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英语语法之虚拟语气


虚拟语气知识要点
一、语气是动词的一种形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事
情的看法和态度。英语中有三种语气: 1. 陈述语气:表示谓语动词表示的动作/状态符合客观现实。 2. 祁使语气:表示号召、命令、建议、劝告、警告、禁止等。 3. 虚拟语气:表示动作 /状态不是客观现实,而是愿望、假 设、推测等。

二、虚拟语气的构成
If 条

件句 与将来的事实 相反 主句

① Should + 动词原形 would/should/could/might ② were to + 动词原形 + 动词原形

与现在的事实 相反

① 动词过去式 + ? ② were + ?

would/should/could/might + 动词原形

与过去的事实 相反 例:

① had + 过去分词

would/should/could/might + have + 动词原形

○ 与将来的事实相反: 1. If Professor Li should have time tomorrow, we could ask
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him some questions. 2. If there should be no air, there would be no living things. 3. If it were to snow tomorrow, they couldn’t go out. ○ 与现在的事实相反: 1. If it rained now, I would not go shopping. 2. If I were a teacher, I would be strict with my students. 3. If it were not for their help, we should be in a very difficult position. ○ 与过去的事实相反: 1. If I had come yesterday, I would have seen him. 2. If we had started earlier, we should not have missed the train. 3. If she hadn’t been ill, she might have come. ***请注意三种特殊情况: ○ 上面的句子大多都可以改成倒装句,这时 If 就省略了, 同学们要能识别出来。如: 1. Should there be no air, there would be no living things. 2. Were it not for their help, we should be in a very difficult position. 3. Had she not been ill, she might have come. ○ 错综时间条件句。即,主句与从句所指的时间不一致。 1. If I were you, I would have taken his advice. (从句指现
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在,主句指过去。) 2. If I had taken my raincoat with me this morning, I would not be wet now. ( 从句指过去,主句指现在。) ○ 含蓄条件句。即,虚拟的情况并不以条件句表示出来, 而是暗含在上下文中。 1. But for your advice, I could not have done it so successfully. 2. The change could not have taken place without the open-door policy. 3. I was so busy then, otherwise, I would have told him the answer. 4. We could have done better under more favorable conditions. 5. You should have been here five minutes ago.

三、 were 式虚拟
○ It’s (about/high) time that … + 过去式 1. It’s time that I picked up my daughter. 2. It’s high time we were going. 3. It’s high time that people learnt English. ○ would/had rather that … + 过去式 1. I’d rather you went tomorrow. 2. I’d rather you were happy.
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(***请注意:有时 would rather 也会接过去完成时。) 1. I’ d rather you hadn’t said it. 2. I’ d rather you had been present. ○

as if as though even if even though

+ 过去完成时

从句动作发生在过去

+ 一般过去时

从句动作发生在现在

如:1. You looks as if you had seen a ghost! 2. He talks as if he were an expert in economics. 3. Even if she were here, she could not solve the problem. (***请注意: as if/though 后的从句若表示真实情况时, 用陈述语气, 不用虚拟语气。 如: It seems as if they know each other.) ○ 虚拟语气用在 if only 引导的感叹句中,其后的时态根据 具体情况而定。如: 1. If only the driver didn’t drive so fast! 2. If only I were a bird. 3. If only I had taken his advice. ○ wish 之后的虚拟语气较为复杂。

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与现在的事实相反

① were + … ② could + 动词原形

wish

与过去的事实相反 与将来的事实相反

①过去完成时 ② could + 现在完成时 ① would + 动词原形

如:1. I wish I were you again. 2. I wish I could help you. 3. My father wishes that he had gone to university. 4. I wish I could have been there last year. 5. I wish that he would settle down here.

四、 be 式虚拟
○ 有 些 形容 词 之后 的 主 语从 句用 should + 动 词 原 形 , should 可省略。 包括: necessary, good, important, right, wrong, better, natural, proper, funny, strange,

surprising, essential, imperative, advisable, desirable, possible, probable, astonishing, desired, suggested, requested, recommended, ordered, proposal, decided, moved, incredible 等。如: 1. It is necessary that we (should) clean the room every day. 2. It will be desired/suggested/decided/ordered/requested that she (should) finish her homework this afternoon.
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○ 有些名词之后的主语从句用 should + 动词原形 , should 可省略。 如, It was a pity (a shame, no wonder, etc.) that you (should) be so careless. ○ 有些动词之后的宾语从句用 should + 动词原形 , should 可省略。 包括: advise, direct, agree, ask, demand, decide, desire, insist, order, prefer, propose, request, suggest, recommend, plan, arrange, command, require, think, expect, believe, suspect, urge 等。 1. She suggested we (should) leave here at once. 2. The doctor ordered she (should) be operated. ○ 有些名词之后的表语 /同位语从句用 should + 动词原形 , should 可 省 略 。 包 括 : suggestion, proposal, plan, motion, recommendation, demand, order, desire,

request, requirement, insistence, advice, decision, idea 等。如: 1. My suggestion is that we (should) go there at once. 2. What do you think of the proposal that we (should) put on a play at the English evening? ○ for fear that, in case, lest 等之后的状语从句用 should + 动词原形 , should 可省略。 如, He handled the instrument with care for fear that it (should) be damaged. ***请注意: 当 insist 表示 “坚持认为” , suggest 表示 “表
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明,显示”时,不用虚拟语气。如: 1. The look on his face suggested that he was quite satisfied with what I had done for him. 2. He insisted that he was honest. ○ I’m sorry/surprised/disappointed + 从句。从句中的虚 拟语气为“ should + 动词原形” 。如 ; I am sorry that he should be in such poor health.

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真题回顾 (共 24 题)
2004 年( 2 题) 6. your advice yesterday, I would have missed the train. A. Had I not taken C. If I haven’t taken 25. It is high time that you what you will do in the future. A. are studied C. studied 2005 年( 2 题) 12. We are all for your proposal that the discussion A. be put off C. will be put off B. was put off D. should put off now, but we must go . B. must study D. study B. If I didn’t take D. Provided I didn’t ta ke the problem carefully about

25. Mr. Smith would just rather we to work. A. not leave C. are not to leave 2006 年( 5 题)

B. didn’t leave D. won’t leave

23. I _____ a little earlier, but I met a friend of mine on the way. (含蓄条件句) A. should arrive
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B. would be arriving

C. could have arrived

D. arrived

29. I would rather you _____ to the party with her. A. go C. will go B. went D. has gone

33. It’s high time we _____ something to stop road accidents. A. are doing C. will do B. did D. do

35. It’s necessary that the problem _____ in some way or other. A. is settled C. be settled B has been settled D. was settled

40. I wish you _____ here last night. All of us were waiting for your arrival. A. came C. come 2007 年( 2 题) 11. One of the requirements for a fire is that the material A. is heated C. be heated to its burning temperature. B. will be heated D. would be heated more books. B. had come D. will come

13. If he had been in better health, he A. can write C. could write
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B. could have written D. have written

2008 年( 2 题) 8. It’s high time about the traffic problem. B. something is done D. nothing to be done have

A. something was done C. anything will be done

21. I’m not surprised you failed the exam. You worked harder.(含蓄条件句) A. should C. would 2009 年( 1 题) 6. The teacher insisted that we o’clock. A. finished C. finish 2010 年( 2 题) 10. I passed the test. I (含蓄条件句) A. would not pass C. didn’t pass 20. It is necessary that he week. A. fulfill C. will have fulfilled B. will fulfill D. fulfills
10

B. must D. ought

our homework before 9

B. had finished D. was finishing

it without your help.

B. wouldn’t have passed D. had not passed the task by the end of next

2011 年( 3 题) 6. right now, she would get there on Sunday. (虚拟语气的倒装) A. Would she leave C. Were she to leave B. If she leave D. If she had left to the job since he

14. I don’t think it advisable that Tom has no experience. A. is assigned C. be assigned 37.

B. will be assigned D. has been assigned

for your help, we wouldn’t have succeeded.

(虚拟语气的倒装) A. Hadn’t it been C. If it had been 2013 年( 5 题) 11. My advice is that she A. go C. goes 15. If it to apologize to him. B. went D. has gone too much trouble, I’d love a cup of tea. B. Had it not been D. If it were

(含蓄条件句) A. is n’t C. wasn’t 26. You didn’t take his advice.
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B. weren’t D. hadn’t been his advice,

you

such a mistake.

A. Had you taken; wouldn’t have made B. If you had taken; would make C. Were you to take; shouldn’t have made D. Have you taken; won’t have made 28. He asks that he refused to go there. A. is given C. should give 29. I am sorry that he A. are C. were B. must give D. be given in such poor health. B. shall be D. should be an opportunity to explain why he’s

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补充练习
1. “I still haven’t thanked Aunt Lucy for her present. ” “ It’s time you A. do C. had .” B. did D. would .”

2. “I’ ve told everyone about it.” “Oh, I’d rather you A. don’t C. couldn’t 3. “ Isn’t it about time you B. hadn’t D. wouldn’t

to do morning exercises? ”

“Yes, it is. Would you like to join us? ” A. begin C. began B. have begun D. had begun

4. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I in love, at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox

Library in my hometown. A. wouldn’t have fallen C. should fall B. had not fallen D. were to fall

5. He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball, otherwise he a goal. B. scored D. would have scored
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A. had scored C. would score

6. If only he

quietly as the doctor instructed, he would

not suffer so much now. A. lies C. had lain B. lay D. should lie

7. Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night for us to live. B. will be freezing coldly D. can freeze coldly

A. would be freezing cold C. would be frozen cold

8. Yesterday, Jane walked away from the discussion. Otherwise, she A. had said C. might say something she would regret later. B. said D. might have said in turn, You so

9. You didn’t let me drive. If we tired. A. drove; didn’t get

B. drove; wouldn’t get

C. were driving; wouldn’t get D. had driven; wouldn’t have got 10. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it A. breaks C. were broken . B. has broken D. had been broken the examinations

11. But for the help you gave me, I
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A. would have passed. C. wouldn’t have passed

B. would pass D. wouldn’t pass

12. Zhang Lin was addicted to computer games during his last year in high school, otherwise he Beijing University. A. would have been C. has been B. should be D. had been a student of

13. ---- Any information about your son? ---- No. If only I A. didn’t say C. shouldn’t have said 14. It is important that we environment. A. would C. will B. should D. can ill, and his those tough words to him. B. hadn’t say D. couldn’t have said act out at once to protect the

15. John’s pale face suggested that he parents suggested that he A. be, should have C. should be, had

a medical examination. B. was, have D. was, has badly

16. All the doctors in the hospital insisted that he wounded and that he A. should be; be operated on
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at once.

B. were; must be operated on C. was; should be operated D. was; be operated on 17. smoking, he would not have got cancer in the lung. B. Had he given up D. If he gave up

A. Was he given up C. Did he give

18. He did not regret saying what he did but felt that he it differently. A. could express C. could have expressed B. would express D. must have expressed break down

19. This printer is of good quality. If it

within the first year, we would repair it at our expense. A. would C. could B. should D. might

20. Thank you for all your hard work last week. I don’t think we it without you. B. could have managed D. can have managed

A. can manage C. could manage

(练习答案:BBCBD

CADDC

CABBB

DBCBB)

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