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TOEFL语法满分精要 之精要


从句 表语,宾语,定语从句 1. That 引导宾语从句时 That 可省,引导主语从句,表语从句不可省 2. Wh-型代词和副词引导疑问句时要倒装,从句都不能倒装 3. 引导宾语从句的 whether 和 if 通常可以互换,但与 or,not 连用时只能用 whether 4. As if 也经常用于引导表语从句 5. 某些形容词后,跟 that 引导的表语从句,that 常

被省略,这些词有:afraid, alarmed, amazed, amused, angry, annoyed, astonished, aware, clear, confident, depressed, disappointed, distressed, glad, grateful, happy, hopeful, horrified, irritated, pleased, proud, sad, shocked, sorry, sure, thankful, upset 等等 6. 关系代词在定语从句中必定担当一个句子成分,所以注意主语,宾语的重复,同时做主语的时候不可省略 7. 关系代词本身没有单复数区别,从句中的谓语动词取决于先行词 8. 在定语从句中做介词宾语的关系代词只能用 which 和 whom 9. 关系代词 whose 在定语从句中做定语,修饰名词,该名词可以是人,也可以是物,且后者居多,表示 of which 10. 定语从句中的语态取决于先行词(当关系代词做主语时) 11. Such….as 中 as 引导定语从句,不可替换成别的任何词 12. The same ….as/that 中, 表示同类, as that 表示 not changed, not another 即该事物本身) 如: ( , you’ve made the same mistakes as I did(another) ; you’ve made the same mistakes as you made last time (itself) 13. What 不能引导定语从句 14. 先行词为 all, nothing, everything, something, anything, much, little 等(复合)不定代词时,或先行词有序数次,最高 级修饰,或被 the only, the very, the same, the last 修饰时,只能用 that 引导定语从句而不能用 which 15. 介词+关系代词引导定语从句时,人用 whom, 物用 that 16. 非限定性定语从句只能由 which, who, whom 引导 17. 先行词有多个(人和物并存) ,用 that 引导定语从句 18. 定语从句与强调句型需要注意区分, 强调句型为 it is/was + 强调成分 + that/who, 在强调句型中, 去掉 is/was that/who 两部分仍然可成为一个完整句 状语从句 连接词: 时间:when, whenever, as, while, before, after, until, till, once, the moment, as soon as, by the time, since 地点:where, wherever 原因:because, as, since, now that 目的:so that, in order that, for fear that, in case that, lest 结果:so that, so….that, such….that 条件:if, as long as, unless, provided 让步:though, although, no matter, however, even if 方式:as if, as though, as 比较:than, as 注意:状语在句子中不作为一个语法成分,因此状语也不仅仅限于从句,也可以由介词短语作为状语,并且介词短语有时在 中文意思上和连接词完全一样,而介词只能接名词,连接词可以引导从句,需要注意区分 常见介词与连词的混淆 1.Despite, in spite of -介 2.During-介 although, though-连

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3.Because of, on account of, thanks to-介 4.Too…..to….为不定式结构,so….that….为状语从句结构,不可混淆 5.Since 是介词和连接词,做连接词时,可以引导原因状语从句和时间状语从句,做介词时只能后面跟时刻 6.Even 为强调副词,不能引导状语从句,必须用 even though, even if 有几种状语从句中可以省略主语和部分谓语,有: When, while 引导的时间状语从句 If, unless 引导的条件状语从句 Though, even though, although, no matter how 引导的让步状语从句 As if 引导的方式状语从句 但是省略必须满足以下两点要求: 1. 从句主语和主句主语一致 2. 从句谓语必须包括动词 be 此时可以省略是主语和谓语部分中的动词 be,其他连接词引导的不可省略 同位语从句 要点: 1. 可接同位语从句的名词(泛属于抽象概念,概括性,蕴涵性的需要一定解释的名词即可) 信息:information, news, word, message, story, proof, announcement 等 思想:thought, idea, belief, truth 等 心理活动:hope, doubt, fear 等 问题回答:question, problem, answer, reply 等 建议劝告:suggestion, proposal, advice 等 许诺保证:promise, permission 等 2. 同位于从句的引导词:that, whether, who, what, when, where, why, how 同位语从句与定语从句判断标准:看前面的名词能不能与句子划等号 That 只要不是在从句中作主语都可省略,但 that 作从句中介词后的宾语则必须当 that 紧跟先行词时才可省略。

名词 常见不规则复数形式 child foot tooth goose man woman mouse louse ox penny analysis appendix children feet teeth geese men women mice lice oxen pence analyses appendices parenthesis basis ellipsis axis hypothesis oasis crisis criterion phenomenon datum medium bacterium parentheses bases ellipses axes hypotheses oases crises criteria phenomena data media bacteria nucleus fungus stimulus alumnus focus radius terminus larva alga formula nuclei fungi stimuli alumni foci radii termini larvae algae formulae

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结尾读音为[f]并且以-f 或-fe 结尾的名词变化 1. 规则变化:beliefs, chiefs, cliffs, dwarves, hoofs, scarves 2. 不规则变化:把 f 或 fe 变成 v,加 es,读音为[vz] 3. 杂交变化: wharfs, wharves 均可 以-o 结尾 1.+s : kilos, photos, Filipinos, Eskimos, radios, solos 死物 2.+es : heroes, potatoes, tomatoes, Negroes 活物 3.+es/s : cargos / cargoes 半死不活 单复数同形: deer grouse salmon trout carp bison sheep Chinese 词的性别 词缀 actor prince hero host waiter widower 没联系 father uncle son king 变态词 dog bitch horse stallion mare duck drake 雌雄均可,多指公狗 母狗 雌雄均可 公马 母马 雌雄均可,多指母鸭 公鸭 mother aunt daughter queen actress princess heroine hostess waitress widow Japanese Portuguese Swiss Vietnamese barracks corps crossroads gallows headquarters means series species works horsepower hertz kilohertz li mu aircraft spacecraft craft offspring

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加表示性别的词 male nurce maid servant gentleman friend(男性朋友) male swan 要点: 1. 单数名词不可单独存在-必须有冠词 2. Every, each, another, many a 只能修饰单数可数名词 3. 序数后一般使用单数可数名词 4. Other 一般修饰复数名词,也可以修饰不可数 5. 只能修饰复数名词:these, those, many, various, several, numerous, few, a few, both, diverse, a (good / large / great) number of, numbers of, one of 6. One / two / many + of + 限定词 + 复数名词 必须使用复数形式的词:clothes, riches, fireworks, remains, wages, ashes, thanks, sweets 复合词:num, + n. + (adj.),其中 n.要用单数 只修饰不可数名词:much, little, a little, a great deal of, a great amount of, a piece of, an article of 代词 1. 反身代词没有所有格,要用 one’s own 表示 2. 反身代词不能作主语 3. 既能作不定代词又能作形容词:some, any, another, each, all, both, most, such, few, one, enough, many, neither, either 4. Every, no 只能当形容词,后面必须跟名词才能存在 5. 不定代词后有 of+名词结构名词前一定要有限定词,如: few of the students, many of these bridges 6. That 和 one 可以指代单数名词,those 和 ones 可以指代复数名词 7. Other 即是限定词又是代词,others 为复数形式 8. 任何代词与指代对象要保持数的一致 9. It 可以表示时间,日期,天气,距离;可以代替不定式,从句,动名词(短语)作形式主语或宾语, 形容词 1. 当一个名词有相应的形容词时,优先使用形容词进行修饰 2. 形容词修饰不定代词后置 3. 形容词短语修饰名词后置,相当于定语 形容词短语:1.两个或两个以上形容词并列:He is a man rude but henpecked 2.形容词与介词短语搭配:This is a subject worthy of careful study 3.少数形容词后直接跟逻辑宾语:She own a diamond worth $5,000,00;A student confident that….. 4.有些形容词与不定式:a good , always ready to… 5.So…to do, too….to do, …..enough to do 结构 注意:若该结构修饰的名词前有不定冠词可这样修改:she is a nurse careful enough to…=she is careful enough a nurse to…. 6.少数形容词后可加-ing 分词:person busy doing; a student long understanding 7.距离,时间(名词)+形容词:a tower 180 feet high 8.More…than, as…as 构成:a student no more diligent than Tom man doctor woman voter lady clerk female flower

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9.单个分词修饰名词,可前置也可后置,若分词短语则后置:a stolen car = a car stolen 4. 形容词顺序:数词,描述性形容词,品质性形容词 5. 形容词作宾语补足语时一般在宾语后,当宾语有很长的后置定语的时候则在宾语之前 6. 形容词,形容词短语作状语 7. 下列形容词没有比较级,最高级 表示相对关系的:former, latter, inner, outer, upper, elder 表示强调意义的:mere, outright, utter, very 表示限制意义的:chief, joint, main, only, principal, sole, chemical, nuclear, solar 源自拉丁问的形容词:major, minor, senior, junior, superior, inferior, prior 表示国籍的形容词:English, French 表示绝对意义的形容词:average, equal, daily, weekly, unique, square, round, vertical, excellent, infinite, extreme, right, absolute, correct, true, wrong, right, false, left 其他:inside, outside, indoor, outdoor 8. 修饰形容词,副词原级,比较级,最高级的词 原级:exactly, just, nearly, almost, hardly, twice, three times 比较级:slightly, a little, a bit, much, many, a lot, greatly, a great deal, far, even, still 和程度词-2 times… 最高级:by far, the second 9. 特殊意义的结构 No more…..than 与。。同样不 。 Tom no less than Jerry = Tom as much as Jerry TOM 和 JERRY 吃的一样多 More….than 与其说。 。不如说 It is more a poem than a picture 与其说它是副画,不如说是首诗 As….as, more than, less than 非真正意义上的比较,仅仅是一种前置修饰 It’s no more than a mile to….只有一里就到。 。 He will come in less than…他不用。 。个小时就会来 As many as 300 people come…多达 300 人来了 易混形容词: Literal 逐字的,字面的 literary 文学的 Economic 经济学的 economical 节约的 Historic 历史上著名的 historical 历史的 Forgettable 易被忘记的 Respectable 受尊敬的 forgetful 健忘的 respectful 恭敬的 respective 各方面的 imaginative 富于想象力的

Sensible 明智的 sensitive 敏感的 Imaginable 可想像的 imaginary 想像中的 Special 特殊的 specific 明确的,特有的 Effective 有效的 efficient 效率高的 Credible 可信的 creditable 值得赞扬的 Considerable 相当多的,大量的 considerate 考虑周到的 Industrial 工业的 industrious 勤劳的 副词

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1. Yet 作状语在否定句中,要么在 not 之后,要么在句末 2. 连接副词可以联系句与句,体现逻辑,但非连接词-不能在句首引导句子,只能作插入语 举例, 补充: first, second / firstly, secondly / anyhow, anyway / again, also, too, besides, further, furthermore / moreover, next, then / 总结:altogether 解释:namely 转换话题:incidentally, meanwhile, now, well 结果:accordingly, consequently, hence, therefore, thus, thereby 否定:else, otherwise 让步:however, nevertheless, notwithstanding, still, though 对比:alternatively, conversely, instead 冠词 1. 不定冠词的一些习惯用法:have a walk / rest, all of a sudden, as a rule, go on a diet, in a sense, once in a while 2. 定冠词的一些习惯用法:all the time, by the way, in the distance, on the whole, to the point, out of the question, pull sb. By the arm , in the morning / afternoon / evening, in the past, in the meanwhile, in the air 3. 同一名词在同一短语中反复出现时, 该名词前一般不使用任何冠词: hand in hand, step by step, day after day, from there to there 4. 有相对关系的名词在同一短语中成对使用一般不加冠词:from city to suburb, from birth till death, heart and soul, day and night 5. 在 a kind / type / category / species / sort of 等结构后面的名词前一般不使用任何冠词 6. 表示官职,职位,身份,称呼的名词前一般不使用冠词 7. 零冠词的一些习惯用法:by accident, in advance, in fact, go to school / hospital / prison / bed (上学,住院,坐牢,睡觉), on duty, on earth, under way 介词 重要介词: 1. After 在。。以后 。 2. Among 在。。一类中;是。 。 。中之一;在。 。范围之内 3. As 作为,以。 。的身份;用于 the same …as, such as 和 as…as…等习语 4. By 由,被;凭借,通过,用 5. Despite 尽管,任凭,不顾 6. During 在。 。期间 7. In 在。 。期间;在。。的过程中;在。 。 。里面 8. Into 到。 。里面 9. Like 像 10. Of 属于;由。。组成 。 11. Since 从。。以来;从。。以后 。 。 12. To 朝;向;到 1. 介词短语中的加冠词与不加冠词的区别:加冠词按照字面意思理解,不加冠词则按常识理解:e.g. table 在桌边 2. 介词搭配通常跟词干确定而不限词性 3. 需要记忆的固定搭配与辨析 P162 at table 吃饭,at the

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数词 1. Only, more than, less than 等限定词修饰数词时,应紧靠在数词之前 2. One of the+名词短语 中,名词短语的名词用复数,后面的谓语动词用单数 3. 序数词和形容词一起前置修饰名词时,序数词应放在前面 动名词的用法 1. 动名词可作主语,宾语,补语和定语 2. 动名词具有动词特征,后面可以接宾语,可以被副词修饰 3. 动名词的被动语态:being + v.ed;完成时态:having + v.ed 4. 介词宾语和下列动词,习惯用语中必须用动名词,不能用不定式 动词: Advise, anticipate, fancy, mind, doubt, escape, finish, ponder, admit, suggest, consider, miss, delay, mention, resist, resent, risk, appreciate, enjoy, deny, keep, practice, avoid, postpone, favor, ensure, resume, detest, can’t help, forgive, quit, recall, celebrate, pardon, regret, advocate, tolerate, report, excuse, imagine, dislike, discontinue 习语: Cannot help +V-ing = cannot but +V There is no + v-ing = it is impossible to do It is no use + V-ing = it is of no use to do Be worth + V-ing Be busy + V-ing Of one’w own + V-ing = ~ed by oneself Feel like + V-ing Look forward to + V-ing Confess to + V-ing 5. 不定式 to 与介词 to 的区别 (1) 表示反对,对立,针对的 to 为介词 Be contrast to, be contradictory to, object to, be opposed to, with a view to, in contrast to (2) 表示“于”或“对于”的 to 也通常为介词 Be used to, be accustomed to, be exposed to, be devoted to, be dedicated to, abandon oneself to, limited to, committed to, resort to, react to, as to, with regard to, respond to 6. 表示禁止,防止等语义的动词后面一般接 from,再加动名词。From 偏向于否定:V1 + 宾语 + From + V2-ing. 分词 1. 分词作补语,若与修饰名词关系为主谓则用现在分词,若为动宾则为过去分词:a bell ringing, I ‘m excited at the news 2. 分词作定语,用一般主动式或一般被动式,不能用完成式,表示动作正在进行用现在分词,以完成用过去分词:a moving story, a meeting held yesterday 3. 分词作状语,分词与句子主语存在主谓关系:现在分词的主动式;分词与句子主语存在动宾关系:现在分词的被动式或 过去分词;现在分词一般式-动作与主句谓语同时进行,现在分词完成式-动作在主句谓语动词之前做完,过去分词- 强调动作已作但不强调时间(主动,被动不影响分词表示的时间概念) :He sat there, reading a book. Given more attention, the trees..= Being given more attention, the trees… 不定式 1. 不定式作表语,通常带 to,但前面若有 do 的限定形式,则 to 省略:What he did was (to) call us 注意:凡表示“目的” “理由” “功能” “意图”等语义的名词作主语,表语一定要用不定式:purpose, objective, goal, aim,

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function, reason, intention 2. 有些动词后只能用不定式(短语)而不能用其他形式:afford, agree, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, care, choose, claim, consent, contrive, dare, decide, decline, demand, deserve, desire, determine, endeavor, expect, fail, fear, guarantee, help, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, long, manage, offer, petition, plan, pledge, plot, pray, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, resolve, seek, swear, threaten, undertake, venture, volunteer 3. 不定式作 except, but 的宾语 4. 不定式作定语, 被修饰词与不定式存在施动或受动关系, 以及一些常用不定式作定语的名词: ambition, approach, chance, courage, way, effort, force, method, motive, movement, opportunity, power, reason, time, ability, determination, attempt 5. 不定式作结果状语:too….to, adj/adv + enough + to.., so + adj/adv + as….to 6. 不定式在使役动词后面作宾补:cause, compel, drive, enable, enforce, force, get, lead, leave, oblige, press, urge 7. 不定式在一些表示思维活动的词后作宾补,参照 P.186-187 8. 除 Have, let, make 等使役动词,感观动词:feel, hear, listen 等后面使用不带 TO 的不定式(被动 to 要还原) 9. 一些短语接不带 to 的不定式: had better, would rather, had sooner(宁愿), had rather, would sooner 宁愿) cannot but ( , (不得不),do nothing but(只是), prefer to do rather than do 10. 不定式常用于被动语态的动词后作主语的补语 11. 不定式作形容词补语: (1) 不定式表原因:I am sorry to hear that(常用形容词:fortunate, glad, happy, lucky, proud, sorry) (2) 表示人的品格或智能特征的形容词:He was silly to do so (3) 句子主语与某些形容词之后的不定式存在逻辑受动关系:She was difficult to teach (4) 某些形容词后表示最终没发生的未来动作:He is afraid to go there (5) 在表示说话人的看法的形容词后:He is certain to come 12. 疑问词+不定式结构 主谓一致:not only…but also, not…but, either…or, neither…nor, or, nor, there be 后面的动词采用就近原则 倒装 1. 2. So …..that : So beautiful is the girl that she remains single today As….as , More….than I swim as well as did Mao 比较内容是动作,并且对象使用专有名词而非代词 3. 表示地点,位置,范围,处所的状语或标语提前至句首 Among those students is my sister. In Zhang Guan Cun Lies New Oriental school 4. 分词或形容词短语提取句首 Contrary to the opinion of most people is my heartfelt objection to the construction plan S + Be + Adj. + 介 + O.→ Adj. + 介词 + O. + be + S S + Be + 分词 +(介) + O. → 分词 + (介词) + O. + Be + S 5. Adj. + though / as + S + 谓 + 主句 Busy as I am, I will go shopping 6. 表否定的副词或短语 + 助动词 + S + 谓语 + 其他成分 否定词:Not / Nor / never / neither / not / seldom / rarely / barely / scarcely / hardly 7. Only + 状语置于句首 + 助动词 + 主谓语 + 其他成分 Only though this crisis do I understand that you love me best in the world

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虚拟语气 1. 谈过去的情况,动词为:条件从句-had+过去分词,主句-would have + 过去分词 2. 谈现在或将来的情况:条件从句-过去式,主语-would+动词原形 3. 动词为 be 式,多用 were 形势 条件句

4. Demand, suggest, propose, request, insist, order, suggestion, proposal, order, idea 等词引起的从句中美国多用动词原 形,英国用 would + 动词原形:I suggest that we (should) cancel the trip 5. Wish, would rather, had rather, as if, tough, if only 后的从句,动词用相当于陈述语气过去时态或过去将来时态:I wish I were a bird, I’ve loved you as if you were my son 6. It’s (high) time 后的定语从句中, 谓语也要用虚拟语气 (过去式) It’s time we went to bed, It’s time that they were taught : a lesson

从句

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