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2016届高考英语 语法专项突破 第三节 形容词和副词针对训练 北师大版


第三节

形容词和副词

考点一 形容词的基本用法 1.形容词作定语 (1)一般情况下,形容词作定语放在被修饰词前。但在下列情况下,形容词要放在被修 饰词的后面。 ①形容词作定语修饰 some?,any?,every?,no?和?body,?thing,?one 等构成的复合 不定代词时,需后置。 I have nothing particular to do tonight. 今晚我没什么特别要做的事。 He had something interesting to tell you,but he forgot. 他本来有有趣的事要告诉你,可是他忘了。 ②以?able 或?ible 结尾的形容词可放在前有形容词最高级或 only 等词修饰的名词后 面。 I saw the best performance possible last night. 昨晚我看了一场再好没有的表演。 (2)有些形容词作前置定语和后置定语意义不同,试比较: ①the present people 现在的人们;the people present 在场的人们 ②the absent students 心不在焉的学生;the students absent 缺席的学生 ③the concerned teachers 忧心忡忡的老师们;the teachers concerned 与??有关 的老师们 [名师点津] 多个形容词作定语的排列顺序 请记住以下口诀: 限定描绘大长高,形状年龄和新老, 颜色国籍出材料,用途类别往后靠。 a little white wooden house 一座白色的小木房 some beautiful little red flowers 一些美丽的小红花 an old brown woolen carpet 一件旧的棕色羊毛地毯 2.表语形容词 表语形容词常作表语或后置定语。 常见的表语形容词有: afraid, alone, awake, asleep, alive,alike,ashamed,well,sorry,unable,worth,sure 等。

The baby asleep might be awake very soon. 正在睡着的婴儿可能很快就会醒来。 3.形容词作状语 形容词作状语时表示伴随或结果,并不表示动作的方式。 He went back home after the heavy work,cold and hungry.劳累了一天后他回到了 家,又冷又饿。 考点二 副词的基本用法 1.修饰形容词或其他副词,也可以修饰动词。一般位于被修饰词之前。但 enough 需放 在所修饰词之后。 I was foolish enough to accept his offer. 我接受他的提议真是够傻的。 2. so/as/that/too/how/that 修饰形容词加名词时的顺序: so/as/too/how/that+adj. +a/an+n.。 It is too difficult a job for me to finish in so short a time(such a short time). 在如此短的时间内完成工作对我太难了。 3.表示时间频度的副词 always,often,usually,never,seldom,rarely 等多放在 实意动词前,系动词、情态动词或助动词之后。 I usually dip into a book before deciding whether to buy it. 我通常先浏览一本书然后才决定是否买它。 4.有些副词置于句首可修饰全句,作评注性状语。 Unfortunately,when he went through customs in Japan,they would not let him in.不幸的是,当他在日本过海关的时候,工作人员不会放行。 Apparently,this is not something that happened to Tom.很显然,这些并没有发 生在汤姆身上。 5.can not/never 与 enough 或 too much 连用表示“无论怎样都不过分”。 You cannot be too careful when crossing the street. 穿越马路时,再怎么小心也不为过。 [名师点津] 有些副词有两种形式,但含义不同: close 接近的 closely 仔细地,密切地 free 免费的 freely 自由地 hard 努力的 hardly 几乎不 late 晚,迟到 lately 近来 most 极,非常 mostly 主要地 wide 广阔的 widely 广泛地

high 高 deep 深

highly 高度地,非常地 deeply (抽象意义)深深地 考点三 形容词和副词的比较等级

1.形容词和副词的比较等级 形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级、比较级和最高级。 [名师点津] 以下形容词及其副词无比较级和最高级:relative, absolute, perfect, entire, senior, golden, afraid, unique, present, simply, right, wrong, sure, round, empty, wonderful 等。 2.比较级和最高级的构成 (1)规则形式 ①单音节以及少数以?ow(如 narrow)结尾的双音节形容词或副词, 在原级后加?er, ?est 构成。如:clever - cleverer - cleverest。其他特殊变化见下表: 特殊情况 以 e 结尾 以“辅音字母+y” 结尾 以重读闭音节结尾 构成方式 加?r 和?st 例词 brave - braver - bravest happy - happier - happiest hot-hotter- hottest

变 y 为 i,再加?er 和?est

双写词尾,再加?er 和?est

②多音节和部分双音节形容词和副词,在原级前加 more, most 构成。 active-more active-most active happily-more happily-most happily (2)不规则形式 good/well-better-best far-farther/further-farthest/furthest bad/ill /badly-worse-worst old-older/elder-oldest/eldest many/much-more-most little-less-least 3.比较等级的常见句型: ① 两者比较,用“比较级+than”表示。 You look much younger than I do. 你看上去比我年轻多了。 ② “比较级+and+比较级”表示“越来越??”。 With summer coming,the day is becoming longer and longer.随着夏天的到来,白

天变得越来越长。 ③ “the + 比较级,the + 比较级”意为“越??就越??”。

The more careful you are,the fewer mistakes you'll make.你越仔细,犯的错误 就越少。 ④ “the+比较级+of the two +n.”表示“两者之间较??的那个”。

The taller of the two boys is my brother. 那两个男孩中较高的那个是我弟弟。 ⑤ “a(n)+比较级+n.”表示“一个更??的”。

The story is not very interesting.I will tell you a more interesting one.这 个故事不太有趣,我会给你讲一个更有趣的故事。 ⑥ “as+原级 adj./adv.+as ...”表示“和??一样”。 John plays football as well as,if not better than,David. 约翰如果踢足球不比大卫好,至少和他踢得一样好。 [名师点津] “not as/so+原级 adj./adv.+as ...”表示“不如??”。 The work is not as/so difficult as you imagine. 这工作没有你想象的那么难。 4.表示倍数的三种句型: ①倍数+as+原级形容词(副词)+as ... ②倍数+the size/length/width/depth/height of ... ③倍数+比较级+than... The building is three times as high as that one. =The building is three times the height of that one. =The building is twice higher than that one. 这座大楼是那座的三倍高。 [名师点津] 否定词+比较级=最高级 I have never seen a better film.我从未看过比这更精彩的影片(这是我看过的最精 彩的影片)。 5.most 前有定冠词时为最高级,但 most 前无定冠词时没有比较的含义,只是用来加 强语气,有“很,非常”之意。 This lesson is most difficult,but it isn't the most difficult.这一课很难, 但并不是最难的。 6.比较等级前常用的修饰语:a little,a bit,slightly,much,a lot,a great deal, any,far,by far,even,still 等。 After two years' research,we now have a far better understanding of the disease.

经过两年的研究,我们现在对这种疾病有了更进一步的了解。 [本节小结] 高考侧重于对形容词和副词语义的考查。 对比较等级的考查不是直接考查其结构, 而是 在具体语境中让考生体会出其比较的含义。 因此考生在日常备考中要掌握英语中形容词和副 词的语法特点以及它们之间的语义差异; 具备在特定的语境中选择恰当的形容词和副词的能 力; 重点掌握常用且相似的形容词和副词的含义及用法差异, 对比较级的一些常用句型要做 到耳熟能详。 针对训练 Ⅰ.选词填空 stubborn;therefore;seldom;otherwise;blindly;optimistic;deliberately; frequently;efficient 1. (2014·安徽高考)My good performance in the job interview left me________about my future and about what I can do here. 【答案】 optimistic 2.(2014·福建高考)With online shopping increasingly popular,the Internet is seen as a(n)________ way of reaching target customers. 【答案】 efficient 3.(2014·浙江高考)Joe is proud and ________,never admitting he is wrong and always looking for someone else to blame. 【答案】 stubborn 4.(2014·安徽高考)It's our hope that we will play a greater role in the market place and,________ supply more jobs. 【答案】 therefore 5.(2014·大纲全国卷)Henry was away from home for quite a bit and ________ saw his family. 【答案】 seldom 6.(2014·江苏高考)I can't meet you on Sunday.I'll be ________ occupied. 【答案】 otherwise 7.(2014·江西高考)Thanks for your directions to the house;we wouldn't have found it ________. 【答案】 otherwise 8.(2014·浙江高考)The aim of education is to teach young people to think for themselves and not follow others________. 【答案】 blindly

9.(2014·浙江八校联考)Don't defend him any more.It's obvious that he ________ destroyed the fence of the garden even without an apology. 【答案】 deliberately 10. (2014·浙江嘉兴模拟)As is known to all language learners, newly learned words will soon be forgotten unless ________ used in everyday communication. 【答案】 frequently Ⅱ.语篇填空 用适当的词或者括号中所给词的适当形式填空 When a plane from London arrived at Sydney airport,workers began to unload a number of 1.________(wood) boxes which contained clothing.No one could account for the fact that one of the boxes was 2.________(extreme) heavy.It 3.________ (sudden) to one of the workers to open up the box.He was 4.________(astonish) at what he found.A man was lying in the box on top of a pile of 5.________(wool) goods.He was 6.________ 7.________(surprise) at being discovered that he did not even try to run away. After he was arrested,the man admitted hiding in the box before the plane left London.He had had a long and 8.________(comfort) trip,for he had been confined (关 在) to the 9.________ box for over eighteen hours.The man was ordered to pay 3,500 for the cost of the trip,which was 10.________ (expensive) than the normal prize which only cost £2,000. 【答案】 1.wooden 2.extremely 3.suddenly 4.astonished 5.woolen 6.so

7.surprised 8.uncomfortable 9.wooden 10.more expensive 综合演练 语法填空 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(不多于 3 个单词)或括号内单词的适当形式 There was 1.________ a guy who suffered from a cancer,one that can't be cured.He was 18 years 2.________ and he could die anytime.All his life,he was stuck in his house taken care of by his mother.He never went outside but he was 3.________ of staying home and wanted to go out for once.So he asked his mother and she gave him permission. He walked down his block and found a lot of stores.He passed a CD store and looked through the front door for a second.He stopped and saw a 4.________ girl about his age.He opened the door and walked in,not looking at anything else but her.He walked 5.________(close) until he was finally at the front desk where she sat.She looked

6.________ and smiled,“Can I help you?” He said,“I would like to buy a CD.” He picked one out and gave her the money for it. “Would you like me to wrap it for you?” she asked, smiling 7.________.He nodded and she went to the back.She came 8.________ with the wrapped CD and gave it to him.After that,he 9.________ bought a CD there.One day,he went there buying a CD like he did every day,and 10.________ again she went to the back of the store and came back with it wrapped.He took it and when she wasn't looking,he left his phone number on the desk and ran out... 【答案】 1.once 2.old 3.tired 4.beautiful 5.closer 6.up 7.again

8.back 9.often 10.once


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