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名词(nouns) n. 代词(pronoun) pron. 实词 数词(numeral) num. 形容词(adjective) adj. 或a. 副词(adverb) adv. 动词(verb) v 冠词(article) art 虚词 介词(preposition) prep. 连词(conjunction) conj. 助词(auxiliary) aux. 作文题目中,实词都大写,虚词要小写

主语 (subject)---s 谓语 (predicate)---v 宾语 (object)---o 定语 (attribute)---attrib 状语 (adverbial)---adv 补语 (complement)---c 表语 (predicative)---p 同位语(Appositive)


主语:行为主体,句子描述的主体 谓语: 主语发出的动作 宾语: 动作的承受者

表语:表示主语“是什么”“怎么样” 状语:时间、地点、原因等 定语:用来修饰名词、代词

主语:You beat him. 谓语: You beat him.

宾语: You beat him.
表语:He is bad./He is a boy. 状语:You beat him at home. 定语:You beat the bad boy.

I met my best friend Tom at the station yesterday. ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 宾 同 状 主 谓 定 语 位 语 语 语 语 语


简单句 并列句 复合句






陈述对象+陈述内容 主语+谓语 谓语动词决定了一个句子的骨架结构 启示:(1)分析复杂句时,先找谓语。 (2)写句子时,要知道谓语动词的用法特点


主语+谓语+宾语 ? 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 ? 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语




表语是说明主语的,如用来说明主语的 身份、性质、品性、特征和状态的,通常在 系动词后。
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1) My uncle is a professor. 2) He looked tired. 3) The basketball match is on. 4) All the pupils are on the playground now. 5) Our aim was to win more medals. 6) His work is teaching French. 7) The question is who can really repair the machines.

系动词: ? 1) be, seem ,appear ? 2) look, sound ,taste, smell, feel 感官类 ?
? ?

3) get, turn, grow ,become, go 变化类 4) stay, remain, keep, continue



基本句型 (2) 主+谓:S+V

谓语动词特特点: 不及物动词(本身意思完整,后面 不需要宾语)


1. The sun rises. (rise-rose-risen 是vi,不能带 O.)
2. The red sun rises. ( red修饰sun,作定语)



3. The red sun rises in the east. (状语 Adverbial)


【练1/4】第一印象很重要。 【练2/4】近年来政府对报纸的控制已经放 松了。

?The first impression counts/matters. The control has loosened.



【练3/4】当焦点人物或其角色成员对他在 某特定时段所担任角色的确切定义在思想 上存在疑惑时,就出现了角色模糊。(剑 3,T2,R) Role ambiguity results when````

TRANSLATION 1. 你应当努力学习。 You should study hard. 2. 她昨天回家很晚。 She went home very late yesterday evening. 3. 那天早上我们谈了很多。 That morning we talked a great deal. 4. 会议将持续两个小时。 The meeting will last two hours. 5. 在过去的十年里,我的家乡已经发生了巨大的变 化。 Great changes have taken place in my hometown in the past ten years.

(S. + V. + O. )
该句型的谓语动词必须是vt或vt的动词词组; 宾语必须是名词或相当于名词的成分。

Education meets/satisfies the demand/need.

【练2/5】美国的一项研究已表明气温和 街头骚乱之间存在联系。
Research shows a relationship.

【练4/5】所有这些因素或许可以证明巨 大的收入是合理的。(剑6,T2,W)
Factors can justify earnings.

Translation 1.昨晚我写了一封信。
I wrote a letter last night.

I want to talk with you this afternoon.

He has read this book many times.

They have carried out the plan successfully.

注意:带 V-ing 做宾语的动词有:

suggest, advise, stop, resist, enjoy, imagine,finish, escape, admit, excuse, delay, practise, consider, keep, mind, understand, avoid, miss, risk succeed in, be busy,be worth, be used to, give up, look forward to

注意:带 to do 做宾语的动词有:
offer, learn, intend, plan, demand, ask, promise, help,prepare,decide, determine,refuse, dare,manage,wish, hope, want, expect, fail, pretend,choose, seem, expect, hope, offer, agree, refuse, learn, help, plan, intend, etc.

基本句型(4)主语+谓语+宾语+宾语 (S. + V. + O.+O. )
请观察:1)He brings me cookies every day. 如果意思不变,也可以怎么说呢? 2)He brings cookies to me every day. 即要借助于介词to或for

朗读: He brings me cookies every day. He brings cookies to me every day.
She made me a beautiful dress. She made a beautiful dress for me. 归纳: to侧重指动作的方向,表示朝着,向着, 对着某人。 for 侧重指动作的受益者,表示为了某人, 替某人。

常跟双宾语的动词有: (需借助 to 的) bring, give, lend, hand, offer, pass, pay, promise, return, send, show, teach, tell, write, ask,等。 (需借助for 的)buy, call, cook, choose, draw, find, get, make, order, sing, save, spare,等。

翻译练习: 1. Johnson 先生去年教我们德语。 2. 奶奶昨晚给我们讲了一个有趣的故事。 3. Mary把钱包交给校长了 4. 请把那本字典递给我好吗? 5. 他把车票给列车员看。 1.Mr Johnson taught us German last year. 2.Grandma told me an interesting story last night. 3.Mary handed the wallet to the schoolmaster. 4.Would you please pass me the dictionary? 5.He showed the ticket to the conductor.


基本句型(5)主谓宾宾补 S+Vt.+O+O.C
宾语与宾语补足语有逻辑的主谓关系,若无宾语 补足语,则句意不完整。宾补时补充说明宾语的。可 以用做宾补的有:名词,形容词,副词,介词短语, 动词不定式,分词等。如: ? The sun keeps us warm. ? I heard him singing. ? You must get your hair cut. ? They made Tom monitor. ? 用 it 做形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放到宾语补足 语的后面,以使句子结构平衡,是英语常用的句型结 构方式。即:主语+谓语+it+宾补+真正宾语。如: ? I found it very pleasant to be with your family.


We call her Alice. 1.我们叫她 Alice.
All of us considered him honest. 2.我们大家都认为他是诚实的。 They have set the thief free. 3.他们把小偷释放了。 I want you to tell me the truth. 4.我要你把真相告诉我。 The guards ordered us to leave at once. 5 .卫兵命令我们立即离开。 Every morning we hear him read English aloud. 6. 每天早晨我们都听到他大声朗读英语。 He has his hair cut once a month. 7.他每个月理一次发

We won’t let her go out at night. 8.我们不会让她在晚上外出的。


句子基本结构(5种) 1) 主语+连系动词+表语(S+L+P)
He is a professor. 他是一位教授.

句子 (Sentence)

句子基本结构(5种) 2) 主语+谓语(S+V)
Day dawns. 天亮了.

句子 (Sentence)

句子基本结构(5种) 3) 主语+谓语+宾语(S+V+O)
She understands French. 她懂法语.

句子 (Sentence) 句子基本结构(5种) 4) 主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 (S+V+IO+DO)
He told us the whole story. 他把全部经过告诉了我们.

句子 (Sentence) 句子基本结构(5种) 5) 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补语 (S+V+O+C)
He found George intelligent. 他发现乔治很聪明.

? ?






根据所学知识,分析句子结构 1.They work hard. 主 + 谓 2.The flower is dead. 主+系+表 3.Plants need water. 主+谓+宾 4.He gives me some seeds. 主 + 谓 + 直宾 + 间宾 5.We should keep the plants in the shade. 主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾补 6.Many animals live in trees. 主 + 谓

7.He kept me a dictionary.

8.Shall I leave you the camera? 9. We find the book very interesting.

10.My uncle bought me an e-dictionary.
主+谓+间接宾语+直宾 主+谓+宾+宾补 主+谓+宾+宾补 主+谓+ 宾

11.Singing makes me happy.
12.Daming calls his cat Mimi .

13.You must listen to her.
14.He is a scientist.
主 +系 +表

基本句型(6) “There be”句型
此句型是由 “there + be + 主语 + 状语” 构成, 用以表达存在有,一种无主语的有。 它其实是倒装的一种情况,主语位于谓语动词 be 之后,there 仅为引导词,并无实际语。be 与其 后的主语在人称和数量上一致,有时态和情态变 化。如, 现在有 there is/are … 过去有 there was/were… 将来有 there will be…/there is /are going to be... 现在已经有 there has/have been…

可能有 there might be... 肯定有 there must be …/there must have been...

过去一直有 there used to be …
似乎有 there seems/seem/seemed to be … 碰巧有 there happen/happens/happened to be …

此句型有时不用be动词,而用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive等。

翻译练习: 1. 今晚没有会。 There isn’t going to be a meeting tonight. 2. 这个村子过去只有一口井。 There was only a well in the village. 3. 这个学校有一名音乐老师和一名美术老师。 There is (are) a teacher of music and a teacher of art in the school.

4. 公共汽车来了。 There comes the bus. 5. 就只剩下二十八美元了。 There remained just twenty-eight dollars. 6. 在这个山洞前面长着一棵高大的松树。 In front of the cave, there stands (grows) a tall pine tree.

按句子的用途分 按句子的结构分



疑问句 祈使句

并列句 复合句

? 1)简单句:只有一个主语(或

并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列 谓语)。 ? e.g. He often reads English in the morning. ? Tom and Mike are American boys. ? She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers.

? 我们可以给句子的动词加上副词修饰,

给名词加上形容词、介词短语修饰,给 句子加上状语进行修饰等,以使整个句 子的意思变得更加的丰富和充实。但不 管如何变,都只有一个主谓结构。 worked hard all his life. (划线部分在句 中作状语,修饰动词worked) ? He is a school student in No. 1 Middle School. (划线部分在句中作定语,修饰名 词student)
? He

并 列 句

用分号或并列连词把两个或几个简单句 连接起来的句子。并列句中的各简单句 意义同等重要,相互之间没有从属关系, 是平行并列的关系。

用分号: We fished all day; we didn’t catch a thing.

We fished all day, but we didn’t catch a thing.


1、表示连接两个同等概念,常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then 等连接。 ? e.g. The teacher’s name is Smith, and the student’s name is John.

2、表示选择,常用的连词有or, either…or…, otherwise等。 e.g. Hurry up, or you’ll miss the train.

3、表示转折,常用的连词有but, still, yet, while, when等。 ? e.g. He was a little man with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting.

4、表示因果关系,常用的连词有so, for, 等。 ? e.g. August is the time of the year for rive harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark.

Exercise: 请用合适的并列连词把每组句子合并为一个并列句。 1. He was tired. He went to bed.

He was tired, so he went to bed.
2. The child didn’t go out. He was afraid of the dog. The child didn’t go out, because he was afraid of the dog. 3. He made a promise. He didn’t keep it. He made a promise, but He didn’t keep it.

复 合 句

由一个主句和一个或者一个以上从句所 构成的句子,中间用从属连词连接。 主句是一个完整的句子,它可以独立存在。 从句是一个不完整的句子,它必须和一个 主句连用,不能独立存在。 复合句 = 主句 +从属连词+从句; 从属连词+从句+主句

复合句主要包含以下类型从句,包括名词性从句(主语从 句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句);定语从句和状 语从句等。 : 1. 主语从句 2. 宾语从句 3. 表语从句 6. 同位语从句 4. 定语从句 5. 状语从句

? 1.Having

finished his homework, the boy went on to help his mother.

(简单句划线部分在句中作状语,修饰 整个句子)
? 2.

What he says doesn’t suit what he does.

(复合句包含两个名词性从句:What he says 是一个主语从句;what he does 是一 个宾语从句)

? 3.

We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon.

? 4.

The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom.


? 5.

There is a chair in this room, isn’t there?


9. Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so.

10. What he said at the meeting is very important, isn’t it?

11. The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree.

12. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music. 简单句

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