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吕灵毕业论文 ok-7805


淮 海 工 学 院










目:Cultural Awareness and Language Teaching

文化意识与语言教学
作 者:

吕 灵



/>号:

0802101116

系 (院): 专业班级:

外国语言文学系 英语 021 班

指导者: 评阅者:

杨 敏
(姓 名)

副教授
(专业技术职务)

王聿良
(姓 名)

副教授
(专业技术职务)

2006 年 06 月

连 云 港

Acknowledgments
Many people have helped me with this graduate paper, and I’d like to express my gratitude to them here. This paper could not be completed without the supports of many experts, such as Falk, J. and Hymes D.H. who provides me with theoretical supports of cultural awareness. Only by standing on the shoulders of these academic giants could I gain the rational understanding of the relationship between cultural awareness and language teaching. This paper could not be successfully completed without the guidance of Professor Yang, who put sincere passion and great effort in this paper. Through her patient instructions, I have made great progress in improving reasoning, data analysis and academic writing. I’d also like to thank those English majors of Huai Hai Institute of Technology for their participating in my interviews and questionnaire. Without their help, I could not get the relatively direct and proper data which supports my topic firmly.

毕业设计(论文)外文摘要

Cultural Awareness and Language Teaching
Abstract: This paper mainly discusses the relationship between cultural awareness and language teaching in college English teaching. It explains the definition of culture first, then briefly analyzes the interrelationships between culture and language, cultural awareness and cross-cultural awareness, culture teaching and language teaching, and finally states the relationship between cultural awareness and language teaching. It analyzes a survey of 98 English majors in Huai Hai Institute of Technology, focusing on students’ attitudes towards cultural learning, and the causes that may have hindered the acquisition of cultural awareness of those students participating in the survey. The findings of this survey has shown that being lack of sufficient cultural input may be one of the main reasons why most participants have not obtained conscious cultural awareness in the process of language learning, and that most students hope to have a more communicative and interactive classroom learning environment to learn culture. Several suggestions are also provided for future application of cultural awareness in language teaching.

Keywords: cultural awareness; language teaching; questionnaire

毕业设计(论文)中文摘要
文化意识与语言教学
摘 要:本文重点阐述高校英语教学中,文化意识与语言教学的关系。论文先从定义方面

阐述“文化”的内涵,并简要分析文化与语言、文化意识与跨文化意识、文化教学与语言 教学的关系,进而阐明文化意识与语言教学两者之间的关系。本文通过对淮海工学院 98 名英语专业学生的访谈及问卷调查,考察了学生对语言学习中文化学习的认知情况,以及 影响被调查者形成文化意识的原因。调查结果表明,文化输入的不足成为受调查者在过去 的语言学习中未能形成有意识地文化认知的主要原因之一;此外,学生们也希望现有的课 堂学习环境更加开放和互动。本文还就语言教学过程中的文化认知意识的培养提出了一些 可行性建议。 关键词:文化意识 语言教学 问卷调查

Contents
1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………… 1 …………………………………………………………………… 1 …………………………………………………………… 1 ……………………………… 1 ……………………………………………… 2 …………………………………………… 2

2 Culture Review

2.1 The Definition of Culture

2.2 The Relationship between Culture and Language 2.3 Cultural and Cross-cultural Awareness 3 The Study of a Survey 2.4 Culture Teaching and Language Teaching 3.1 The Analysis of Interviews

………………………………………………………………… 2 …………………………………………………………… 3 ……………………………………………………… 3 ……………………………………………… 4 ……………………………………………… 5 ………………………………………………… 6 ……………………………………… 7

3.2 The Analysis of a Questionnaire

3.2.1 Data Analysis on the Questionnaire (1) 3.2.2 Data Analysis on the Questionnaire (2) 3.2.3 Data Analysis on Cultural Curriculum

4 The Possible Ways to Develop Cultural Awareness 4.2 Instructional Strategies Appendix

4.1 The Necessary Cross-cultural Awareness Skills to Acquire ……………………………… 8 …………………………………………………………………… 8 5 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………… 9 ………………………………………………………………………………… 11 ……………………………………………………………………………… 12 Bibliography

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1

Introduction

With the development of the communications between people from different cultural backgrounds, more and more scholars or laymen have realized the importance of cross-cultural communication. How to cultivate English language learners’ cultural awareness and cross-cultural communicating competence has being warmly discussed in China’s foreign language teaching world. Changes have been seen in the newest edition of syllabus for both English major and non-English major, for the first time, stating clearly the close relationship between culture and language, and the importance to cultivate language learners’ cultural awareness. Unavoidably these changes would have great influence on the traditional way of language teaching. For English majors who are on the advance position of cross-cultural communication, they are supposed to experience the new teaching methods and prepare themselves to be a cross-cultural communicator in the future. Though abundant essays on cultural and/or cross-cultural communication have been published, many of them focus on introducing western theory, and less of them have directed to learner-centered topics such as what china’s foreign language learners’ current learning situation is, or if they have not done well with it, what the possible causes that influence their cultural learning are. This paper may have a try on the above mentioned topic.

2

Culture Review

2.1 The Definition of Culture
The word “culture” originates from German word kulture, which means bringing soil under cultivation, and later is associated with the fostering of people’s body and spirit, especially the cultivation of art, moral ability and talent. English anthropologist Tylor explains “culture” in his book Primitive Culture, “Culture is inevasible and complicated, including knowledge, belief, art, moral, law, custom, ability, and habit learned in society” (Tylor. 1981: 35). Later, American anthropologist Bais points out that each society has unique culture that is different from other society. At present, people generally understand the concept according to “capitalized letter Culture” and “small letter culture” (Byram. 1994). The former includes art, literature, politic and so on, while the latter includes behavioral patterns and lifestyles of common people. Once a person is born in a culture, he would possibly die into the culture since he is living there. But for the first time, historically, the 20th century regards identity as something people create for themselves, and people have, in fact, a choice of culture to live in. Young people in 21th century are not only aware of this, but also are frequent users of the opportunity to choose between different cultures.

2.2 The Relationship between Culture and Language
Language ability is a kind of special skill gained during the human being evolution. Of course it also needs language environment. Social linguistics Goodenough, W.H. believes that language is a kind of social cultural phenomenon, and the relevant researches should be done from the perspective of the relationship between culture and language in his book. He argues

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that language in a society is one aspect of the society’s culture, and the particularity of language shows that it is a main tool of learning culture during the process of learning and using. Without knowing its culture, a foreign language can not be comprehended and used correctly (Goodenough, W.H. 1981).

2.3 Cultural and Cross-cultural Awareness
Cultural awareness in language learning is the ability to be aware of cultural relativity following reading, writing, listening and speaking. As Claire kramsch points out… If…language is seen as social practice, culture becomes the very core of language teaching, cultural awareness must then be viewed as enabling language proficiency… (Claire kramsch. 1993: 23). Language itself is defined by culture. Language competent cannot be achieved without a good understanding of culture that shapes it, especially in foreign language learning. It is not only therefore essential to have cultural awareness, but also have cross-cultural awareness, such as the understanding of the relationship between target culture and native culture.

2.4 Culture Teaching and Language Teaching
The interrelationship between culture teaching and language teaching has been explored in depth by Michael Byram. The basis of Byram’s position is that it views language as a cultural phenomenon, embodying the values and meanings particular to a specific society, referring to the traditions and artifacts of that society and signaling its people’s sense of themselves—their cultural identity: “to teach foreign culture is to introduce learners to new competences and to allow them to reflect upon their own culture and cultural competence (Michael Byram. 1989: 143).” It is assumed by others that language could somehow stand alone and be taught as a value-free symbolic system. But the social nature of language works oppositely when separating it from its original culture, especially when appearing in overseas contexts, where the learners’ contact with the culture is largely confined to the foreign language classroom. Traditional foreign language teaching does not pay much attention to cultural factor. It focuses mainly on the vocabulary and structure of the language. But plenty of facts prove that language is not only a symbol, a system, which put forward by pure linguistic theory scholar, but also a social practice. Therefore successful foreign language teaching must help the student master the knowledge of culture rules, in addition to use them in particular situation. Every nation has its unique culture pattern and language is the carrier of culture. For instance, Asians emphasize the importance of orderly society whereas Americans emphasize the importance of personal freedom and individual rights. For effective and appropriate communication, learners must be familiar with the differences in the foreign culture which they are learning and take according language behaviors.

3

The Study of a Survey

Survey date: 25/04/2006 Survey instrument: interview and questionnaire. Subjects: English majors of Huai Hai Institute of Technology, including freshmen, juniors, and seniors. 30 students are interviewed, 98 students (30 interviewed students and another 68

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English majors) participate in questionnaire. All the 98 copies of questionnaire are valid. The objective of this survey is to investigate: 1) Students’ attitudes towards cultural learning 2) Current situation of students’ information input.

3.1 The Analysis of Interviews
Thirty English majors are interviewed and are invited to answer only one question: what is a competent language learner like in your eyes? The responses tend to fall into three categories: Twenty five interviewees think that he or she is good at English listening, speaking, reading and writing abilities, especially at speaking and listening; Ten of them think he or she is familiar with foreign culture and is a successful ② cross-cultural communicator. ③ Five of them think a good command of native language is necessary. In order to describe more directly, the results of interviews are put into a table (Table.1). Table1. Results of the Interview
Positive attitudes Language proficiency learning(reading, writing, speaking and listening) Accumulation of culture Mother tongue proficiency 33.33% (10/30) 16.67% ( 5/30) Percentage 83.33% (25/30)



These students’ responses reveal the following information: Firstly, these students still see the four basic skills (speaking, listening, reading and writing) as their main study objective. Secondly, cultural competence has already been realized by language learners, but this group is small compared to the whole. Thirdly, the importance of mother tongue competence has only been seen by a few interviewees. According to this interview, most interviewees have realized the importance of language proficiency in language learning, but the point is why only one third of the interviewees have realized the importance and necessity of cultural and communicative competence since which are discussed so warmly in present language teaching world? Do they hold a negative view on it or do they just have not yet obtained the awareness consciously?

3.2 The Analysis of a Questionnaire
The English learning questionnaire consists of nine closed-ended questions (see Appendix), For instance, “you have the interest and passion in English and language learning”, and the answers falls into four types: 1. Strongly Agree (SA) 2. Agree (A) 3. Disagree (D) 4. Strongly Disagree (SD) According to the research content, the analysis of questionnaire is divided into two parts. The first five are put in Table 2 and the rest four questions are put in Table 4.

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3.2.1

Data Analysis on the Questionnaire (1)

This part of analysis involves data analysis on questions 1-5 in the questionnaire and a comparison between the responds of the interviews and the questionnaire. 3.2.1.1 Data Analysis on the Questionnaire (1) Table2. Results of Questions 1-5 in Questionnaire

SA 1) The cultivation of English skills(reading, foundation learning 2) Reading English novels 17.35% of the writing, language speaking and listening) is the 60.29%

A 31.65%

D 2.04%

SD 6.02%

69.39%

13.26%

0.00%

everyday is necessary 3) It is important to acquire a good knowledge of native 50.00% 48.98% 1.02% 0.00% language in foreign learning 4) The accumulation of language and culture of Chinese and English are of equal importance 5) It is necessary to read materials so on regularly about politics, economy, culture, and 39.80% 60.20% 0.00% 0.00% 44.90% 53.06% 2.04% 0.00%

Questions 1-5 (see appendix) indicate a clear picture of students’ attitudes towards language proficiency learning, native language learning, and accumulation on culture, literature, and politics and so on. On the importance of the cultivation of reading, speaking, listening and writing in language learning, 91.94% (60.29% SA+31.65% A) of English majors agree and of which 64.29% strongly agree. On daily English novels reading, a total of 86.74% (17.35% SA+69.39% A) consider it necessary. On the necessity a good command of native language, 97.96% (44.90% SA+53.06% A) of English majors agree. On the relation of native language learning and foreign language learning, 98.98% (50.0% SA+48.98% A) believe that these two are of equal importance. Finally, on a regularly reading of politics, economy, and culture, all (39.80% SA+60.20% A) the students hold a supportive attitude. 3.2.1.2 Comparison between the Interviews and the Questionnaire With regards to the similarities of the contents examined, it seems necessary to have a comparison between the responds of the interviews and the questionnaire.

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Table3. Comparison between the Interviews and the Questionnaire
Positive attitudes (SA+A) Foreign Language proficiency learning(reading, writing, speaking and listening) Accumulation of culture Mother tongue proficiency 33.33% 16.67% 98.98% 97.96% Interview (open-ended) 83.88% Questionnaire (close-ended) 91.94%

From the table above, the comparison is very clear that, towards the same research content, interviewees’ responds vary when they are faced with different types of questions. The gap is especially seen on the accumulation of culture and native language proficiency. Compared with open-ended question in the interview, interviewees tend to hold a more supportive view on closed-ended questions in the questionnaire. In other word, most English major learners subjectively admit the importance of the accumulation of culture and native language proficiency, but the point is, not all of them have already obtained the awareness. However, two questions have been proposed from the comparison: ① Why English majors have not obtained the cultural awareness which should be tied up with language learning? ② Is that because they subjectively lack learning motivation or objectively, they lack timely and efficiently teachers’ cultural guidance? 3.2.2 Data Analysis on the Questionnaire (2) This part of questionnaire (table4 in next page) mainly focuses on students’ attitudes towards learning motivation as well as classroom learning. Before the analysis is taken, a brief introduction on motivation can help to have a better understanding on the analysis. 1) Integrative motivation Motivation has been identified as the learners’ orientation with regards to the goal of learning foreign language (Crookes and Schmidt. 1991). It is thought that students who are most successful in learning a target language are those who like the native language speakers, admire its culture and have a desire to become familiar with or even become integrated into the society in which the language is used (Falk. 1978). This form of motivation is known as integrative motivation. . 2) Instrumental Motivation In contrast to integrative motivation is the form of motivation which is known as instrumental motivation. This is generally characterized by the desire to obtain something practical from the study of foreign language (Hudson. 2000). With instrumental motivation, the purpose of study is more practical, such as meeting the requirements for college graduation, applying for a job and achieving higher social status.

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Table4. Results of Questions 6-9 in Questionnaire

SA 6) Your have the interest and passion in English and language learning 7) You would prefer to get an English-related job 2.04% after the graduation 8) The present classroom teaching and can improve cultivate your 25.51% your learning abilities cross-cultural skills 9) You hope to have English class in various forms such as discussion, debate, presentation, 21.43% 14.29%

A 61.22%

D 21.43%

SD 3.06%

66.33%

11.22%

1.02%

7.14%

71.43%

19.39%

63.27%

9.18%

2.04%

performance and so on.

As is shown in the table (results of questions 6 and 7), 75.51% (14.29%SA+61.22%A) of English majors have the interest and passion in language learning, and 87.76% (21.43%SA+66.33%A) of them would like to get an English related job in the future. According to the introduction of motivation, the answers to those two questions (questions 6 and 7) can be taken as the representation of integrative and instrumental motivation respectively. Therefore, a conclusion can be made that, most students subjectively want to make a living by using their language competence. In order to check the condition of students’ cultural information input, questions 8 and 9 are designed and analyzed. 89.82% (71.43%D+19.39SD) of English majors do not think that the present classroom teaching can cultivate their learning abilities and improve their cross-cultural skills, whereas a total of 88.78% (25.51%SA+63.27%A) hope to have English class in various forms such as discussion, presentation, debate, performance and so on. It can be found that most English majors are not satisfied with the current classroom teaching. They hope to enjoy a more interactive and communicative teaching style. The traditional text-based grammatical and linguistic teaching could not meet the needs of the cultivation of communicative competence to some extent. What’s more important is that students are supposed to have a consciously as well as unconsciously cultural awareness promote by language teachers. 3.2.3 Data Analysis on Culture Curriculum It is shown from the result of question 8 in the table above (table 4) that present foreign language teaching has not provided a satisfactory fruit on cultural awareness cultivation. A

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question should be taken into consideration, that is, how can cross-culture awareness be expressed in the foreign language curriculum, with the purpose to cultivate language learners’ cultural awareness and communication insight into the target civilization? For a long time, this has been attempted by introducing the geographical environment and historical or political development of the foreign culture, its institutions and customs, its literary achievements, and even everyday life of its people. Take English majors in Huai Hai Institute of Technology as an example, their cultural input has largely come from courses such as Extensive Reading, Communication between Cultures, American Literature, and An Outline Introduction to Britain and America, and so on. Following is a basic analysis on the four courses. Table5. Courses Information
Course Extensive Reading Communication between cultures American literature An Outline Introduction to Britain and America Duration first 4 terms the 7th term the 7th term the 7th term Teacherˊs background Chinese New Zealander Chinese Canadian

Extensive Reading was taught by a Chinese teacher during the first four terms, and the teaching contents mainly focus on western culture, economy, politic, education and so on. After two years study, it helps students build up a general view on western civilization. Communication between Cultures is taught by a English-speaking teacher from New Zealand, the teaching content seems “boring and meaningless” said the majority of students, the teacher read the chapters from the book to the class instead of giving practical cross-cultural communication analysis. So for most students, they did not learn as much as they expected from this course. American literature was taught by a Chinese teacher, and the teaching contents include background information introduction and literacy reading. An Outline Introduction to Britain and America was taught by a Canadian teacher who has a good experience on both British and American cultures. In this course, students are introduced to a comparison of the British and American culture. From what have been introduced above, it can be seen that although there are four courses and an 28-month course duration, most of what students have taken is an education of “cultural background knowledge” on Chinese or English rather than practical cross-cultural communication stimulation such as comparisons or contradictions between the target and native culture. To some extent, it revels why most English students have not got a conscious awareness in cultural or cross-cultural communication competence.

4 The Possible Ways to Develop Cultural Awareness
Through comparisons between the interview and the questionnaire, it can be seen that students hold positive attitudes on cultural awareness, but for some reasons, not so many have already obtained conscious cultural awareness. Through further analysis of curriculum on

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cultural teaching, it reveals that present cultural teaching in language teaching shows the weakness in practical, sufficient and conscious cultural input to help build up language learner’s cultural awareness. Moreover, the current teaching is also expected to be more communicative and interactive. Thus, following on are the possible ways to promote the cultural awareness. 4.1 The Necessary Cross-cultural Awareness Skills to Acquire Firstly, it is vital for language teachers to help language learners build up cultural awareness and develop their cross-cultural communication competence. If the final purpose of cultural awareness cultivation is to help students to acquire cross-cultural communication competence, then what cross-cultural communication competence is? According to Kramsch’s opinion, cross-cultural awareness is not really a skill, but a collection of skills and attitudes known as a competence. Secondly, it is necessary to make clear what cross-cultural awareness skills students are supposed to acquire. It has been suggested that cross-cultural awareness consists of having four different perspectives on communication with a different culture. Cross-cultural competent students should be able to: ----look at their own culture from the point of view of their own culture (for example, having a good understanding and awareness of their own culture) ----Be aware of how their culture is seen from outside, by other countries or cultures ----understand or see the target culture from its own perspective (for example, understanding and being aware of what other people think of their own culture) ----Be aware of how they see the target culture 4.2 Instructional Strategies Language teachers are supposed to exert instructional strategies to help language learners promote their cultural awareness, that is, provide language learners with some useful ideals for presenting culture from its own perspective, for example, understanding and being aware of what people in target culture think of their own culture. 1) Authentic Materials Using authentic sources from the native speech community may help language learners to engage in authentic cultural experiences. Sources include news broadcasts, and other printed materials. Teachers can adapt these authentic materials to suit the age and language proficiency level of the students. For example, even language beginners can watch and listen to video clips taken from a television show in the target language. The teacher might supply students with a detailed translation or give them an outline to complete before they listen to a dialogue or watch a video. After the class has viewed the relevant segments, the teacher can engage the students in discussion of the cultural norms represented in the segment and what these norms might say about the values of the culture. The topics of discussion might include nonverbal behaviors (for instance, the different physical distance between speakers, gestures, eye contact, societal roles, and how people in different social roles related to each other). Students might describe the behaviors they observe and discuss which of them are similar to their native culture and which are not, and determine strategies for effective communication in target language.

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2)

Proverbs

Proverbs is essential not only in language teaching but also in culture teaching. Discussion of common proverbs in the target language could focus on how the proverbs are different from or similar to the proverbs in the students’ native language (Ciccarelli. 1996). Using proverbs as a way to explore cultural awareness also provides a way to analyze the stereotype and misperceptions of target culture, as well as a way for students to explore the values that are often represented in the proverbs of their native culture. 3) Role Play In role plays, students can act out a miscommunication that is based on cultural differences. For example, after learning about ways of addressing different groups of people in the target culture, such as people of the same age and older people, students could role play a situation in which an inappropriate greeting is used. Other students observe the role play and try to identify the reason for the miscommunication. They then role play the same situation using a culturally appropriate form of the address. 4) Bicultural Students or Teachers as Cultural Resources Exchange students, foreign teachers, or native teachers who have a bicultural living experience can be invited to the classroom as expert sources. They can share authentic insight into the home and cultural life of native speakers of the language. 5) Literature Literary texts are often filled with cultural information and can evoke memorable response for readers. Texts that are carefully selected for a given group of students and with specific goals in mind can be helpful in allowing students to acquire insight into a culture. 6) Film Film and television segments offer students an opportunity to witness behaviors that are not obvious in texts. Film is often one of the more comprehensive ways to convey the look, feel, and rhythm of a culture. Film also connects students with language and cultural issues simultaneously (Stephens. 2001), such as describing conversational timing or turn-taking in conversation. At least one study shows that students achieved significant gains in overall cultural knowledge after watching video from the target culture in the classroom (Herron., Cole., Corrine. & Dubreil. 1999)

5

Conclusion

This research investigated mainly English majors’ understanding on language competence and their attitudes towards the learning of language skills, the accumulation of culture and current classroom teaching of which students’ cultural awareness are especially analyzed. It may be safe to say that most English major learners have a high identification on language competence learning, but less of them have an active conscious awareness about the relationship between cultural awareness and language learning. Through deeper analysis, results have shown that being lack of sufficient cultural input may be one of the main reasons that most participants have not obtained conscious cultural awareness in the process of language learning. On the analysis of college culture teaching

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curriculum, it reveals that what students have got is a kind of education of “cultural background knowledge” on Chinese or English rather than practical cross-cultural communication stimulation such as comparisons or contradictions between the two cultures. Regardless of individual’s difference in language learning, most students hope to have a more communicative and interactive classroom learning environment. Moreover, language teachers are supposed to exert instructional strategies, such as using proverbs or films to promote and help students build up cultural and cross-cultural awareness.

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Appendix Questionnaire
Strongly Agree 1) The cultivation of English skills(reading, writing, speaking and listening) is the foundation of the language learning 2) Reading English novels everyday is necessary 3) It is important to acquire a good knowledge of native language in foreign language learning 4) The accumulation of language and culture of Chinese and English are of equal importance 5) It is necessary to read materials regularly about politics, economy, culture, and so on 6) You have the interest and passion in English and language learning 7) You would prefer to get an English-related job after graduation 8) The present classroom teaching can cultivate your learning ability and improve your cross-cultural skills 9) You hope to have English class in various forms such as discussion, presentation, debate, performance and so on. Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree

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[1] [2] Byram, M. Cultural Studies in Foreign Language Education[M]. Multilingual Matters Ltd (1989) Byram, M. & Morgan, C. Teaching-and-Learning Language-and-Culture[M]. Clevedon, England:Multilingual Matters (1994) [3] Ciccarelli, A. Teaching Culture through Language: Suggestions for the Italian Language Class.[A]. Italica,(1996) [4] Crookes, G. & Schmidt, R. Motivation: Reopening the Research Agenda[A]. Language learning (1991) [5] Falk, J. Linguistics and Language: A survey of Basic Concepts and Implications (2nd Ed.) [M] John Wiley and Sons (1978) [6] Goodenough, W.H. Culture, Language, and Society[M]. London: the Benjamin Publishing Company (1981) [7] Herron, C., Cole, S. P., Corrie, C., & Dubreil, S. The Effectiveness of Video-based Curriculum in Teaching Culture[J]. The Modern Language Journal, (1999) [8] Hudson, G.. Essential Introductory Linguistics[N]. Blackwell Publishers (2000) [9] Hymes, D.H. On Communicative Competence[A]. Philadelphia: University of Pensylvania Press (1971) [10] Kramsch, C. Context and Culture in Language Teaching[N]. Oxford University Press (1933) [11] Stephens, J.L. Teaching Culture and Improving Language Skills Through A Cinematic Lens: A Course On Spanish Film in The Undergraduate Spanish Curriculum[J]. ADFL Bulletin, (2001) [12] Tylor, E.B. Primitive Culture[N]. Gordon Press (1981) [13] 李润新. 论第二语言教学与第二文化教学[M]. 外语教学与研究出版社(1994) [14] 高等学校外语专业教学指导委员会英语组. 高等学校与英语专业英语教学大纲[M]. 上海外语教育出版社(2000)


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