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重点语法复习The Subjunctive Mood

The Subjunctive Mood (动词的虚拟语气) 1. 概说 语气(mood)是动词的一种特殊形式,用来表示说 话人对所谈内容所持的态度。按说话人所持的不 同态度,英语动词可有三种不同语气,1)陈述语 气(用于陈述事实) ;2)祈使语气(用语提出命 令、请求等) ;3)虚拟语气(用于表示主观愿望、 假设、怀疑、推测或与现实相反、不能实现、无 把握实现的假设条件等) 。

如: They are good doctors of the Bethune type. 陈 ( 述语气)他们是白求恩式的好医生。 Be good doctors of the Bethune type. ( 祈 使 语 气) 要做白求恩式的好医生。 I wish I were a good doctor of Bethune type. (虚拟语气) 但愿我是个医生。 上面三句例句中动词 be 分别使用了 are、 were be、 这三种不同形式,以表示陈述、祈使和虚拟等三 种语气。

2. 虚拟语气在条件句中的应用: 所谓条件句就是包含条件、假设的句子。按照其 意义的不同,可分为两类: 1) 真实条件句(Sentence of Real Condition) 假设的条件有可能发生和实现,谓语动词用陈述 语气。如: If I have time, I’ll go to see you. We will go on a picnic unless it rains tomorrow. 2) 非真实条件句 (Sentence of Unreal Condition) 假设的条件纯属设想、推测,不可能实现或与实 际情况相反,谓语动词用虚拟语气。 a. 用于表示与现在事实相反的条件从句中 动词用过去时(动词 be 一律用 were)表示, 而主句中的动词用 “should / would +动词原形” 来表示. 如: If he worked hard, he would learn more. If he were here, he would help me with my work. If I were given two weeks’ holiday, I would like

to go to Beijing. What would you do if you saw a house on fire? b. 用于表示与将来事实相反的条件从句中 动词用“should(或 were to)+动词原形”这 一形式,主句中动词用法同上。如: If the rain should (were to) stop, I should go out for a walk. If I had (were to have, should have) time tomorrow, I would visit you. c. 用于表示与过去事实相反的条件从句中 动词用过去完成时形式,而主句中的动词用 “should / would+动词完成时” 。如: If he had had more practice, he would have made much progress in his studies. You wouldn’t have caught cold if you had put on more clothes yesterday. She would have come if she hadn’t been so busy last week. Notes:

上述非真实条件句中所用的动词虚拟语气可 归纳为三类:a. were 型(表示与现在事实相反) ; b. should be 型(表示与将来事实相反) ;c. had been 型(表示与过去事实相反) 。如将这类条件 句中的 were, should, had 提前置于句首,则可将 连词 if 省略而成为不完全省略句。如: Were it not for his help, we would not have finished our work. Death would ensue immediately should the heart stop beating. Had he been inoculated against smallpox, he would not have contract the disease. 如果他真要种过了牛痘的话,他就不会得病 了。 d. 混合时间虚拟条件句 当条件从句表示的动作和主句表示的动作发 生的时间不一致时,主句和从句的谓语动词形式 要根据各自的时间来选择。常见的组合是从句与 过去事实相反,主句为现在或将来时间。如:

If I had reviewed my lessons last night, I should be able to work out the maths problem now. (从句与过去事实相反,主句指现在时) If you hadn’t eaten too much yesterday, you wouldn’t feel terrible now. If you took the medicine, you could feel better tomorrow. 你要是现在吃了药, 你明天就会感觉 好一些。(从句与现在事实相反,主句指将来时)

3.虚拟语气的其他用法: 1) 可用于 I wish 后跟不带连词的宾语从句中, 表示难以实现的愿望: a. 现在不能实现的愿望,从句用过去式; b. 过去不能实现的愿望,从句用 “had+过 去分词” ; c. 将来不能实现的愿望,从句用“would / could+动词原形” 。如: I wish I were younger. I wish I knew how to do it.

I wish I could do more for the Party. How I wish I hadn’t come home alone. 2) 用于 as if, as though 引出的方式状语中, 表 示并非真实情况: 一般来说,在这类从句中,现在发生的动作, 谓语用过去时;过去发生的动作,谓语用过去 完成时; 将来发生的动作, 谓语用过去将来时。 如: He looks as though he were not ill. He talks as if he knew everything. She speaks English so well as if she had studied English in England. 3) “should+动词原形”-型: a. 用于 lest 引出的目的状语从句中 We started earlier lest we should be late. Patients with influenza must be separated from the well lest the disease should spread from person to person. b. 用于动词 suggest (建议), propose (提议),

recommend (推荐),order (命令), demand (要 求),require (要求), request (要求), insist (坚 持), desire (需要)等后的宾语从句中及其被动 语态所跟的主语从句中 I suggest that the work (should) be done at once. The teacher requires that we (should) not watch TV every night. The engineer suggested that the waste water be made clean. He insisted that the sports meet be held next Friday. It is required that all members (should) attend the meeting. c. 用 于 与 necessary, important, possible, essential, imperial, natural 等形容词有关的主 语从句中 It is important that we (should) learn at least one foreign language.

It is necessary that the experiment (should) start tomorrow. d. 用于由连词 whether(不论)引出的让步 状语从句中 All countries should be equal, whether they be big or small, strong or weak. With any change of structure, whether it be microscopic or macroscopic, there is some degree of change of function. e. 用 于 a pity ( 可 惜 ) , strange ( 奇 怪 ), surprising (令人惊奇),no wonder (无疑), a shame (遗憾)等惊叹词所跟的主语从句中 It is strange that he say such a word. 很奇 怪他说出这样的话。 It was a pity that you (should) be so careless. 可惜你那么粗心。 f. 用于 “It’s time …”后面的定语从句中 It’s time that we went (should go) to bed. It’s high time that we should start (started).

的确该出发了。 4) “if only”引导的惊叹句,谓语动词形式同虚 拟条件从句,且主句常省略 If only I had not come home alone! If only he had passed the exam! If only we knew where to look for him!

倒装(Inversion) 1. 概述 英语中“主语在前,谓语在后”的语序,一般 较为固定。有时由于语法、修辞、强调或句子 结构上的需要,就会引起句子中语序的变化。 凡是主语和谓语的位置发生变化,即将谓语的 一部分或全部移到主语之前,就称为倒装语 序。从形式上看,倒装语序可分为两种;全部 倒装,即谓语动词全部放在主语前面;部分倒 装,即助动词或情态动词放在主语前面。还有

一种情况,句子的主谓顺序没有变化,但是句 子中某一成分提前了(通常是宾语、表语、宾 语补足语和状语) ,这种情况通常称为前置。 如: Out rushed the man and his wife. 装) She found playing in the garden a group of children aged from six to ten. (宾补前置) 2. 倒装的用法 1) 用于疑问句中 Does your father work in a hospital? What do you review every morning? 但是,当主语是疑问词来充当的特殊疑问句 时,语序无需倒装。 Whose book was left on my desk? 2)用于感叹句中。用于 what 或 how 引导的感叹 句中以加强语气。如: What a beautiful garden Singapore is! (全部倒装)

Never once had she been seen to cry. (部分倒

How nice he is ! 3) 用于“there be + …”结构的句子中。如: There is a picture hanging on the wall. There have been many accidents lately. 4) 用于以 neither, nor 或 so 等开头的句子中。在 一切英语文体中,倒装都可以用在这三个词之 后,以说明与前面一句中的谓语部分所表示的 内容相似。 —— I like swimming in the summer. do i. Mary didn’t watch the match. Neither did Jane. 5) 用于否定副词放在句首的情况。如 hardly, never, rarely, scarcely, seldom 或 no sooner 等, 用来强调某一动作成分,这种形式在英语文体 中更常出现。如: Hardly had he said that when she entered the room. Seldom had I seen such a wonderful scene. __ So

Never have I spoken in this way. 6) 用于表示位置和方向的副词(如 here, there 等)在句首时。如: Here comes the teacher. The door opened, and there entered a woman with a shopping bag in her hand. Down fell a dozen apples. 另外,如果主语是代词,谓语动词则不提前。 如: Here you are. Away they went. 7) only 和含有否定意义的关联词如 not only … (but also), not … until 等位于句首时也要用倒 装。如: Only yesterday did I realize what was going on. Only then did I understand what she meant. Not only was Churchill a statesman, but also a poet. There she comes.

Not until he got home did he realize that he had lost it. 8) 用于省略了 if 的虚拟条件状语从句中。如: If I were you, I wouldn’t go. I you, I wouldn’t go. Had I known what was going to happen, I would never have left her alone. 9) 用于 as 引导的让步状语从句中。如: She traveled a great deal, as did most of her friends. Tired as he was, he offered to carry her. 10) 用于某些表示愿望和祝愿的句子中。如: May you succeed in you talk! 功。 Long live the truth! 如: “I wonder,” said John, “ whether I can ask you a question.” 真理永存! 11) 用在插入语中,尤其在直接引语中间或后面。 祝你谈判成 可改为: Were

“Could you like to go to the cinema with me?” asked Peter/ 12) 出于修辞的目的而引起的倒装。如: To the list may be added the following names. On the stairs was sitting a poor little girl. Among the customers were two German couples, two French families, and a sailor by himself. 以上各句均因主语过长,为避免句子头重脚轻 而倒装。

否定 (Negation) 一切语言都有其肯定式和否定式。语言不同,表 达肯定、否定意义的方式也不同。根据不同的形式 和意义,可有一般否定、全部否定、部分否定、双 重否定和否定的转移。

1. 一般否定 1) 由否定词 not 构成的否定结构 这是最基本的否定结构的构成方法。在系动词 to be、助动词或情态动词后加 not 构成否定, 若没有助动词,则用 do+not 构成否定。 He isn’t a student. I can not speak English fluently. 不定式、动名词和分词的否定形式由 not+不定 式、not+动名词、not+分词构成。如: I told her not to ask that question. What I enjoy most on holiday is not working. 除了动词,not 还可以否定句子的其他部分。 如: Ask Professor Wang the question, not his wife. The machine is working, but not properly. 2) 表示否定的词和短语 英语中有一些表示否定的词和短语, 当它们 出现在句首时, 多数情况是句子需要部分倒装。 单词: little, few, never, seldom, rarely, scarcely,

hardly, barely, nor, nothing 等。 Few of my classmates know the fact. I hardly believe it will snow. Scarcely did I know a word of Japanese. 2. 全部否定 全部否定主要有以下三种句式: 1)否定词(主语) +肯定式谓语 如: No one dared say that he could not see the Emperor’s new clothes. Neither of the sentence is right. Nothing is going smoothly. 一切进行得都不顺 利。 2) 主语+肯定式谓语+否定词(宾语) I saw nothing. went nowhere. 3) 主语+否定式谓语+不定代词(或不定副词) 如: I didn’t see anything. There isn’t anything. I didn’t go anywhere. There is nothing. 如: I

3. 部分否定 not 和表示全体的概括词一起使用时表示部分 否定,其中文意思是“并非一切……都是……” 。 常用的表示全体的概括词有: all, both, every, everyone, everything, everywhere, always, quite, altogether, wholly, entirely, much 等。如: Not all the answers are right. Not both girls are lovely. I don’t know everything about computer. 4. 双重否定 如果一个句子中出现两次否定,那么这种句子 就叫双重否定句。 双重否定句通常由 not, no, never 等否定词加上另一个有否定意义的词或词组构成。 双重否定句事实上是肯定句, 且语气更强, 翻译时 可译为双重否定或肯定形式。如: No one but can do it. 没有人不能做这件事。

The problem is never too complicated to deal with. 这个问题没有复杂到不能处理的地步。 It never rains but it pours. 不雨则已,一雨倾盆。

Don’t get off the bus until (till) it stops. There is no creature unless there is air. He doesn’t do it for nothing. 毫无企图。 He went to work as usual, though not without some fear. We cannot but stay at school. 我们不得不呆在学 校。 5. 否定的转移 当以 think, believe, suppose, imagine, expect 等 动词为主句的谓语时,后面且带有做宾语的名词 从句,常有否定转移现象,即宾语从句中的否定 词转移到主句中去。如: I don’t believe that you two have met yet. (I believe you two haven’t met yet.) I don’t think you are fit for the job. I don’t suppose anyone will object to my absence. 他做这件事并不是

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