引导定语从句的关系代词有who,whose, whom, which, that,; 关系副词有when, where, why。 1．关系代词的基本用法 作主语 指人 who/that 作宾语 who/whom/that 作定语 whose
2.关系代词的特殊用法 that和which都可以修饰表示物的先行词，有的只能用that， 有的只能用which。
(1)下列情况只能用that： ①先行词为不定代词 all, few, little, much, everything, nothing 等。如： All (that)you have to do is to practise every day. 你要做的就是每天都要练习。 There isn't much (that) I can do. 我能做的不多。 ②先行词被序数词或形容词的最高级修饰时。如： The first lesson (that) I learned will never be forgotten.我将 永远不会忘记我上的第一堂课。 This is the best film (that) I have ever seen. 这是我看过的最好的一部电影。
③先行词被all, any, every, few, little, no, some 等不定代词 修饰时。如： I have read all the books (that) you gave me. 我已经读完了你给我的所有的书。 ④先行词被the only, the very, the last, the same 等修饰时。 如： The white flower is the only one that I really like. 这朵白花是我真正喜欢的。 This is the very book ______ that I want to read. 这就是我要看的那本书。 This is the same skirt that I want to buy.
(同一条裙子)这就是我想买的那条裙子。 ⑤当主句是以who或 which 开头的特殊疑问句时，定语从 句用that 引导。如： Who is the man that is standing there? 站在那的那个人是谁？ Which of us that knows something about physics doesn't know this？在我们懂点物理的人当中有谁不知道这个？ ⑥先行词既有人又有物时。如： We talked about the persons and things ______ that we could remember.我们谈论了我们所能记得的人和事。 ⑦time作先行词，前面如果有序数词或 last 修饰时，定语
从句用 that 来引导或省略；如果没有序数词或 last 修饰时， 既可用 when 也可用that来引导。如： This is the last time (that) I shall give you a lesson. 这是我最后一次给你们上课了。 The first time (that) I saw him was in 1972. 我第一次见到他是在1972年。 (2)下列情况只能用 which： ①关系代词作介词的宾语时，用“介词＋ which ”的结构。 如： which This is the book for__________you ask.这是你要的书。 ②引导非限制性定语从句时，只能用which。如：
This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人，我已经读了三遍。 3．关系副词的用法 (1)when引导的定语从句修饰表示时间的先行词。如： I still remember the day ______ when I first came to Beijing.我仍然 记得来北京的第一天。 (2)where 在句中作状语，表示地点。如： where I worked two years ago. This is the factory ______ 这就是我两年前工作的那个工厂。 (3)why在句中作状语，表示原因。如： why he came late. 我知道他来晚的原因。 I know the reason ______
? 1. Nearly all the streets are in straight lines, ________ from east to west. Those ________ run from north to south are called avenues. ? A. running; that B. run; who C. running; who D. run; that
? 2. This is the case ________ he’s had all his money stolen. ? A. when B. where C. that D. on which
? 3. Mr. Smith will pay a visit to Beijing this autumn, ________ we will enjoy the Olympic Games in 2008. ? A. where B. when C. which D. how
? 4. The artist will not paint people or animals but he will paint anything ________ . ? ? ? ? A. that the little girl asks him B. the little girl asks him to C. for the little girl to ask him D. what the little girl asks him
? 5. —How did you get in touch with the travel agent, Robin?
? —Oh, that’s easy. I surfed the Internet and then called one ________ the telephone number is provided. ? A. which whose B. in which C. of which D.
? 6. October 15 th is my birthday, ________ I will never forget. ? A. when B. that C. what D. which
? 7. The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point ________ he can walk correctly and safely.
? A. when whose