表语从句 1． 定义：用作表语的从句叫做表语从句。 2． 引导表语从句的关联词的种类： (1) 从属连词 that。在从句中不做成分。如： The trouble is that I have lost his address. 麻烦是我把他的地址丢了。
The reason was that he was late fo
r school. (2) 从属连词 whether, as, as if。如： 1. He looked just as he had looked ten years before. 他看起来还与十年前一样。 2. The question is whether they will be able to help us. 问题是他们是否能帮我们。 注：从属连词 if 一般不用来引导表语从句，但 as if 却可引导表语从句，如： All this was over twenty years ago, but it’s as if it was only yesterday. 这都是 20 多年前的事了，但宛如昨天一样。
造句： 1. 关键是我们是否能解决问题。
The key is whether we can solve the problem. 2. 看起来好像要下雨。 It looked as if it was going to rain. 注：能跟表语从句的谓语动词一般为系动词 be, seem, look，sound 等。如： He looked just as he had looked ten years before. 他看起来还与十年前一样。
It sounds as if someone is knocking at the door. (3) 连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever 在
表语从句中做主语、宾语等。如：The problem is who we can get to replace her. 问题是我们能找到谁去替换她呢。 That was what she did this morning on reaching the attic. 那就是她今晨上了阁楼干的。
The problem is who we can get to replace her. 我想问的是谁离开了。 My question is who left.
(4) 连接副词 where, when, how, why。 What I wonder is when he left. 我想知道他是何时离开的。 This is where they once lived. 这就是他们曾经住过的地方。
That is why he didn't come here.
The question is how he did it. (5) 连词 because 可引导表语从句。如： I think it is because you are doing too much. 我想这是因为你做得太多。
It's just because he doesn't know her. That's because he didn't understand me. 那是因为他没有理解我。 because...强调原因) That's why he got angry with me. 那正是他对我生气的原因。 (That's why...强调结果) (6) 解释： 2． 在一些表示“建议、劝说、命令”的名词后面的表语从句中，谓语动词用 虚拟语气。should+动词原形表示，should 可省略。如： My suggestion is that we (should) start early tomorrow. 我的建议是我们明天一 早就出发。 系动词分类： 一、 根据系动词后所跟结构， 我们可以把英语系动词分为两大类： 完全系动词 （其 后只能跟表语的动词， 如 be, seem） 和半系动词 （其后既可跟表语作系动词用法， 也可跟宾语或状语作实义动词用，如 look） 例如：1） He looked sadly at the boy.(“看着”，实义动词用法) He looks a clever boy .（“看起来”，系动词用法） 2） He looks at a clever boy.（“看着”，实义动词用法） 在英语中，某一动词是多义词，既有实义动词用法，又有系动词用法。 二、根据系动词的意义，我们把英语系动词分为四类： A．五大感官系动词 B．状态系动词 C．动态系动词 D．双谓语系动词 (That's
A．五大感官系动词，描述一种感官性质。由实义感官动词变化而来，都是半系 动词。 1．look“看起来像是”，后接 adj.、n.、分词、介词短语、不定式等。 The girl bit her lips and looked thoughtful.这位女孩咬着嘴唇，看上去若有所 思。 2．smell“闻起来”，后接 adj.分词。 The flowers smell sweet. 3．sound“听起来”，后接 adj.\分词。 悦耳。 4．taste“尝起来”，后接 adj.\分词。The apples taste very good. 这些苹果很好吃。 5．Feel ①“摸起来，给……感觉”；②“觉得”，后接 adj./p.p. You will feel better after a night’s sleep. 睡上一晚，你会觉得好些。 B．状态系动词： 1．be，“是”，属完全系动词。 I am a student. 我是一个学生。 他们似乎很快乐。 2．seem,“似乎，好像”，完全系动词。 They seem quite happy. 是一个真实的故事。 4．keep, “保持……的状态”，半系动词，后接 adj 或介词短语。 You’d better go to bed and keep warm. 5．remain,“仍是”，半系动词。 open all the night. 7.prove “证明是”，半系动词，后接 adj.\n. The treatment proved to be successful. 这种疗法证明是成功的。 C．动态系动词：都属于半系动词，描述状态变化过程。 1．get“变成，变得……起来”，后可接形容词、分词、介词短语。 The days are getting longer and longer. asleep, lame, silent, ill, sick, flat. The old men, unable to express himself, fell silent. 意思，就不做声了。 My father fell ill and died. It’s growing warm. 我的父亲生病死了。 3．grow“渐渐变得……起来，长得” 天气渐渐暖和起来了。 4．turn“转变成（新的与原来完全不同的色彩或性质），变质（色）”。 那位老人说不清自己的 白天变得越来越长了。 2．fall“进入（某种状态），成为”，后常接以下形容词： 你最好躺在床上去暖和一下。 I remained silent. 我仍然缄默。 这些花气味真香。 The music sounds sweet.这首诗听起来真
3．appear,“显得，看起来好像”，半系动词。 It appeared(to be)a true story.看来这
6． stay“保持 （某种状态） ”， 半系动词， 后接 adj.、 过去分词。 The window stayed
Maple trees turn red in autumn.
It was cloudy this morning, but fortunately it has turned fine. 今天早上是阴天，幸好已经转晴了。 5．go，“变成（某种坏的状态）” The telephone has gone dead. 电话不通了。 The material has gone a funny colour. 这料子的颜色变得奇怪了。 go 之后常接的 adj. 还有：bad, blind, wild, wrong, sour, hard, hungry, mad, red, with, anger, white, pale, blue, grey. 6．become“变成，成为（好坏均可的情况）” I became interested in drawing. He became angry with me. They became good friends. 我开始对素描感兴趣了。 他对我生气了。 他们成了好朋友。
7．come，“变成为（已知的状态），证实为”，后常接形容词或前缀 un-的过去 分词作表语，表示状态或情况的变化。 His wish to become a pilot has come true. 如果你调查一下这事，一切都会清楚。 后面常接的形容词还有：apart, dear（昂贵），natural, open, short, right（好了）， unstuck（没有粘住），untied（松开）。 8．run,“变成”，后接 adj. The price ran high. 价格上升了。 9．make，“达到某种状态[后接形容词]，如 sure, certain, merry, bold, free We must make certain of facts.我们一定要弄清事实。 D．双谓语系动词 此类系动词既有系动词的功能，后接表语，又保留原实义动 词本身的含义。 例如：The run rose red.太阳升起红艳艳。 She stopped and stood quite still.她停下来然后一丝不动地站着。 The snow lay thick on the ground. 雪厚厚地堆积在地上。 He married young. 他结婚很早。 Lei Feng died young.雷锋早逝。 He continued silent.他继续沉默不语。 他想当飞行员的愿望实现了。 If you look into the matter, everything will come clear.
1. The question is ________ we will have our sports meet next week. A. that B. if C. when D. whether 2．The reason why he failed is ________he was too careless. A. because B. that C. for D. because of 3. Go and get your coat. It’ s ________you left it A. where B. there C. there where D. where there 4．The problem is _________to take the place of Ted A. who can we get B. what we can get C. who we can get D. that we can get 5. What I want to know is ______ he likes the gift given by us. A. that B. if C. whether D 不填 6. The reason is_________I missed the bus. A. that B. when C. why D. what 7. That is __ ___ we were late last time. A. that B. when C. why D. what 8. She looked _________ she were ten years younger. A. that B. like C. as D. as though 9.—I fell sick! --I think it is _______ you are doing too much. A. why B. when C. what D. because 10. The reason why he hasn’t come is ___________. A. because his mother is ill B. because of his mother’s being ill C. that his mother is ill D. for his mother is ill 11. —He was born here. -- That is _______ he likes the place so much. A. that B. what C. why D. how 12.That is ______ Lu Xun once lived. A. what B. where C. that D. why that/what 的区别 1 ． _______your father wants to know is________ getting on with your studies. A. W hat; how are you B. That；how you are C. How；that you are D. What； how you are 2. The trouble is__________we are short of tools. A. what B. that C. how D. why that 3. America was __________was first called “India” by Columbus. A. what B. where C. the place D. there where 4. China is becoming stronger and stronger. It is no longer_________ . A. what it use d to be B. what it was used to being C. what it used to being D. what it was used to be 5. ________he really means is ________he disagrees with us. A. What … that B. That … what C. What … what D. That … what 6. The energy is ________ makes the cells able to do their work. A. that B. which C. what D. such