独立主格结构和 with / without复合结构
形容词&副词&介词短语&状语从句 非谓语动词 （逻辑主语与整句的主语相同）
2.结构: 名词/代词 + 非谓语（doing
& todo & done） 形容词&副词 逻辑主语 介词短语
Taking your age into consideration, You’d better not go hiking. (逻主you) Your age taken into consideration, you’d better not go hiking. (逻主your age)
(Ⅰ) 名词/代词+分词(过去分词done & 现在分词doing) l 当分词作状语时,其逻辑主语与句子的主 语不一致时,分词应有自己的逻辑主语, 构成分词的独立结构。一般位于句首,也 可放在句尾;作伴随状语时,常放在句首。 This problem settled they left the 1.________________, meeting – room.（问题解决了）（settle） Time permitting ,we`ll go there on foot. 2.____________ (时间允许的话)(permit) (cross) 3.He was lying on the grass,(他的手交叉在手下) his hands crossed under his head. __________________________
(Ⅱ)名词/代词 + (being) 形容词 mother (being) ill 1. His _________________,he had to stay home to look after her.(他妈妈生病了) 2. He entered the house,(他的鼻子冻得通红) his nose red with cold. （red） ___________________ (Ⅲ)名词／代词＋（being) 副词 wrong side out He put on his socks，_____________. （反的一面在外面）(out)
1.I send you 100 dollars today, the rest __ in a year. (2005湖南) A. follows B. followed C. to follow D. being followed . The last guest to arrive
2.__________________________ (最后一个人 的到来)，our party was started. （arrive）
（Ⅴ）名词／代词＋介词短语 在这一结构中，如果逻辑主语与介词短语 中的名词都是单数名词，这些名词前习惯 不用冠词。 1.Our teacher came into the classroom, book in hand 手上一本书) ____________.( Flag on shoulder the soldier rushed 2._______________ to the top of the mountain.(肩上一面旗帜）
(Ⅵ)有些独立主格结构中没有分词，仅 在名词或代词之后直接跟作表语或状语 的词或词组，省去的分词一般是being 或having been，这是为了简练。但在 “being+过去分词”或“there being＋ 过去分词”结构中，being不可省。
Breakfast (being) over he went to 1.___________________, school.(早餐结束后)（over） There being no cause for alarm 2.____________________________,she went back to her room. (没有闹钟的原因) The room being painted now we 3._________________________, can‘t go there. (房间正在被油漆)
二．With和without复合结构 with和without复合结构是: with/without＋名词／代词＋分 词／不定式／形容词／副词／介 词短语。在句子中可以作状语或 定语。
（Ⅰ）with/without＋名词／代词＋现在分词。 用现在分词表示主动、正在进行或发生的动作。 I couldn`t finish my work with those children __. A. playing around B. plays around C. played around D. to play around
(Ⅱ) with/without 名词／代词+ 过去分词。用过去 分词表示被动或已完成的动作。 In the read-room, we found her seated at a desk, with her attention __ on a book. A. fixing B. fixes C. fixed D. to fix
(Ⅲ) with/without＋名词／代词＋不定式。 用不定式表示将要发生的动作。 With a lot of difficult problems __, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled
(Ⅳ)with/without＋名词／代词＋形容词。 She sleeps with the window open.
(Ⅴ) with/without+名词／代词＋副词。 __ production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year. A. As B. For C. With D. Through (Ⅵ) with/without+名词／代词＋介词短语。 1.He sleeps with a book in his hand. 2. A girl with a necklace around her neck got on the bus.
（Ⅰ） with和without复合结构与独立主格结构在句 中作状语时，一般可相互转换；此外还可变为状语从 句或并列句。 （１）作时间状语 With winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south. =Winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south. = When winter comes on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south.
（２）作原因状语 With the key lost, she could not enter the room.
=The key lost, she could not enter the room. =As/Because the key had been lost, she could not enter the room.
(3)作条件状语 With time permitting, we`ll visit the Summer Palace.
=Time permitting, we`ll visit the Summer Palace.
=If time permits, we`ll visit the Summer Palace.
(4)作伴随状语 Here are the first three volumes with the fourth one to come out next month. =Here are the first three volumes, the fourth one to come out next month.
=Here are the first three volumes and the fourth one is coming out next month.
Soon she arrived at a park with grass green and flowers in blossom.
=Soon she arrived at a park whose grass was green and whose flowers were in blossom.
1.__ ten minutes __ before the last train left, we arrived at the station. A. There were; to go B. With; to go C. I was; left D. It had; left 2.The lady said she would buy a gift for her daughter with the __. A.20 dollars remained B.20 dollars to remain C.remained 20 dollars D. remaining 20 dollars 3.__ the lights off, we could not go on with the work. A. Until B. As C. With D. Because
4.It was a pity that the great writer died __ his work unfinished. A. for B. with C. from D. of 5.The weather __ so bad, we had to put off the football match. A. was B. is C. were D. being 6. __, the runners raced on to the finishing line. A. Stick in hand B. With a stick in his hand C. Sticks in hand D. Sticks in hands 7. The boy lay on the ground, his eyes __ and his hands __. A. being closed; trembling B. closed; trembling C. closed; trembled D. closing; trembled
8.__,the work can be done much better. A. Given more time B. We had been given more time C. More time given D. If more time had given 9.Weather __, the sports meet will be held as scheduled. A. permits B. will permit Well C. to permit D. permitting done! 10.__ a rainy day, he didn`t go out for a walk as usual. A. It was B. It is C. It being D. Having been