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虚拟语气导学


虚拟语气用法详解
一、 If 引导的非真实条件句

1. 知识基础表格释义
从句中提出一种与客观现实不相符或根本不可能存在的条件,主句会产生的一种不可能获得的结果。条件句中的 虚拟语气根据不同的时间有三种不同的形式。 时间 从句谓语形式 动词过去式(be 用 were) 将来 should + 动词原形 were to + 动词原形 现在

动词过去式(be 用 were) would / should / might / could + 动词原 形 would / should / might / could + 动词原 形 过去 had +动词过去分词 would / should / might / could have + 动 词过去分词 例句如下: If he should go to Qing Hua University, he would make full use of his time. 如果他要上清华大学的话, 他就会 充分利用他的时间了。(将来) If he studied at this school, he would know you well. 如果他在这所学校学习的话,它会对你很熟悉。(现在) If I had got there earlier, I would have met Mr. Li. 如果我早点到那儿,我就会会到了李先生。(过去) 2. 高考考点提示 ① 错综条件句 虚拟条件句中,主、从句的动作若不是同时发生时,须区别对待。主句从句的结构应分别考虑。 If I had worked hard at school, I would be an engineer now. 如果我在校刻苦的话,我现在应是工程师了。 从句与过去事实相反 主句与现在事实相反 主句谓语形式

If he knew her, he would have greeted her. 要是他认识她的话,他肯定会去问候她了。 从句与现在事实相反 ② 条件句中的倒装 当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有 were, should, had 时,if 可省略,而将 were, should, had 等词置于句首。如: Should he agree to go there, we would send him there. 要是他答应去的话,我们就派他去。 Were she here, she would agree with us. 如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。 Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here. 如果她懂一些电脑知识的话,我们会已 经聘用他来这里工作了(from www.yygrammar.com)。 主句与过去事实相反

③ 含蓄条件句 有时,句子没有直接给出假设情况的条件,而须通过上下文或其他方式来判断。常见的特征词有 but,but for,wi thout,or 和 otherwise。例句如下: I would have come to see you, but I was too busy. 我本该来看你了,然而我太忙了。 But for his help, we would be working now. 要不是他的帮助,我们还会在工作呢。 You instructed me, or I would not have made such great progress. Without your instruction, I would not have made such great progress. 要是没有你的指导,我不会取得如此大的进步。 Given more attention, the tree could have grown better. 如果多留心的话,这树本来可以长的更好。(MET 1990) (-ed 分词做条件状语,暗示: If the tree had been given more attention) 二、虚拟语气的其它情况

1. 表格释义
虚拟语气情况 表现形式

i

建议,命令,请求等字眼及同源词后接从句结构

advise, ask, demand, desire, decide, insist(坚决要求) , order, propose, request, suggest(建议),suggested , requested, desired, proposed, advice, desire, decision, idea, instruction, order, plan, proposal, recommendation, request, requirement, suggestion, shoud 加动词原形动词,should 可省略

ii wish 接宾语从句结构 iii as if, as though 接从句表虚拟 iv It is(high)time
接从句

时态倒退一步 时态倒退一步 shoud 加动词原形动词,should 不可省略;时态倒退一步 时态倒退一步

v would rather, had rather, would sooner 等之后的宾语从
表示与客观事实不相符的一种愿望

vi 在表达惊异、惋惜、遗憾、理应如此等意义的主语从
句中常使用虚拟语气 It is admirable / disappointing / surprising / impor tant / strange / necessary / proper / natural …that… It is a pity / a shame / no wonder…. that… shoud 加动词原形动词,should 可省略

i

The teacher advised that we should make good use of every minute here. 老师劝我们要好好地利用在这儿的每一分钟。 His suggestion is that we should do our work more carefully. 他的建议就是我们的工作要更细心些。

It is advisable that we go home now. 我们应该现在回家。

ii iii iv v vi

I wish I had been there with them last week. 我希望上周跟他们一起在那儿。 He coughed twice as if someone should come. 他咳嗽两声就好像有人要来了。 It is time that I went to pick up my daughter at school. 我该去学校接我的女儿了。 It is high time you should go to work. 你早该上班了。 I’d rather you were here now. 我倒想你现在在这儿。 It is a pity that we should not meet last night. 真遗憾我们昨天晚上没有见过面。

2. 重难点提示 一、insist : A)作“坚决认为”解时,其后面的宾语从句用陈述语气。如: I insisted to everyone that he was wrong.我对每个人坚持说他错了。 B)作“坚决主张、坚决要求”解时, 其后面的宾语从句要用虚拟语气, 即宾语从句的谓语用 (should)do sth. 如: I insisted that he(should)go to see my father.我坚决要他去见我的父亲。 二、suggest: A)作“使想起、暗示、表明”解时,其后面的宾语从句用陈述语气。如: Her expression suggested that she was angry.她的表情显示出她生气了。 B)作“建议”解释时,其后面的宾语从句用虚拟语气,也就是说宾语从句的谓语用(should)do sth. 如: I suggested that she(should)leave early for the airport. 我建议她早点儿动身去机场。

虚拟语气典型考点检测
1. If only he ____quietly as the doctor instructed, he would not suffer so much now. A. lies B. lay C. had lain D. should lie

2. _____it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge A. Were B. Should C. Would D. Will

3. He ____busy yesterday, or he ___you with your experiment. A. was, had helped C. had been, would have helped B. was, would have helped D. were, would have helped

4. I insisted _____to see a doctor, but he insisted nothing ___ wrong with him A. on him to go; should be 5. I wish I ____here then A. was B. had been C. were D. would be B. he went; be C. he go; was D. he should to; is

6. The kind-hearted couple treat the orphan very well as though he ____ their own son A. is B. were C. had been D. should be

7. It is high time that we ____ a meeting to discuss this problem A. hold B. held C. have held D. had held

8. I would rather you ____anything about it for the time being A. do B. didn’t do C. don’t D. didn’t

9. It is necessary that an efficient worker __________ his work on time. A accomplish B accomplished C can accomplish D has accomplished

即学即用
Yesterday, when my brother and I walked around down our department we picked a computer. 昨天,我和弟弟在楼下逛的时候捡了一个电脑。 The computer is very new. It looks as if it ____ bought yesterday. My brother was moved. He 电脑很新,看起来像是昨天买的。弟弟心动了,他 insisted that something found by yourself ____ yours and that the computer ____ left with him. 坚决认为谁捡的东西就归谁还坚持要把电脑留下来。 Though I had always been recommending that he ____ the computer ____ (上交), I could not 虽然我一再建议他把电脑上交,我还是不能 change his mind. He even determined to sell it. We were of different opinions, so we took it 改变他的主意。他甚至想把电脑卖了呢。我们意见不同,只好先把 home first. When we arrived home we were told that our dad’s computer had been left

电脑拿回家了。当我们到家的时候我们得知爸爸的电脑丢了。 somewhere. It is surpring that the computer we took home ____ the one our dad lost. If we ___ 令人吃惊的是我们带回家的电脑正是爸爸丢的。如果我们 _____ our dad’s computer, we ________ now because it is very important for my dad. It is time 把爸爸的电脑卖了,我们现在应该正哭呢,因为这个电脑对爸爸来说很重要。是时候 we ____ the example of LeiFeng. 学习学习雷锋了!


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