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高一英语第三册第二单元语法学习-“ing”形式做主语、宾语


O, my Luve's like a red, red rose, That's newly sprung in June;

O, my Luve's like a melodie , That's sweetly play'd in tune.

A Red, Red Rose

/>by

Robert Burns

“-ing”形式之一 “-ing”作主语和宾语
班级______ 姓名_______

我一点也不知道他服过役。(此处使用的是“-ing”的完成式) 第二部分例句:通过例句展示“-ing”的名词特点。 “-ing”的名词特征主要表现在它在句中可以充当主语或宾语, 还可以受形容词、代

问题一:什么是“-ing”形式?
“-ing”是动词的一种非限定形式(非谓语形式), 由动词原形加“-ing”构成。这种形 式同时兼有动词和名词的特征和作用, 其动词特征表现在可以带宾语、状语或表 语, 还可以有时态、 语态的变化。 换言之, 英语中的“-ing”形式是由动词变化而来, 它仍一方面保留着动词的某些特征,具有动词的某些变化形式,用以表达名词所 不能表达的较为复杂的意念,另一方面动名词在句子的用法及功能与名词类同: 在句子可以作主语、宾语、表语、定语。它也可以被副词修饰或后面直接接宾语。 仔细体会下面的例句来理解上面较为抽象的讲解。 第一部分例句:通过例句展示“-ing”的动词特点。 At the meeting he stressed the importance of defeating their competitors. 会上他强调了击败竞争对手的重要性。(此处的defeating后面跟有自己的宾语) Getting up early is considered a good habit. 早起被认为是一种好习惯。(Getting up后面跟有修饰它的状语early) He dreamt of becoming an actor. 他梦想当一名飞行员。(becoming后面跟有自己的表语an actor) 此外, “-ing”的动词特征还表现在它的语态和时态变化。 He insisted on being given the mission. 他坚持要给自己分配这项任务。(此处用的是“-ing”的被动语态) I know nothing about his having served in the army.
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词和名词的修饰, 前面也可以加冠词。 There is no excuse for the running away. 逃走是无法辩解的。(前面有定冠词the修饰) All seems smooth sailing. 一切看来都很顺利。(sailing受到了形容词smooth的修饰) His helping is important for me. 他的帮助对我很重要。(helping受到形容词性物主代词his的修饰)

问题二:“-ing”形式有什么用?
“-ing”形式由于具有名词和动词的双重特点,所以担任的成分特别多,具有名词的 特点使之可以担任名词可以担任的成分,如主语,宾语,宾补,表语等。

问题三:本单元主要学什么?
第三册第二单元所需要学习的“ing”功能----作主语、作宾语

1 . 作主语 :
知识点 Saying is easier than doing. __________________________________________________________ Drinking so much wine is not good for health.

O, my Luve's like a red, red rose, That's newly sprung in June;

O, my Luve's like a melodie , That's sweetly play'd in tune.

A Red, Red Rose

by

Robert Burns

__________________________________________________________ Reading is an art. __________________________________________________________ Climbing mountains is really fun.

_________________________________________________________ Swimming is a good sport in summer. _________________________________________________________ 知识点① 形式主语的问题

_________________________________________________________ 在use, good, pity, time, fun, hard, funny, nice, difficult , worthwhile, interesting, tiring, Working in these conditions is not a pleasure but a suffer. better , foolish, enjoyable, crazy , terrible 等名词或形容词作表语时, 可用it 作形式 _________________________________________________________ 主语, 把作主语的动名词后置。构成一个“it is+adj/n+doing”的结构。 Riding a bike can make a man quick. It’s crazy going out like that. _________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Seeing is believing. It’s no use waiting here. _________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Waving your hand is to say “Good-bye”. It’s no good helping him. _________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Nodding your head is to say “Yes”. It’s rather tiring typing so many letters. _________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Helping her is my duty. It’s dangerous swimming in this river. _________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Talking mends no holes. I t made them worried Jack?s suddenly disappearing . _________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Working with you is a pleasure. It is a waste of time helping that man. _________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Doing exercise can make us healthy. It is worthwhile reading this book.
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O, my Luve's like a red, red rose, That's newly sprung in June;

O, my Luve's like a melodie , That's sweetly play'd in tune.

A Red, Red Rose

by

Robert Burns

__________________________________________________________ It is no use crying over spilt milk. __________________________________________________________ It is a waste of time discussing such matters with him. __________________________________________________________ It is no good leaving today's work for tomorrow. __________________________________________________________

2.I admit breaking the window. _________________________________________________________ 3.Try to imagine being on the moon. _________________________________________________________ 4.He tried to escape being punished. _________________________________________________________ 5.You shouldn?t keep thinking about it. _________________________________________________________

2. 作宾语:
1)“ing”作动词宾语 知识点②动词后接“ing”的问题 有一些动词后面语法要求使用“ing”形式做它的宾语,这样的单词始终是考试的重 点。好消息是这些单词不是特别多,在下面尽量多的给出来了。你去认真记住这 些吧,我在精神上支持你! 下列动词后常跟“ing”作宾语, 其中有些可用sb ./ sth . doing 结构: admit , stand, appreciate, avoid, complete, consider, delay, deny, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy( = imagine) , finish , forgive, imagine, keep( = continue) , mind, miss ,pardon , postpone, practice, prevent , propose, quit , recall , recollect , risk , resist ,suggest , advise, allow, permit , recommend, acknowledge, require, guarantee, confirm, encourage, ban等。 1.I advise waiting a few more days. _________________________________________________________
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6.Would you mind going with her? _________________________________________________________ 7.I can?t understand neglecting children like that. _________________________________________________________ 8.We only missed seeing each other by five minutes. _________________________________________________________ 9.Would you mind opening the window? _________________________________________________________ 10.These books are well worth reading. _________________________________________________________ 11.My mother couldn't help smiling when she heard the good news. _________________________________________________________ 12.My father has given up smoking.。 _________________________________________________________

O, my Luve's like a red, red rose, That's newly sprung in June;

O, my Luve's like a melodie , That's sweetly play'd in tune.

A Red, Red Rose

by

Robert Burns

13.Everyone in my class enjoys playing football. _________________________________________________________ 14.Mike often attempts to escape being fined whenever he breaks traffic regulations. _________________________________________________________ 15.The doctor suggested that I avoid smoking and drinking for a month. _________________________________________________________ 16.Would you mind opening the window? _________________________________________________________ 17.The murderer denied killing the rich man. _________________________________________________________ 18.I would appreciate your keeping it a secret.

aim at , devote . . .to, depend on, set about , be fond of等等。 He is intent on carrying out the experiment. ________________________________________________________ You are wrong in accepting her offer. ________________________________________________________ She is apologetic for breaking the vase. ________________________________________________________ There is no harm in trying again. ________________________________________________________ He took to going out for a walk in the evening. ________________________________________________________ She felt like going out.

19. He admitted taking the watch. __________________________________________________________ 20. I appreciate her devoting herself to the education. __________________________________________________________ 2) “ing”作介词的宾语 由于语法规定介词后面所跟的成分算宾语,而且语法还规定,介词后面接动词的 话要求使用动词“ing”形式, 这就导致“动词+介词”构成的动词短语后面接动词的话 都是要用动词的“ing”形式作宾语,如下面的例子中的这些短语go on, get through , insist on, keep on, accuse . . .of, think of, care for, give up , put off, dream of, charge . . .with, prevent . . . from, be engaged in ,thank . . .for, feel like,excuse . . .for,
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________________________________________________________ 知识点③注意:这一部分的考察重点在于我们前面发的一份材料《以介词to结尾的 常考短语》,请去记忆吧。 知识点④It作形式宾语 It作形式宾语代替真正的宾语“ing”形式只限于少数句型, 一般用在useless , worthwhile, senseless, fun , no good, any good, a waste of time 等后。 I found it senseless arguing with him because he was willful. ________________________________________________________ I find it useless( no use) advising him to change his mind . ________________________________________________________

O, my Luve's like a red, red rose, That's newly sprung in June;

O, my Luve's like a melodie , That's sweetly play'd in tune.

A Red, Red Rose

by

Robert Burns

知识点⑤有些动词后面跟动词不定式和跟动名词所表示的意义完全不同, 有时甚 至相反,这些需要单独记忆。 1) stop doing/to do stop to do 停止,中断做某事后去做另一件事 / stop doing 停止做某事。

1. have problem (+in) + “doing”, ________________________________________________________ 2. have fun (+in) + “doing”, ________________________________________________________ 3. have difficulty in doing sth.,

2) forget doing/to do forget to do 忘记要去做某事 (未做) / forget doing 忘记做过某事 (已做)

________________________________________________________ 4. have trouble/a hard time in doing sth.;

3) remember doing/to do remember to do 记得去做某事 (未做)/remember doing 4) regret doing/to do regret to do对要做的事遗憾 (未做)/regret doing对做过的事遗憾、后悔 (已做) 5) try doing/to do try to do 努力,企图做某事 / try doing 试验,试着做某事。 记得做过某事 (已做)

________________________________________________________ 5. be busy (in) +“doing”; ________________________________________________________

6) go on doing/to do go on to do 做了一件事后,接着做另一件事/go on doing 继续做原来做的事。

问题四:The old man insisted on their staying in his home.这个句子的“ing”前面的their是一种什么样 的使用?
“ing”形式前面可以加一个形容词性的物主代词、代词宾格或名词所有

7) mean to doing/to do mean to do 打算、想/mean doing 意味着

格作为该动名词的逻辑主语。(所谓的逻辑主语也就是说这个“ing”动作的
真正的执行者。)以上面的句子为例,如果去掉句子中的 their,句子成为 The old man insisted on staying in his home. 句子中 stay 这个动作的逻辑主语是 the old man (也就是 stay 这个动作的执行者是 the old man),句子翻译成:“老人坚持要留在 家里”。但是如果在“ing”前面加上 their,这个时候根据上面斜体字的讲解,stay 这个动作的逻辑主语不再是 the old man,而是形容词性的物主代词 their 对应的人, 也就是“他们”。那么这个句子应该翻译成:“这个老人坚持要他们留在家里”。
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8) 感官动词 + doing/to do 感官动词 see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel + do 表示动作的完整性,真实性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性 9) can?t help doing / to do can?t help doing 情不自禁地……/can?t help to do 不能帮助作….. 知识点⑥在一些特别的句子结构中要求使用动名词:

O, my Luve's like a red, red rose, That's newly sprung in June;

O, my Luve's like a melodie , That's sweetly play'd in tune.

A Red, Red Rose

by

Robert Burns

Please excuse my/me coming late. _______________________________________________________ I?ll never forget Tom?s /Tom shaking hands with the chairman。 _______________________________________________________ Your driving a car to Beijing took longer than I expected.

Do you remember Jim and his uncle coming to see us last month? _______________________________________________________ I was astonished by someone knocking at the door. _______________________________________________________ She hates anyone smoking here in the room. _______________________________________________________

It's a waste of time your talking to him. _______________________________________________________ You falling into the river was the climax of the whole trip. _______________________________________________________ I insisted on him leaving here at once. _______________________________________________________ There are many reasons for animals/animals ?dying out. _______________________________________________________ The old man insisted on their staying in his home. _______________________________________________________ Is there any hope of John winning the first prize? _______________________________________________________ Usually at the beginning of school, the noise of desks being opened and closed could be heard out in the street. _______________________________________________________

His recognizing his faults is a good thing. _______________________________________________________ It's no use your pretending not to know the rules. _______________________________________________________ He denied their having ever been there. _______________________________________________________ I advised his starting at once. _______________________________________________________ We shouldn't allow their parking in the street. _______________________________________________________ The heavy rain forbade our going _______________________________________________________

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