Ⅰ. 概念： (1) 定语从句：在主从复合句中用作定语的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧接在先行词(antecedent)后面。 (2) 先行词：被定语从句修饰的成份。先行词可以为一个词，短语，或整个主句。 (3) 引导定语从句的词叫关系词，分为关系代词和关系副词。 关系词的作用： 1) 引导定语从句，连接主句和从句，相当于一个连词； 2) 必在从句
中作某个句子成份（可以做主语，宾语，表语，定语，状语） 常用的关系代词: that、 which、 who、whom、as , 在从句中作主语，宾语，whose 定语) 常用的关系副词（在从句中只作状语）: when、why、 where The student who answered the question was John. I know the reason why he was so angry. The boy (whom) you are talking to is my brother. I'd like a room whose window looks out over the sea. 定语从句三步： 第一找出先行词； 第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能（做主语、宾语或状语） ； 第三选择合适的关系词。 Ⅱ. 几个关系代词的基本用法： ●that: 可指人或物；在定语从句中作主语，宾语，表语。(指人时，相当于 who 或 whom；指物时，相当于 which)(一般不用于非限制性定语从句; 不可置于介词后作宾语) 如： 1. Do you know the gentleman that/who spoke just now? 2. You can take anything ( that) you like. 3. What is the question (that/which) they are talking about? 4. Here is the man ( who/whom/that ) you want to see. 5. She's no longer the girl ( that) she used to be before. ●which: 指物；在定语从句中作主语，宾语，表语，定语。如： 1. The book which/that was on the desk was bought by my father. 2. The book (which/that) I bought yesterday is very interesting. 3. The factory in which his father works is far from here. ●who, whom, whose: who: 主格, 在从句中作主语，在口语或非正式用法中作宾语; 只可指人 whom: 宾格，在从句中作宾语; 只可指人 whose: 属格，在从句中作定语，可指人也可指物。 1. I like the students who/that work hard. 2. All who heard the story were amazed. (代词如 he, they, any, those, all, one 等后多用 who.) 3. He's a man from whom we should learn. = He's a man (whom/who/that) we should learn from. 4. A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan. 5. I'd like a room whose window faces south. =I'd like a room of which the window faces south. =I'd like a room the window of which faces south.
关系代词作介词宾语： （介词+ whom / which） 关系代词在定语从句中用作介词宾语时 , 介词可放于从句之首 , 也可放于从句之末 . 但以放于句首较为正式 . （介词前置，必须注意不影响动词词组的含义。 ） 1. This is the book for which you asked. =This is the book (that/which) you asked for. 2. Do you know the person with whom I shook hands？ = Do you know the person (whom/who/that) I shook hands with? 3. Is this the factory to which you paid a visit last week? 4. Is this factory the one to which you paid a visit last week? 5. This is the girl whom they are looking after. (介词 after 与 look 构成固定词组， 不可前置。 look at, look for, look after, take care of 等) ●as 的用法:(as 引导定语从句, 在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语) ①如为限制性的，多用于 the same …as ; the same as；such …as …; as many/much as；so …as 等结构中。如： ※1. I have the same book as you (have). 我有一本和你的一样的书。 2. .---Why didn't you mention that in face of the police just now? --- I thought it was such a minor detail as was hardly worth mentioning. 3. Don't do such things as you are not sure about. 比较：I live in the same house that he used to live in. I'm wearing the same shirt as you wore yesterday. 比较：Here is so big a stone as no one can lift. （定语从句） Here is so big a stone that no one can lift it.（结果状语从句） ②如为非限制性的，多单独引导一个定语从句，这种定语从句可置于句首，句中或句尾，译为"正如，这一点"。 （动词常为 know, see, expect, point out, etc.） As we all know, smoking is harmful to one's health . (as 作宾语) =As is known to all, smoking is harmful to one's health . （as 作主语） =It's known to all that smoking is harmful to one's health . =Smoking is harmful to one's health, as we all know .（as 作宾语） =Smoking, as we all know, is harmful to one' health. He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent. (宾语, 先行词是前面整个句子) Ⅲ. 关系副词引导的定语从句: ●When 指时间，在定语从句中作时间状语。其先行词是表时间的名词（如：time, day, week, tear, month, etc.） He came last night when I was out. We will put off the picnic until next week, when the weather would be better. 注意：先行词为"时间名词"，可用 when 引导定语从句，when 在定语从句中作状语；还可以用 which 或 that 引 导，which 或 that 在从句中作主语或宾语。 比较:1. I still remember the day when /on which my brother joined the army.（作状语） 2. I still remember the days which/that we spent together. （作宾语） 3. I shall never forget the day when Shen Zhou Ⅴ was launched, which has a great effect on my life. ●Where 指地点， 在定语从句中作地点状语。 其先行词是表示地点的名词， 如： place, school, factory, room, etc. This is the place where I was born. I live in the room where /in which he used to live.
注意：先行词是"地点名词"，定语从句可用 where 引导，还可用 which 或 that 引导，which/that 在从句中作主语 或宾语。 比较: ※1. This is the factory where /in which he worked last year. （作状语） 2. I think you have got to the point where a change is needed, or you would fail. 3. He's got himself into a dangerous situation where he's likely to lose control of the plane. 4. This is the park which/that they visited last year. （作宾语） ●Why 指原因，在定语从句中作原因状语。先行词为 reason 时，可用 for which 指代；当关系词在从句中作 主语或宾语时，则用 which 或 that 引导。如： 1. The reason why / for which / (that) he didn't attend the meeting was that he was ill. 2. I don't believe the reason (that/which) he gave me. （作宾语） 3. Have you asked him the reason that may explain his success? （作主语） 当先行词为 way 时，the way 在从句中作状语时，定语从句常用 that, in which,或 how 引导，that 常可以省略。 the way 在从句中作主语或宾语时，则用 which 或 that 引导。如: This is the way (that) /in which I do such things. 比较: Please do the experiment in the way （that/which）I have shown you. Ⅳ. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别： 1. 形式上，非限制性定语从句往往用逗号隔开。 2. 语法上，非限制性定语从句一般不用 that. 3. 语义上，限制性定语从句与先行词关系紧密，起限定作用，如果去掉了这个定语从句，整个句子就不完整或 者会改变意思；而非限制性定语从句与先行词关系不是很紧密，对先行词起补充说明或描述的作用。 This is the book I like best. 这就是我最喜欢的那本书。 Beijing, which has been China's capital for more than 800 years, is rich in cultural and historic relics. 北京是中国八百 年之久的古都，它有着丰富的文化和历史遗产。 4. 翻译时，限制性定语从句可译为一句（较短的一般译为"的"字结构） ；而非限制性定语从句可译为两句。 （见 上句翻译） 比较: He has a sister, who is a musician. He has a sister who is a musician. 引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词，指人时用 who, whom, whose , 指物时用 which , whose; 关系副词 when， where, why, etc. 1. He studied hard at school when he was young, which leads to his success in his later life. 2. Tom's father, who arrived just now, is a famous scientist. Ⅴ. 几个易混淆的关系代词的比较: ●that & which: 在定语从句中，which 和 that 在指代事物时，一般可以互换使用，但并非在任何情况下都是这样，这里介绍 宜用 that, 而不宜用 which 的情况. ①先行词为不定代词,all, much, something, everything, anything, nothing, none, the one 等, 1.We should do all that is useful to the people . 2.There's nothing that can be said about it . 3.Do you mean the one that was bought yesterday?
②先行词被 only, any, few, little, no, just, very, one of 等词修饰时。 1.The only thing that we could do was to wait. 2.That's the very word that is wrongly used. 3. The last place (that) we visited was the chemical works. 比较 *This is one of the best novels that were published last year. *This is the only one of the best novels that was published last year. ③先行词是序数词时或被序数词修饰时。 1.When we talk about Wuxi, the first that comes into mind is Tai Lake. 2.This is the third film that has been shown in our school this term. ④先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰时。 1.This is the best that can be done now. 2.The most important thing that should be done right now is how to stop him from going on. ⑤先行词既有人又有物，用 which 和 who 都不适合，这时宜用 that. 如： 1.The writer and his novel that you have just talked about is really well known . 2.The rider and his bike that had run over an old woman were held up by the police. ⑥被修饰词为数词时. 1.Yesterday I caught two fish and put them in a basin of water .Now you can see the two that are still alive . ⑦如果有两个从句，其中一个关系代词已用 which ,另一个关系代词宜用 that，以避免语言的单调或重复。 Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before. ⑧疑问词是 who 或 which，关系代词宜用 that，以避免重复。 1. Which is the book that you like best? 2. Who is the man that is standing at the gate? ⑨主句是 There be 结构，修饰其主句的定语从句宜用 that 作关系代词. 如： 1. There is still a seat in the corner that is still free. ⑩被修饰成分为表语时，或者关系代词本身是定语从句的表语时,该关系代词宜用 that . 1. That's a good book that will help you a lot. 2. My home village is no longer the place ( that ) it used to be . 定语从句中宜用 which 而不宜用 that 的情况: ①当关系代词的前面有介词时. 1.A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition. 2.Is this the room in which Mr. White lives? ②在非限制性定语从句中. 1.Crusoe's dog, which was are now very old, became ill and died . 2.More and more people are beginning to learn English, which is becoming popular in our country. (which 指代主句) ③在一个句子中有两个定语从句，其中一个定语从句的关系代词用了 that, 另一个宜用 which . 1. Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us. ④当关系代词后面带有插入语时. 1. Here's the English grammar which, as I have told you, will help improve your English. ⑤先行词本身是 that, 宜用 which . What's that which she is looking at? ⑥先行词是 those+复数名词. A shop should keep a stock of those goods which sell best.
(B) who & that: who 和 that 指代人时，有些情况宜用 who, 而不宜用 that ①先行词为 anyone, anybody, those, all, one, ones, they, he, people 时. 如： 1.The person I want to learn from is the one who studies hard and works well. 2.Anyone who (=Whoever) failed to come to the meeting yesterday must give his reason . 3.Those who are not fit for their work should leave office at once. ②在 There be 结构中，修饰主语的定语从句宜用关系代词 who 指代人. 如： 1.There is a gentleman who wants to see you . 2.There are several students in our class who are still not sure about the use of attributive clauses. ③当先行词有较长的后置定语时. 如： 1. I met a foreigner in the park yesterday afternoon who could speak Chinese very well. ●as & which: as & which 引导非限制性定语从句的区别： ①位置的不同： which 引导的定语从句只置于所限制的句子后；as 位置较灵活，也就是说 as 可置于所限制的句子前面；插在 句子中或放在句子后。如： 1. He was late again, which made his teacher very angry. 2. Jack, as you know, is an honest man. 或 Jack is an honest man , as you know. 或 As you know, Jack is an honest man. ②先行词的不同： as 引导非限制性定语从句时，其先行词多为一个句子； which 引导非限制性定语从句时，其先行词可以是一个词，一个短语或一个句子。 1. She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was. 2. He was proud, which I dislike very much.（先行词是一个句子） 3. He is an honest man, as is known to all. ③as 一般译为"正如""就像"，"这一点" as we all know；as you know; as is known to all; as you see; as we can see; as has been expected; as we have imagined. 一、单项选择
1.The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace. A. Which B. where C. what D. in which 2.Do you know the man _______? A. whom I spoke B. to who spoke C. I spoke to D. that I spoke 3.This is the hotel _______last month. A. which they stayed B. at that they stayed C. where they stayed at D. where they stayed 4.Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded? A. which B. that C. when D. on which 5.That is the day ______I'll never forget. A. which B. on which C. in which D. when 6.The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here. A. where B. to which C. which D. in which
8.This is one of the best films _______. A. that have been shown this year B. that have shown C. that has been shown this year D. that you talked 9.Can you lend me the book ______the other day? A. about which you talked B. which you talked C. about that you talked D. that you talked 10.The pen ______he is writing is mine. A. with which B. in which C. on which D. by which 11.They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy. A. whom B. who C. which D. that 12.The engineer ______my father works is about 50 years old. A. to whom B. on whom C. with which D. with whom 13.It there anyone in your class ______family is in the country? A. who B. who's C. which D. whose 15.I want to use the same dictionary ______was used yesterday. A. which B. who C. what D. as 16.He isn't such a man ______he used to be. A. who B. whom C. that D. as 17.He is good at English, ______we all know. A. that B. as C. whom D. what 20.He talked a lot about things and persons ________they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what 21.The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing. A. which B. that C. whom D. who 22.In our factory there are 2,000 workers, two thirds of ____are women. A. them B. which C. whom D. who 24.I lost a book, ______I can't remember now. A. whose title B. its title C. the title of it D. the title of that 27.I can never forget the day _______ we worked together and the day ______ we spent together. A. when; which B. which; when C. what; that D. on which; when 30.This machine, ______for many years, is still working perfectly. A. after which I have looked B. which I have looked after C. that I have looked after D. I have looked after 31.The reason ______he didn't come was ______he was ill. A. why; that B. that; why C. for that; that D. for which; what 32.He is working hard, ______will make him pass the final exam. A. that B. which C. for which D. who 33.That is not the way ______I do it. A./ B. which C. for which D. with which 34.I have two grammars, ______are of great use. A. all of which B. either of which C. both of that D. both of which 39. You can depend on whatever promise _______ he makes. A. / B. why C. when D. whose 40. Smoking, _______ is a bad habit, is, however, popular.
A. that B. which C. it D. though 43. The number of the people who _______ cars _______ increasing. A. owns; are B. owns; is C. own; is D. own; are 45. Is oxygen the only gas _______ helps fire burn? A. that B. / C. which D. it EX1 用适当的关系词填空. 1. I will never forget the day __________ I first went to school. I will never forget the day __________ we spent in Beijing. 2. The house __________ we visited is being repaired now. The house ______ Luxun once lived is being repaired now. Ex3 选择适当的代词填空，注意非限制性定语从句和单句的比较。 1.I am reading Harry Porter, _____is an interesting book. 2.He failed in the exam._______ made his parents angry. 3.He failed in the exam, _______made his parents angry. 4.He has two sons. Both of ________ are teachers. 5.He has two sons, both of ________ are teachers. Ex6: 介词+关系代词的使用 1. Do you like the book she spent $10? 2. Do you like the book she paid $10? 3. Do you like the book she learned a lot? 4. Do you like the book she often talks? 5. He dug a hole he could got water from the lake. 请分析一下定语从句：( 请划出定语从句，并标出先行词) 1. Another thing that I found very difficult was English grammar. 3. You couldn’t understand people who talked fast. 4. I have some ideas that may help you. 5. They said something you didn’t like. 6. My friends and I talked about the rules that we have in school. 定语从句汉译英练习： 1、她就是那个努力学习数学的女孩。 2、他就是我们刚才谈论的那个人。 3、这就是那个爸爸是警察的女孩。 4、他们住在一座窗户朝南的房子里。 5、我仍然记得我第一次来到这座城市的那一天 。 6、这就是我们以前住过的房子 。 7、他考试通过了，这使他父母很高兴。 8、他们正在谈论在公园里看到的人和物。
9、正在看电视的女孩是 Kate。 10、她就是照顾这些孩子的护士。 英译汉： 1 他们在街上见到的钱是我的。 2 你见到的那位老师是一位很著名的教师。 3 昨天晚上打我电话的那个男人在今天早上被杀了。 4 这部电影是我来到这看的第一部电影。 5 你知道他们正在谈论的事情和人吗？ 用适当的关系词填空： 1. I still remember the night _______I first came to the house. 2. I'll never forget the day________ we met each other last week. 3. Mr Black is going to Beijing in October, _______is the best season there. 4. This is the school ______I used to study. 7. Do you still remember the place______ we visited last week? 8. Do you still remember the place_______ we visited the painting exhibition? 12. I live in Beijing,____is the capital of China. 13. There was a time ______there were slaves in the USA. 15. It was in the street _____I met John yesterday. 18. This is the very novel about____we've talked so much. 23. He lives in the room____window faces to the south. 30. I hope you will find this valley a beautiful place____you may spend your weekend. 翻译短文： Dear Tom, I have received the letter you posted last week. Thanks for the photos you sent. I often think of the time we spent together. Do you still remember the lake where we had a picture taken? How are the children who played with us? I had a dream in which /we were staying in the cinema that we went to last time. Besides, I have bought the book you need. On the weekend when I am free, I will post it to you. Best wishes,