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2016届高考高考英语二轮复习精品课件:专题4 第21课时 长难句理解(大纲版贵州专用)



第21课时

阅读理解
长难句理解

(2011· 全国大纲卷 A篇) The walls that were once ugly with graffiti(涂鸦)are now covered with beautiful pictures of historical heroes and modern art

, thanks to the Mural Arts Program (MAP). Its work makes schools and public places attractive, and its citizens very proud. The program began as part of Philadelphia's AntiGraffiti Network. Jane Golden is the MAP's artistic director. “When people ask me what our program is about,” she says, “I answer them with one word: hope.” Each year, the MAP offers youth art programs and workshops. Some onetime graffiti writers even help paint MAP murals. (the second pargraph)

42. What is the Mural Arts Program in Philadelphia aimed at? A. Helping the young find jobs.

B. Protecting the neighborhood.
C. Fighting against graffiti. D. Attracting more visitors.

思路点拨

C

考查细节理解,具体就是对复杂句

子的理解,根据“The walls that were once ugly

with graffiti( 涂鸦 )are now covered with beautiful
pictures of historical heroes and modern art, thanks to the Mural Arts Program (MAP).”得知MAP这个 公益组织所充当的角色。

(2011· 全国大纲卷 E篇)
As Miss Louisiana Teen, she traveled around the state speaking to teens(青少年) about the dangers of drinking and driving. In her role as Miss Teen USA, Shelley will continue to speak to youth about safe driving, in addition to many other things to help the youth. When AT asked Miss Teen USA if she had any advice for our readers, she said, “Don't let anyone change you. Hang out with people that make you feel good about yourself. That way, it is easy to be yourself.”

60. What suggestion does Shelley give to the teens? A. Be yourself with the support of friends.

B. Meet friends whenever possible.
C. Go easy on yourself and others. D. Have a good role model.

思路点拨

A 考查细节理解,其中的解题实质就 是对主人公对朋友讲的那番话的理解。句中的 hang out是指“四处闲逛,出来溜达”。

在阅读理解中,考生会经常碰到许多结 构复杂的句子。也就是所谓的长难句。命题 者在句子理解难度上大做文章,无非是想通 过增加句子长度和使用复杂结构来干扰考生 正常的阅读习惯和思维方式,从而达到考查 考生综合阅读能力的目的。长难句在阅读理 解中容易给考生造成阅读障碍,形成一种心 理压力,使考生失分。

一、长难句的基本特征
(一) 含多重从句和修饰语的复合句。 这些句子往往较长,一个从句套着另一个从句, 环环相扣,使得考生不明白整个句子结构。考生应通 过仔细分析找出主干和修饰成分,这样整个句子结构 就清晰了。

(二) 分隔结构和成分省略的干扰。 为了调整语气和增加补充信息,更主要的是为了平 衡句子结构,避免头重脚轻,使语义严密,结构紧凑, 英语中将语法关系密切的两个句子成分用其他语法成分 分隔开来,这就是所谓的分隔结构。考试中出现较多的 是插入语、用破折号插入的新话题或补充信息。此外, 还有一些句子成分(一般是定语)过长而出现后置,只不过 它只是句子原有成分位置的调整,没有新增信息。 省略主要是为了避免重复,突出关键词并使上下文 紧密连接。成分省略一般和从句相结合,一正一反,使 句子富于变化,增强表现力。

(三)正常语序的改变。改变语序主要指倒 装句式。这些句子往往和一些副词、连词相 关,有明显的标志。 当然,被动句、双重否定句等句式在阅 读考试中也屡屡出现。希望考生能结合阅读 实践来体会上述句法特征。

二、长难句的理解技巧 一般说来,长难句理解主要采用“主干成分分析 法”,按“先干后枝”的原则处理,即按“主句 → 从句→修饰语”的顺序进行。具体步骤如下:

第一步:整句结构分析。通过语法分析,迅速弄 清整个句子的结构,把握住句子的基本框架,确定 整个句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句。
“I felt there was a need for a book like this.” she says. “I didn't want to lecture, but I wanted other diabetics to know that things get better when we're selfcontrolled and do our part in managing the disease.”

整个句子是个简单句,即: she says“…” 。只不 过,前后两个引号为两个并列的宾语从句。第一处 引号“I felt there was a need for a book like this.”的主 语为I,felt后跟了一个宾语从句“there was a need for a book like this”。第二处引号“I didn't want to lecture, but I wanted other diabetics to know that things get better when we're selfcontrolled and do our part in managing the disease.” 由 but 连接两个分句,第二个 分句有主句I wanted other diabetics to know…, 宾语 从句that things get better 及时间状语从句when we're selfcontrolled and do our part in managing the disease。

第二步:主干成分确定。找出句子的核心成分, 确定主句的主语和谓语。 Miss Germaine's mother looked anxious through the wedding and Mr. Cordell's parents are reported to be less than delighted. 本句由两个分句组成, and 连接两个并列单句。 句意: Germaine 小姐的母亲在整个婚礼过程中看 上去很焦虑,Cordell先生的父母亲据报道也不开心。

第三步:从句功能分析。找出句中从句的引导词, 分析从句类型 ( 是否为定语从句、名词性从句或状语 从句等)和从句之间及从句和主句之间的关系。
Whereas a woman's closest female friend might be the first to tell her to leave a failing marriage,it wasn't unusual to hear a man say he didn't know his friend's marriage was in serious trouble until he appeared one night asking if he could sleep on the sofa.

whereas 引 导 了 一 个 从 句 , 即 a woman's closest female friend might be the first to tell her to leave a failing marriage, 而it wasn't unusual to hear a man say he didn't know his friend's marriage was in serious trouble until he appeared one night asking if he could sleep on the sofa.为 主句,其中it为形式主语,真正的主语为不定式 to hear a man…。

省略to的不定式say作宾语补足语,say后面接了 一个宾语从句he didn't know,know后面又接了一个 宾语从句his friend's marriage was in serious trouble和 时间状语从句until he appeared one night,现在分词 短语asking 作伴随状语,asking 后面又接了一个宾 语从句if he could sleep on the sofa。句意:一个女人 最亲密的女友,很可能第一个奉劝她结束不幸的婚 姻。然而,我们常听到男人说,他是在朋友突然来 到自己家里并要求睡在沙发上时,才明白朋友的婚 姻有了麻烦。

第四步:短语功能分析。找出非谓语动词短语、 介词短语、形容词短语、名词短语等短语,分析其 功能以及它们与谓语动词/ 非谓语动词/从句/ 主句之 间的关系等。 If you ask people to name one person who had the greatest effect on the English language, you will get answers like “Shakespeare”, “Samuel Johnson”, and “Webster”, but none of these men had any effect at all compared to a man who didn't even speak English — William the Conqueror.

首先找出并列复合句,即but连接的两个句子, 再看but前的并列句中有一个if引导的条件状语从句, but后的并列句中有一个who引导的定语从句,修饰a man 。句意:如果你要求别人说出对英语的影响最 大 的 人 , 你 可 能 会 得 到 像 “ Shakespeare” , “Samuel Johnson”和 “Webster”之类的答案。但是 与一个甚至不会说英语的人 ——“ 征服者” William 相比,这些人就毫无影响力了。


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