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英语写作English Writing


English Writing

Chapter One

Diction

Definition of diction: the choice and use of words 1. Levels of words a formal b common c colloquial 2.The meaning or words Synonyms: different in stylistic level , in the degree of emphasis, in emotional coloring, in tone, and in collocation.

3.General and specific words
The specific words are much more concrete and colorful than the general ones. Using specific words should go along with providing details, and then here will be effective and impressive writing.

4. Idioms
An idiom is a fixed group of words with special meaning which is different from the meanings of the words that form it. Idioms are frequently used in speech and writing. They help to make one's language sound natural and idiomatic.

5.Figures of speech
1 Simile A. Definition and form of simile B. The usages of simile 2 Metaphor A. Defenition and form B. Usage 3 Personification Personification means referring to inanimate things or abstractions as if they were human. Personification is really a special kind of metaphor. At its simplest it consists of using personal pronouns for objects, as when sailors speak of their ship as "she".





Zoosemy Names of animals are metaphorically used to denote human qualities, as in " You're shedding crocodile tears", which means you are shedding insincere tears". Onomatopoeia Onomatopoeic words are those that are formed by directly imitating sounds, including those produced by metals , those produced by water or other liquids, those produced by various animals, those produced by human beings, …

Definition and form of simile
Simile is a brief comparison of two unlike things using like or as. Related to metaphor A simile is a figure of speech in which two quite unlike things are compared. A simile is often introduced by like or as. Examples are "happy as a clam," "as easy as pie," and "soft as sifted flour." It differs from a metaphor in that the comparison in a metaphor is a implicit: "Achilles is a lion," "She's a tiger," "He seems gruff but he's really just an old pussycat." The statement "that man is a fox" is a metaphor; but "that man is like a fox" is a simile. 1) to compare the similar points between two unlike things. It includes Subject/tenor本体,reference/vehicle喻体,indicator of resemblance/simile marker比喻词 Tenor: the primary subject. Vehicle is the thing to which the main subject is compared. e.g. New China is like a red sun rising in the east. 2) other simile markers: as, as if, as though, as…as, as…so, similar to, to bear a resemblance to… 3) some idioms concerning with simile Fresh as a rose, brave as a lion, cunning as a fox, proud as a peacock. 4) besides the structure of simile, the comparative degree, some prepositional phrases, and other words can also show simile. e.g. He has no more idea of money than a cow.

Definition and form
1)Metaphor: comparison of two unlike things using the verb "to be" and not using like or as as in a simile. A metaphor is also a comparison. But in simile, tenor and vehicle are alike, in metaphor, they are identical; There is simile marker in simile, but there is no in metaphor. So metaphor is called condensed simile. E.g.:
The news is as a dagger to his heart. The news is a dagger to his heart. Joe fought like a lion. Joe was a lion in the battle.

A simile compares things explicitly—that is, it states literally that X is like Y. A metaphor compares things implicitly. Read literally, it does not state that things are alike; it says that they are the same thing, that they are identical. 2) A metaphor does not use simile marker, and sometimes only appears vehicle in a sentence. E.g.:
Money is the lens in a camera.

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