_________ n.表示,表达;脸色 Ⅱ . 短语检测 1.立刻;马上 2.结束;终结 3.掘出;发现 4.考虑得少,满不在乎 5.仿佛;好像 6.严重受损;破败不堪 7.许多的,大量的 8.以……而自豪 Ⅲ . 佳句再现 1.It seemed _________________________ (仿佛到了世界末日).(as if) 2.___________ (不是所有的希望) was lost. 3.____________________________ (你认为将会发生什么) before an earthquake?(happen) 4.______________________ (他们无论朝哪里看) nearly everything was destroyed. (Everywhere) 5.But the one million people of the city, ________________________________(不重视这些事件的), were asleep as usual that night. (who) 单词点睛 1 1) burst vt.&vi.(to explode;to come open or fly apart suddenly or violently)(使)破裂,爆发;突然发作 burst ____ … 闯入…… 【情景记忆】 burst into tears/laughter =burst ___ crying/laughing 突然大哭/大笑起来 (过去式)→______ (过去分词) 【温馨提示】 burst into 与 burst out 都有“突然进入某种状态或发生某种情况”的意思, 但 burst into 后面接名词, burst out 后面接动名词。 (1) The river _____________ (冲破河岸) and flooded the village. (2) He blew the balloon ____________ (爆了为止). (3) He __________________ (闯进了我的房间) without knocking at the door. (4) They ____________________ (都突然大笑起来) at the expression on her face. (burst out) 2 ruin vt. (to destroy completely)(使)毁灭;(使) 破产;毁坏 n. 毁灭;(the remains of something 一片废墟 使……毁灭;使……没落 成为废墟 自取灭亡 毁坏某人的健康/声誉 destroyed)(常用复数)废墟;遗迹,残余 (1) __ ruins bring… __ ruin fall in/into ruin (2) ruin oneself ruin one's health/fame 【易混辨析】 damage,destroy 与 ruin 这三个词都有“损坏、破坏”之意,具体区别如下: (1) damage 表示“损害,损坏”,通常指部分性的损坏,往往暗示损坏后价值、效率、功能等会降低, 有时用于比喻用法中。如: Smoking will damage your health. 吸烟会损害你的健康。 (2) destroy 表示“毁坏”, 通常指彻底的毁掉或毁灭, 往往暗示无法或很难修复,有时用于比喻用 法中。如: The fire destroyed the building. 大火烧毁了大楼。 (3) ruin 表示“毁坏,毁灭”,指彻底的毁坏,破坏的原因通常是自然现象、年龄、疏忽等。现多用 于比喻用法中,在真正具体地摧毁或破坏某座建筑物时,通常不用 ruin。如: Any kind of dishonest dealing will ruin his career. 【活学活用】 (1) An earthquake _________________________ (使全城到处是颓垣断壁).(leave) (2) Some pre-war constructions were abandoned and eventually _______________ (成为了废墟). (3) He _____________________ (现在没落了), but he has seen better days. (bring) (4) 用 damage, destroy 或 ruin 的适当形式填空 时刻保持巅峰状态,力争做第一。- 6 任何不诚实的交易都会毁了他的事业。

After the Wenchuan earthquake, many buildings ______________, but the local people still repaired the _________ ones and rebuilt the new ones to keep their hometown from coming to ____ 3 shock n.(the feeling of distress and disbelief that one has when something bad happens accidentally) 对某人来说是一个打击 令人震惊的人或事 被……震惊 做某事很震惊 休克;打击;震惊 vt.&vi.(使)震惊;震动;(使)惊愕;使触电 (1) (be)a shock __ sb. a great shock to sb. be shocked _____ be shocked to do sth.

judge+sb./sth. (+to be)+n./adj. 判定……为…… judge it+adj.+to do sth. (2) judgment n. 【温馨提示】 judging from/by…置于句首作状语,v.-ing 形式不受主语的限制,构成独立成分。类似的用法还有: generally speaking 一般来说 frankly speaking 活学活用】 (1) He was _______________ (裁判之一) in the Olympics. (2) You can't ___________________________ (以貌取人).(appearance) (3) _________________________________ (从他脸上的表情判断),the news must have been terrible. (4) He ____________________________ (被判定为最佳男演员)of this year. 6 bury vt.埋葬;掩埋;隐藏;使专心 be buried alive bury one's face in hands be buried in(=bury oneself in) bury oneself in (doing) sth. be buried in thought 【温馨提示】 表示 “ 专心于,致力于 ” 的短语还有: be devoted to, be absorbed in; be lost in; be occupied in; focus/concentrate on; fix one's attention on 【活学活用】 (1) The paper _____________________________ (被埋在书堆下). (2) He walked slowly, with ___________________________ (两手插在衣袋里).(bury) (3) Since she left, he ________________________ (他全心扑在工作上).(bury) 短语储存 1 at an end 结束;终结 at the end __ … __ the end __ the end of… make ends meet on end 在……的末端, 在……结束时 最后,终于 到……为止(常与完成时态连用) 收支相抵 连续(地);直立 被活埋 双手掩面 埋头于;专心于 埋头于;专心于 陷入沉思 坦白地说 considering… 考虑到…… 认为做某事是…… 判断,审判;判断力

(2) shocked adj. (主语多为人)感到吃惊的,感到惊讶的

(3) shocking adj. (主语多为物)令人气愤的,令人惊讶的 shock 意为“令人震惊的人或事”时为可数名词,其前可以与不定冠词连用。 The news of his mother's death was a terrible shock to him. 他母亲去世的噩耗使他非常震惊。 【活学活用】 (1) If you touch a live wire, you ______________ (就会触电). (2) We ________________ (都感到震惊) the news of his guilty. (3) _____________________ (多么惊人的浪费) of time!(what) (4) I __________________ (听到很震惊) that he had resigned. (5) What she did ____________________ (如此的令人震惊以至于) I can hardly describe it. (shock) 4 trap vt.(trapped, trapped)使陷入困境;设陷阱捕捉 n.陷阱;困境;捕捉器 (1) be trapped __ lay/set a trap (for) 陷入…… trap sb. into doing sth. 诱使某人做某事 (2) fall ____ a trap (=be caught in a trap) 安装捕捉器,设陷阱; 设计陷害,设圈套 【活学活用】 (1) Some miners ________________________ (被困在地下) after the collapse. (2) By clever questioning they ________________________ (诱使他招认了) that he had done it. (trap) 5 judge n.(one appointed to decide the winners of a contest or competition) 裁判员;法官 vt.&vi.(to (1) judging ________ … as ___ as I can judge 根据……来判断 据我判断,我认为 form an opinion or estimation after careful consideration)断定;判断;判决 judge+sb./sth.+by/from 以……来判断…… 掉入陷阱;落入圈套

时刻保持巅峰状态,力争做第一。- 7 -

end to end put an end __ 【活学活用】

衔接;首尾相连 结束

句型透视 1 What do you think will happen before an earthquake? 你认为地震之前将会有什么事情发生呢? 疑问词 + do you think/suppose/guess+陈述语序 【句式点拨】 该结构被称作混合疑问句,其中的 do you think/suppose/guess 是插入语。该结构中插入语后的句子应 使用陈述语序。 【活学活用】 (1) _________________ (你认为是谁) has taken my umbrella? (2) When do you think _______________________ (我们应该制订计划)? 2 It seemed as if the world was at an end!仿佛到了世 界末日! 【句式点拨】 as if 是连词词组,意为“好像,好似”,相当于 as though,一般用于句型 It looks/seems as if…中,其 意思是“看起来好像……”。如果所引导的从句表示的情况是真实的或是极有可能发生的情况时,句 子要用陈述语气;当说话人所陈述的是不真实的或极少可能发生或存在的情况时,从句用虚拟语气 句型公式 It seems (to sb.) that/as if… (对某人来说)似乎……(as if 后面可用虚拟语气) seem to be/like+n.… 似乎……,好像…… seem to be doing sth./to have done sth. 好像正在做/已经做了某事 seem (to be)+n./adj. 似乎是…… There seems to be… 好像有…… She acts as if she would go to the moon. 她的行为就好像是要去月球似的。 It looks as if it is going to rain. 看起来似乎要下雨。 There seems to be no need to wait longer. 似乎没有必要再等了。 句型公式

(1) I must warn you that my patience __________________ (几乎忍无可忍了).(end) (2) It's very late now. Let's ________________________ (结束这次会议).(put) (3) He stayed in the city ___________________________ (直到他的钱用光).(end) (4) Being out of work and having two young children, they found _____________________________ (不 可能维持起码的生活).(it) (5) It is reported that by the end of this week the stock exchange _______________ by about 10%. A.will have risen B.has risen C.will be rising 2 D.has been rising think little of 不重视;认为……没价值 (1) think highly/well/a lot/much of 对……的评价好 think poorly/badly of think nothing of it (2) speak highly of speak well/ill of 【活学活用】 (1) What made me angry was that she _______________ (不看重) my work. (2) It is wrong _________________________ (对什么都不在乎). (3) His work ____________________ (受到高度评价) by many experts. a (large) number of 许多,大量的 【温馨提示】 a large/great number of“许多的,大量的”,相当于 large/great numbers of,后面跟可数名词复数形式。 number 之前可加某些表示数量大小的形容词。a number of 加复数名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形 式;而 the number of 加复数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 (1) _______________________________ ( 许多 学生 ) find it hard to find an acceptable job after graduation. (number) (2) A great number of new factories ________________ (建立了) in my hometown. (3) If we use the new recycling method, a large number of trees _________________. A.have saved B.has save C.will be saved D.have been saved 对……的评价不好 不用谢,别放在心上 高度评价 说……的好/坏话

时刻保持巅峰状态,力争做第一。- 8 -

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