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不定代词的用法


不定代词和不定副词
——用法详解及练习

制作人:王红霞

A. 不定代词的用法总结 英语中,不指明代替任何特定名词或形容词 的代词叫做不定代词。一般有以下几组: 1) some, any, no 2) somebody, anybody, nobody, someone, anyone, no one (注意不要连写) som

ething, anything, nothing 3) one, none 4) all, every, each, other, another, either, neither, both 5) everybody, everyone, everything 6) many, much, few, little, a few, a little, a lot of, lots of

1) some, any, no的用法 a. some和any通常用于表示不定数或不定量,修饰复数可 数名词或不可数名词。some表示“几个;一些;部分”, 多用于肯定句里表示肯定的意思;而any表示“一些;什 么;任何;”,对用于否定句或疑问句中表示否定或疑问 的意思。如: * He asked me some questions. (他问了我几个问题。) * Some of us don’t like the music in this movie. (我们当中的一些人不喜欢这部电影里的音乐。) * Some of the bread has been eaten. (面包已吃了一 些。) * Are there any stamps in this post office? (这个邮局里有邮票吗?) * I didn’t have any cigarettes, so I went out to buy some. (我没有香烟了,所以出去买了一些。)

b. 刚才我们说some一般用于肯定句而any一般用于否定句和 疑问句。但有时也有例外。这要根据句子意思来看。如: * I could not answer some of his questions. (我不能回 答他的某些问题。) (some用在否定句中表示“一些;部分”。如果说成: I could not answer any of his questions. 意思就变了,它表示“我不能回答他的任何问题。”) * Will you get me some apples on your way back? (在你回来的路上可以给我带一些苹果吗?) (some用在疑问 句中大多表示“请求” 或“建议”) * Let me know if you hear any news. (如果你有任何消息 请告诉我。) (any用在条件从句中表示“任何”) * “What would you like to drink?” “Any will do.” (“你想喝什么?”“哪种都行。”) (any在这里表示 “任何”)

c. no在句子中作定语,表示否定,意思是“没有;不 是”,它可以修饰可数名词的单数和复数形式或不可数 名词。如: * There are no letters for you today. (今天没有你的信。) * I have no money at the moment. Could you lend me some? (我现在没有钱。你能借我一些吗?) 2) 复合不定代词的用法 a. 不定代词some, any, no与-one, -body, -thing可以 组成九个复合代词。它们是: someone anyone no one somebody anybody nobody something anything nothing 这些复合不定代词只有名词的性质,可以作主语、宾语 等。

b. 因为some一般用于肯定句,any一般用于否定句或疑 问句,no表示完全否定,因此由some, any, no与-one, body组成的复合代词的用法也一样。 * Did you meet anyone on your way home? (在回家 的路上你遇见什么人吗?) * I am sure someone will come to help us. (我坚信会 有人来帮助我们的。) * I am a stranger. I know nobody here. (我是一个陌生 人,我不认识这里的任何人。) c. 第二部分为-one和-body的复合代词只能用于表示人, 它们的形式是单数形式,但有时可以用they或them指代。 如:* There is someone in your office. Can you hear them talking? (你办公室里有人。你听见他们说话了吗?) (them指代 someone)

* No one was kinder to me at that time than Rose. (那时,没有一个人比Rose对我更好。) d. 第二部分为-thing的复合代词只能用于指物。如: * There was something wrong with the car so he had to stopped it. * Why don’t you say something to me? * He looked at me and didn’t say anything. * Nothing can be done to save her life. e. 这些复合不定代词如果有其它的形容词修饰,形容词 必须后置。如: * Somebody important has arrived, I’m sure. (important修饰somebody) * Is there anything interesting on TV tonight? (interesting修饰anything)

3) one和none的用法 none的用法我们已经在前面几讲中提过,这里就不详 细说了。 不定代词one指代可数名词的单数,即可以指人,也 可以指物。它的复数形式是ones。在句中可以作主语、 宾语、定语等。如: * He is not the one who is easily cheated. (one指人) * I’ve made some cakes. Would you like one of them? (one指物) * I prefer red roses to white ones. (ones指物) * Are they the ones who moved here a few days ago? (ones指人) 4) all, every, each, other, another, either, neither, both

a. every只有形容词的性质,在句子中作定语。常用于修饰单 数的可数名词。表示“每个;各个”,还可以表示“一切”。如: * After the strong wind every flower in the garden was gone. * Every time I ring you up, your mother answers it. * I shall do my best to help you in every way. (我将尽用一切 办法帮助你。) every还可以和-one, -thing, -body构成复合不定代词,即: everyone, everything, everybody。其中,everyone和 everybody用于指人,意思一样,都是“每人;大家”,形式上 表示单数意思上可以表示单数也可以表示复数。everything用于 指物,意思是“每件事;一切”,形式上表示单数意思上可以表 示单数也可以表示复数。如: * One can’t have everything. * Everything goes well with me. * The town is so small that everybody knows everybody else.

注意:在使用everyone时要注意和every one相区别。everyone 是一个不定代词而every one是一个词组,前者只能指人而后者既 可以指人也可以指物。请注意下列例句: * Everyone will be here except Patrick. (everyone 指人) * Every one of the children will get a gift. (every one也指人) *We played several matches against the visitors, but unluckily lost every one. (every one指物) b. each的意思是“每个;各自的”,可以指人,也可以指物。如: * I leave home at 7 a.m. each day. * On each floor there are about twenty classrooms. * Each of them has received a letter. 由于each和every的意思相近,都表示“每一个”,因此要特别 注意它们的区别。each所描述的对象至少是两个数目中的每一个, 而every所描述的对象至少是三个数目中的每一个;every着重强 调整体的含义而each着重强调个别;every只能作形容词放于名 词前而each可以作形容词、代词和副词。如:

(每一个人都知道应该做什么/他的工作。) (在这两个句子中用every和each都可以)

?

?

?

?

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?

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(在操场的每一边都有许多学生。) (在这两个句子中用every和 each都可以) *You can see a lot of new shops on each side of the street. (因为街道只有两边因此不能用every) *Each has too coats. (each是代词不能换用every) c. other可以指人也可以指物,表示“另外的人或事物”,其后可 以接单数或复数的名词;此外,other也有复数形式,是others。 如: * He has two brothers, one is a teacher, the other is a doctor. *Some children like milk chocolate, other children prefer plain chocolate. *We should not think only of ourselves, we should think

d. another的意思是“另一个;再一个;又一个”,通常只能修 饰单数的名词或代词,泛指“不定数目中的另一个”。如: * They went into another room but still didn’t see anyone. * Would you like to try another kind of drink? * I don't like this hat; please show me another. 注意:other和another都有“另外的”意思,要注意它们的区 别。首先一般来说,两者中的“另一个”是the other,不定数 目中的“另一个”是another。如: * She has a book in one hand and a pen in the other. (这里表示两只手中的另一个因此用the other) * This cup is broken. Get me another, please. 其次,other的后面可以接单数或复数的名词而another的后面 只能接单数名词。如: * He has other brothers. * Where is the other shoe? * I am not very well today. Tell them I will go and see them another day.

第三,other有复数形式,泛指别人时通常不加冠词;而在表 示其他的人时常常要加定冠词;而another没有复数形式。如: * Some went to the People’s Park, others visited the zoo. * Could you tell the others that I’ll be late? 5) many, much, few, little, a few, a little, a lot of, lots of 这些词都可以用来表示数量,但它们的用法也应当注意。 a. many和much 这两个词都表示“许多;大量”,它们的比较级和最高 级是more和most。它们的不同在于:many只能指代或修饰 可数名词的复数,much一般只能指代或修饰不可数名词。如:
* I am not sure whether many people will come to the party. * “Do you any books on English grammar?” “Yes, but not many.” (这里的many指代上文的books) * Much time will be saved if you plan your work very well. (time是不可数名词,因此用much) * He didn’t have much for dinner because he felt sick. (所吃的东西是不可数的因此用much指代)

b. (a) few和 (a) little a few和a little是一对用作表示数量的不定代词的固定词组, 它们具有名词和形容词的性质,它们的意思是“少数;少量”, 都表示肯定的意思。它们的不同点是:a few指代或修饰可数名 词的复数,a little指代或修饰不可数名词。如: * Only a few of the children in this village can read. (因为children是可数名词的复数因此用a few) * “How many pieces do you want?” “Just a few please.” (这里的a few指代上文的pieces。) * There was a little rain just now and the air is fresh now. (rain是不可数名词因此要用a little) * I have done only a little for you. (这里的a little指代所做的事情是不可数名词) few和little表示否定,意思是“几乎一点没有”,相当于 not … many或not … much。和a few和a little一样,few指代 或修饰可数名词的复数而little指代或修饰不可数名词指代或修 饰不可数名词。如:

* Few visitors enjoyed the trip to London. (few修饰的是可数 名词visitors) * A lot of guests were invited but few came. (few指代上文的 guests) * He did little homework that afternoon. (few修饰不可数名词 homework) * There is little to be done about it. (关于这件事没有什么可做的了。) (little指代索要做的事情) few的比较级和最高级是:fewer,fewest;little的比较级和最 高级是:less,least。 c. a lot of和lots of 这两个词组的意思都是“大量的;许多的”,后面既修饰能可数 名词复数也能修饰不可数名词, 可以代替many和much使用。如:

(许多人站在那里观看篮球比赛。)

a lot可以于动词之后作状语。如: * Thanks a lot. (非常感谢。) * “Do you have any English books?” “Sorry, I don't, but there are a lot in the school library.” (“你有什么英语书吗?”“对不起,我没有。但是学校图书 馆里有很多。”) * Smoking a lot is bad for your health. (抽太多的烟对健 康有害。) 三、练习 I. 单项填空 1. --Which would you like to drink, tea or coffee? --________, thanks. I’m not thirsty. A. Either B. Neither C. Little D. Few 2. The students are doing some cleaning. Some are sweeping the floor, ________ are cleaning the desks and chairs. A. other B. the other C. another D. others

3. My parents are ________ doctors. A. both B. all C. either D. neither 4. There is _____with my computer. I can’t work on. A. wrong anything B. anything wrong C. wrong something D. something wrong 5. The wind was blowing strongly. ________ people walked in the street. A. Little B. A little C. Few D. A few 6. Hurry up. There is ________ time left. A. a little B. little C. a few D. few B, D, A, D,C, B.

练习2 ( )1.He can't hear you, because there is ____ noise here A.very much B.too much C.much too D.so many ( )2.____ name is Han Meimei. A.Herself B.Hers C.She D.Her ( )3.All of us were invited, but ____ of us came A.neither B.none C.both ( )4.The weather in Shanghai is different from ____ A.Baotou B.Baotou weather C.that in Baotou D.those of Baotou ( )5.There isn't ____ water in the cup. A.any B.many C.some D.the ( )6.----Is this ____ pen? ----No, ____ is on my desk. A.your; my B.yours; my C.your; mine D.yours; mine ( )7.The bottle is empty. There is ____ in it. A.anything B.something C.nothing

( )8.----Look! We have ____ sugar. ----Really? Let's go and buy some. A.few B.a few C.little D.a little ( )9.There isn't __milk in the fridge. You'd better buy some. A.no B.any C.some ( )10.----“There isn't ____ water here. Could you get ____ for me?” ----“All ringht.” A.some; some B.any; any C.some; any D.any; some ( )11.Today, ____ trees are still being cut down somewhere in the world. A.much too B.too much C.many too D.too many ( )12.There are lots of English books here, and ____ of them is easy to understand. A.both B.all C.every D.each ( )13.Is the shirt on the bed ____ ? A.yours B.your C.you

( )14.Mr Green taught ____ English last year. A.our B.we C.us ( )15.These sweaters are too small for me. Please show me ____ one. A.other B.others C.the others D.another ( )16.Mary can't go with us. ____ has to look after ____ mother at home. A.She; his B.She; her C.He; her D.He; His ( )17.There isn't ____ paper in the box. Will you go and get ____ for me? A.any; some B.any; any C.some; some D.some; any ( )18.I often help ____ . A.he or she B.his and her C.him and her D.his and hers ( )19.There are some trees on ____ side of the street. A.both B.all C.either D.every ( )20.They were all very tired, but ____ of them would stop to take a rest. A.any B.some C.none D.neither

( )21.“Which of the two dictionaries do you like better?”“I like ____ , because they're not useful.” A.both B.either C.all D.neither ( )22.There were ___ people and ___noise in the park last Sunday. A.many; much B.much; much C.much; many D.many; many ( )23.____ of them has a dictionary and ____ one of them can look up words in the dictionary. A.Each; every B.Every; each C.Each; each D.Every; every ( )24.Please keep together. We want ____ of you to get lost. A.none B.some C.many D.any ( )25.There is ____ water here; but there are quite ____ empty glasses. A.little; a few B.few; little C.few; a few D.little; a little

( )26.The skirt is ____ . She made it ____ . A.hers; herself B.her; herself C.herself; hers D.herself; her ( )27.“Haven't you forgotten ____ ?”“ ____ ,oh, I forgot my bag.” A.anything; Excuse me B.something; Excuse me C.something; Pardon D.everything; Pardon ( )28.Be quiet! I have ____ to tell you. A.important anything B.anything important C.important something D.something important ( )29.My father is very busy with his work. He has ____ time to do the housework. A.little B.few C.a little D.a few ( )30.---- ____ of the boys in Class Four are playing games. ----____. A.All B.Each C.The both D.None

( )31.The boy promised __mother never to lie to ___again. A.his; him B.her; her C.her; him D.his; her ( )32.“Would you like some milk in your tea?” “Yes, just ____ .” A.much B.a little C.a few D.little ( )33.____ school is much larger than ____ . A.Their; our B.Their; ours C.Theirs; ours D.Theirs; our ( )34.Put it down, Richard. You mustn't read ____ letter. A.anyone's else's B.anyone's else C.anyone else's D.anyone else ( )35.He found ____ very interesting to ride a horse. A.this B.that C.it D.which ( )36.Han Meimei, what about ____ to eat? A.everything B.something C.nothing D.anything

( )37.____ office is much smaller than ____ . A.Ours; yours B.Our; yours C.Theirs; our D.Your; their ( )38.“Help ____ to some meat, Mary,”my aunt said to me. A.themselves B.ourselves C.yourself D.himself ( )39.There are twenty teachers in this grade.Eight of them are women teachers and ____ are men teachers. A.the other B.the others C.others D. other ( )40.Though they had cleaned the floor, there was still ____ water on it. A.little B.a little C.few D.a few


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