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同位语从句和定语从句的区别


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) Danby left word with my secretary ______ he would call again in the afternoon. A. who B. that C. as D. which

同位语从句
在复合句中充当同位语的名词性从句称为同位语从句。 同位语从句是名词性从句(主语从句、表语从

句、宾语从句、同位语从句,介宾从句) 中的主要从句之一,从句作同位语表示与之同位的名词(短语)的实际内容,它的作用相当 于名词,对前面的名词(短语)加以补充说明或进一步解释。 同位语与被它限定的词的格式要一致,并常常紧挨在一起。 1. 名词作同位语 Mr Wang,my child’s teacher,will be visiting us on Tuesday. 2.短语作同位语 I,the oldest girl in the family,always had to care for the other children. 3. 直接引语作同位语 But now the question comes to their minds, “Did Dolly die young because she was a clone?” 4. 句子作同位语 The girls were surprised at the fact that there lived a ghost in their house. I heard the news that our team had won. 一、可以跟同位语从句的名词通常有 news,idea,plan,truth,fact,theory,belief,promise, question,doubt,thought,hope,message,information,suggestion,word,possibility 等(一 般的“抽象”名词都可用) 。 二、引导同位语从句的词通常有连词 that,whether,连接代词 what,who。连接副词 how,when,where 等。 (注:if,which 不能引导同位语从句。 ) ①The boy who is playing football is my classmate. ②Those who work hard will succeed. ③The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody. ④The fact that you are talking about is important. ①I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing. ②I have no idea when she will be back. 定语从句和同位语从句共同的引导词有四个:that,when,where,why。 when,where,why 引导的定语从句的先行词一定分别是表示时间、地点和原因 的名词,而三者引导的同位语从句的先行词则肯定不是表示时间、地点和原因的 名词。 下面把四个引导词分成两类说明它们在两种从句中的不同用法。 1.引导词 that 引导定语从句的 that 叫做关系代词, 它除了起连接作用, 还在定语从句中充当一定 成分,作宾语时可省略,并且在意义上代表先行词;引导同位语从句的 that 叫做从 属连词,本身无意义,它只起连接作用。不能省略。 ①The news that you told me yesterday was really exciting. ②We heard the news that our team had won. 2.引导词 when,where,why 引导定语从句时,它们叫做关系副词,在从句中充当状语,可以转换成"介词+关系 代词"的形式;引导同位语从句时,它们叫做连接副词,在从句中充当状语,但不 能转换成"介词+关系代词"的形式。 例如:

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①I will never forget the day when I joined the army. ②We have no idea when she was born. ③This is the house where I lived two years ago. ④He put forward to the question where the meeting would be held. ⑤This is the reason why she will not attend the meeting. ⑥The teacher had no idea why Jack was absent. 1. 意义的不同 同位语从句是用于说明所修饰名词的具体内容的,它与被修饰词语通常可以划等 号; 而定语从句是限制所修饰名词的, 它的作用是将所修饰的名词与其他类似的东 西区别开来 2. 引导词的不同 what,how,whatever 等可引导同位语从句,但不引导定语从句。 3. 引导词的功能上的不同 that 引导同位语从句时, 它不充当句子成分, 而引导定语从句时, 它作为关系代词, 要么充当定语从句的主语,要么充当定语从句的宾语。 4. 被修饰词语的区别 同位语从句所修饰的名词比较有限, 而定语从句所修饰的名词则非常广泛。 , 另外, when 和 where 引导定语从句时,通常只修饰表示时间和地点的名词,而它们引导 同位语从句时却不一定;又如 why 引导定语从句,它通常只修饰名词 the reason, 而它引导同位语从句时则不一定 判断下列句子: I’ve come from Mr wang with a message that he won’t be able to see you this afternoon. I will never forget the day when we first met. This is the house where we lived fifteen years ago. The thought came to him that maybe the enemy had fled the city. He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not. This is the house which we sold fifteen years ago. The idea that you can do this work well without thinking is quite wrong. The question whether we should call in a specialist 专家 was answered by the family doctor. I have no idea what size shoes she wears. We are glad at the news that he will come. We are glad at the news that he told us. The question who will take his place is still not clear. We haven’t yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation. That is the special day that I will never forget. I have no idea when they will come . I’ll never forget the days when I lived there.

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